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Chapter 3 The English Colonies

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Title: Chapter 3 The English Colonies


1
Chapter 3 The English Colonies
Section Notes
Video
The Southern Colonies The New England
Colonies The Middle Colonies Life in the English
Colonies Conflict in the Colonies
Freedom of Religion
Maps
The Thirteen Colonies Triangular Trade North
American Empires before and after the treaty of
Paris
History Close-up
Plymouth Colony
Quick Facts
Images
Church and State Characteristics of the Middle
Colonies The Road to Revolution Chapter 3 Visual
Summary
Peter Stuyvesant The Great Awakening Primary
Source The Boston Massacre
2
The Southern Colonies
  • The Big Idea
  • Despite a difficult beginning, the southern
    colonies soon flourished.
  • Main Ideas
  • The settlement in Jamestown was the first
    permanent English settlement in America.
  • Daily life in Virginia was challenging to the
    colonists.
  • Religious freedom and economic opportunities were
    motives for founding other southern colonies,
    including Maryland, the Carolinas, and Georgia.
  • Farming and slavery were important to the
    economies of the southern colonies.

3
Main Idea 1 The settlement in Jamestown was the
first permanent English settlement in America.
  • King James I allowed the London Company to settle
    in a region called Virginia.
  • The first colonists arrived in America on April
    26, 1607.
  • They settled in Jamestown, the first permanent
    English settlement in America.
  • The colonists were not prepared to build and
    farm. Two-thirds died by their first winter.

4
Jamestown
5
Relations with Native Americans
  • John Smith became the leader of Jamestown in
    1608.
  • Colonists were helped by the powerful Powhatan
    Confederacy of Indians.
  • More settlers arrived, but many died from famine
    and disease.
  • Settler John Rolfe married Pocahontas, which
    helped form peaceful relations with the Powhatan.
  • Conflict started between colonists and the
    Powhatan in 1622 and lasted for 20 years.

6
Main Idea 2 Daily life in Virginia was
challenging to the colonists.
  • Headright System
  • Large farms, called plantations, were established
    by tobacco farmers.
  • Colonists who paid their way received 50 acres of
    land and 50 acres for each person they brought.
  • Labor
  • Most workers were indentured servants people who
    came to America for free by agreeing to work
    without pay for a set amount of time.
  • The first Africans were brought as slaves and
    servants in 1619. Increased work and the falling
    cost of slaves led colonists to use more slave
    labor.
  • Bacons Rebellion
  • Colonial officials began to tax colonists.
  • Nathaniel Bacon led a rebellion against the
    governors policies in 1676.

7
Main Idea 3Religious freedom and economic
opportunities were motives for founding other
southern colonies, including Maryland, the
Carolinas, and Georgia.
  • English Catholics came to America to escape
    religious persecution.
  • Maryland was founded as a refuge for Catholics by
    Lord Baltimore in 1634.
  • The Maryland assembly passed the Toleration Act
    of 1649 to support religious tolerance.
  • The Carolinas and Georgia expanded economic
    opportunities.

8
The Carolinas and Georgia
  • The Carolinas
  • Carolina was founded south of Virginia in 1663.
  • It was divided into North and South Carolina in
    1712.
  • Most colonists in North Carolina were farmers.
  • South Carolina had large plantations with many
    slaves.
  • Georgia
  • Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe as a
    refuge for debtors in 1733.
  • He wanted small farms, so he outlawed slavery and
    limited land grants.
  • Settlers grew unhappy, and Georgia became a royal
    colony. Large rice plantations, worked by many
    slaves, were created.

9
Main Idea 4Farming and slavery were important
to the economies of the southern colonies.
  • Economies of the South depended on agriculture.
    Cash crops were tobacco, rice, and indigo.
  • The climate allowed for a long growing season
    thus, more labor was needed
  • Enslaved Africans became the main source of
    labor.
  • The conditions of slavery were brutal.
  • Slave codes, or laws to control slaves, were
    passed.

10
The New England Colonies
  • The Big Idea
  • English colonists traveled to New England to
    gain religious freedom.
  • Main Ideas
  • The Pilgrims and Puritans came to America to
    avoid religious persecution.
  • Religion and government were closely linked in
    the New England colonies.
  • The New England economy was based on trade and
    farming.
  • Education was important in the New England
    colonies.

11
Main Idea 1 The Pilgrims and Puritans came to
America to avoid religious persecution.
  • Puritans wanted to purify, or reform, the
    Anglican Church.
  • Pilgrims wanted to separate from Anglican Church.
  • Some pilgrims left England to escape persecution.
    They became immigrants, people who leave the
    country of their birth to live in another country.

12
Religious Freedom
13
The Pilgrims
  • Left Netherlands in 1620 on Mayflower.
  • Signed Mayflower Compact legal contract agreeing
    to have fair laws.
  • Arrived at Plymouth Rock in present-day
    Massachusetts in late 1620.

Mayflower Compact
  • Squanto taught Pilgrims to fertilize soil.
  • Pilgrims celebrate first Thanksgiving with the
    Wampanoag Indians.

Native Americans
Pilgrim Community
  • Most were farmers.
  • Family members worked together.
  • Cooked, sewed clothing, wove wool.
  • Had more legal rights than in England.

Women
14
The Puritans
  • Puritans were dissenters who disagreed with
    official opinions and church actions in England.
  • Many thousands left England in Great Migration
    from 1629 to 1640.
  • Puritan colonists led by John Winthrop went to
    Massachusetts to seek religious freedom.
  • Established Massachusetts Bay Colony.

15
Main Idea 2Religion and government were closely
linked in the New England colonies.
  • Established a General Court that turned into a
    type of self-government.
  • Government leaders were also church members.
  • Dissenters were forced out of the colony.

16
Religious Conflicts
  • Thomas Hooker and followers founded Connecticut
    to make government more democratic.
  • Roger Williams founded Providence and supported
    the separation of church and state.
  • Anne Hutchinson questioned teachings of religious
    leaders and was forced out of Colony.
  • In the 1690s, Salem held the largest number of
    witchcraft trials. Nineteen people were put to
    death.

17
Main Idea 2 The New England economy was based
on trade and farming.
Farming
  • Harsh climate and rocky soil meant few cash
    crops.
  • Most farming families grew crops and raised
    animals for their own use.
  • Little need for slaves

Trade
  • Merchants traded goods locally, with other
    colonies, and overseas.
  • Fishing was one of regions leading industries.
  • Shipbuilding was also an important industry.

18
Main Idea 4Education was important in the New
England colonies.
  • Public Education
  • Communities established town schools.
  • Students used New England Primer, which had
    stories from the Bible.
  • Availability of schooling varied in the colonies.
  • Most children stopped education after elementary
    grades.
  • Higher Education
  • Important to colonists
  • John Harvard and the General Court founded
    Harvard College in 1636.
  • College of William and Mary founded in Virginia
    in 1693.

19
The Middle Colonies
  • The Big Idea
  • People from many nations settled in the middle
    colonies.
  • Main Ideas
  • The English created New York and New Jersey from
    former Dutch territory.
  • William Penn established the colony of
    Pennsylvania.
  • The economy of the middle colonies was supported
    by trade and staple crops.

20
Main Idea 1The English created New York and New
Jersey from former Dutch territory.
  • New York
  • Dutch founded New Netherland in 1613 as fur
    trading post.
  • New Amsterdam was center of fur trade.
  • Peter Stuyvesant led the colony from 1647-1664.
  • English captured colony in 1664 and renamed it
    New York.
  • New Jersey
  • English took control in 1664.
  • The colony occupied land between the Hudson and
    Delaware rivers.
  • Had diverse population, including Dutch, Swedes,
    Finns, and Scots.

21
Main Idea 2 William Penn established the
colony of Pennsylvania.
  • Society of Friends, or Quakers, was one of
    largest religious groups in New Jersey.
  • Quakers, who supported nonviolence and religious
    tolerance, were persecuted.
  • William Penn founded Pennsylvania, a larger
    colony for Quakers that provided a safe home.
  • Penn limited his power, established an elected
    assembly, and promised religious freedom to all
    Christians.

22
Main Idea 3 The economy of the middle colonies
was supported by trade and staple crops.
  • Middle colonies had good climate and rich soil to
    grow staple crops, crops that are always needed.
  • Crops included wheat, barley, and oats.
  • There were slaves, but indentured servants were a
    larger source of labor.
  • Trade to Britain and the West Indies was
    important to the economy of middle colonies.

23
Womens Contributions
  • Ran farms and businesses, such as clothing
    stores, drugstores, and bakeries.
  • Some were nurses and midwives.
  • Most worked primarily in the home.
  • Married women managed households and raised
    children.

24
Life in the English Colonies
  • The Big Idea
  • The English colonies continued to grow despite
    many challenges.
  • Main Ideas
  • Colonial governments were influenced by political
    changes in England.
  • English trade laws limited free trade in the
    colonies.
  • The Great Awakening and the Enlightenment led to
    ideas of political equality among many colonists.
  • The French and Indian War gave England control of
    more land in North America.

25
Main Idea 1 Colonial governments were
influenced by political changes in England.
  • King James II wanted more control over English
    government, including the colonies.
  • United northern colonies under one government
    were called the Dominion of New England in 1686.
  • Parliament replaced the unpopular King James II
    and passed the English Bill of Rights in 1689.
  • The colonies in the Dominion formed new
    assemblies and charters and could elect their own
    representatives.

26
Colonial Governments
Governments
  • Each English colony had its own government.
  • Each government was given power by a charter.
  • The English monarch had ultimate authority over
    the colonies.

Governors and Legislatures
  • The Governor served as head of the government.
  • Most were assisted by an advisory council.
  • Some colonies had elected representatives.
  • Virginia established the first colonial
    legislature in 1619.
  • The town meeting was the center of New England
    political life.
  • Colonial courts that reflected the beliefs of
    their communities were used to control local
    affairs.

27
Main Idea 2 English trade laws limited free
trade in the colonies.
  • Earning money from trade was one of Englands
    reasons for founding and controlling the
    colonies.
  • England practiced mercantilism a system of
    creating and maintaining wealth through
    controlled trade.
  • Parliament passed the Navigation Acts to limit
    colonial trade.
  • The colonies complained about trade restrictions.

28
Colonial Trade
  • Trade between the American colonies and Great
    Britain was not direct.
  • Triangular trade was a system in which goods and
    slaves were traded among the Americas, Great
    Britain, and Africa.
  • Slave trade brought millions of Africans to the
    Americas on a voyage called the Middle Passage.
  • Terrible conditions on the Middle Passage caused
    thousands of captives to die on slave ships.

29
Main Idea 3 The Great Awakening and the
Enlightenment led to ideas of political equality
among many colonists.
  • Great Awakening
  • Religious leaders wanted to spread religious
    feelings.
  • The Great Awakeninga religious movement that
    swept the colonies in the 1730s and 1740schanged
    religion.
  • Revivals became popular places to talk about
    political and social issues.
  • Enlightenment
  • Movement in 1700s that spread the idea that
    reason could improve society.
  • Also formed ideas on how government should work.
  • Said that people had natural rights such as
    equality and liberty.
  • Influenced colonial leaders.

30
Question of the Day
  • Which rivers were the most important during the
    earliest days of the colonies?
  • A. The Delaware and Hudson Rivers
  • B. The Rio Grande and Snake Rivers
  • C. The Missouri and Mississippi Rivers
  • D. The Colorado and Columbia Rivers

31
French and Indian War Pretest
  • The French got along better with the Indians than
    did the English settlers.
  • Albany Plan was designed by the English colonists
    as a way to defeat the Spanish.
  • As a result of the French and Indian War, many
    English settlers moved west of the Appalachian
    Mountains.
  • Another result of the French and Indian War was
    that England lost all of her claims in Canada.

32
  • Pontiac was an Indian chief who organized the
    Indian
  • tribes to drive out English settlers.
  • Pittsburgh was once called Fort Duquesne.
  • George Washington led colonial militia into
    western Pennsylvania.
  • The French and Indian War was fought between
    French settlers and the Indians.
  • The peace treaty which ended the war gave all of
    the land east of the Mississippi River to the
    English.
  • The use of traditional military tactics led to
    the defeat of General Braddock.

33
French and British Conflict
34
Question of the Day
  • Which of the following contributed most to the
    economic differences among the original 13
    colonies?
  • A. Geography and climate
  • B. Technology and religion
  • C. Native American influences
  • D. British influence

35
Question of the Day
  • In the late 1700s and early 1800s, the plantation
    system and slavery grew in America because
  • An increase in the demand for cotton led to
    landowners needing hundreds of laborers to work
    their farms
  • As slaves grew in number, plantations had to
    expand because of population growth
  • As the number of slaves became too large, many of
    them were shipped off to Africa or the Caribbean
  • Selling slaves was outlawed, so plantation owners
    forced their slaves to have more children, who
    were given to other plantation owners.

36
Question of the Day
  • Which statement is true?
  • A. In 1492, the Pilgrims left England with
    Christopher Columbus because they wanted
    religious freedom.
  • B. William Penn converted to the Quaker faith
    and his Pennsylvania Colony was founded on the
    principles of religious freedom and fairness with
    the American Indians.
  • C. If and when slaves converted to Christianity,
    they were automatically freed by their owners.
  • D. Asians were some of the earliest immigrants,
    and they brought tea with them, making tea an
    important drink in the colonies.

37
Question of the Day
  • When the colonists arrived in North America, they
    feared that if they organized a strong
    government, it would infringe upon their
    individual rights. Nonetheless, groups of
    colonists organized plans for self-government in
    their colonies, including representative
    assemblies in individual colonies. This shows
    that the colonists were determined to
  • A. Place all power in the hands of one person
  • B. Organize a strong central government.
  • C. Maintain a system of law and order.
  • D. Allow anarchy to develop.

38
Question of the Day
  • A system of benign neglect developed between
    England and its North American colonies during
    the second half of the 17th century and the first
    part of the 18th century. Which of the following
    describes this relationship?
  • A. England did not interfere much in the affairs
    of the colonists due to the distance between the
    mother country and its colonies.
  • B. England wanted a heavy hand in governing the
    colonies because it sought to utilize the
    available resources.
  • C. Self-reliance was forced on the colonies
    because England was angry at their quest for
    independence.
  • D. The colonists were not used to
    self-governance and sought increased direction
    from Parliament.

39
Question of the Day
  • Slavery was different in various sections of the
    United States. Which one of the following is
    correct?
  • A. In the South, where vegetation prospered,
    slaves enjoyed shade and comfortable working
    conditions.
  • B. In the North, slaves worked in hot steel
    mills or coal mines under harsh conditions.
  • C. In the West, slaves were forced to fight
    American Indians so that plantation owners could
    take over Indian land.
  • D. In the South, many slaves looked for escape
    routes that led to the North or Canada.

40
Main Idea 4The French and Indian War gave
England control of more land in North America.
  • Some Native Americans allied with the colonists
    in King Philips War.
  • The French traded and allied with the Algonquian
    and Huron.
  • The English allied with the Iroquois League.

Native American Allies
  • France and Britain struggled for control of North
    America in the late 1600s.
  • The French and Indian War started in 1754.
  • The turning point came when the British captured
    Quebec in 1759.

War Erupts
Treaty of Paris, 1763
  • It gave Canada to Britain. Britain received lands
    east of the Mississippi River. Spain received
    lands west of the Mississippi River.

41
Question of the Day
  • Which of the following describes true
    characteristics of American settlements in the
    18th and 19th centuries?
  • A. Due to a lack of snow and cold weather, the
    South was ideal for manufacturers that needed to
    ship their products.
  • B. The West offered new settlers and immigrants
    many conveniences and opportunities because of
    the wide-open spaces and the ease of living.
  • C. The Gold Rush proved to be very profitable
    for everyone who went prospecting.
  • D. Settlers cut down trees to build homes and to
    farm the new land this practice often resulted
    in over-cutting of trees and in poor farming
    practices.

42
The Western Frontier
  • Most colonial settlements had been made along the
    Atlantic coast.
  • Colonial settlers, or pioneers, began to move
    west after the war.
  • Indians led by Chief Pontiac rebelled against new
    British settlements in 1763.
  • To avoid conflict, King George III issued the
    Proclamation of 1763, which banned settlement
    west of the Appalachian Mountains.

43
Conflict in the Colonies
  • The Big Idea
  • Tensions developed as the British government
    placed tax after tax on the colonies.
  • Main Ideas
  • British efforts to raise taxes on colonists
    sparked protest.
  • The Boston Massacre caused colonial resentment
    toward Great Britain.
  • Colonists protested the British tax on tea with
    the Boston Tea Party.
  • Great Britain responded to colonial actions by
    passing the Intolerable Acts.

44
Election Results
  • Barack Obama and Joe Biden 252
  • John McCain and Sarah Palin 330
  • Casino Yes 261
  • Casino No 320
  • Memory Book Cover
  • A 27
  • B 47
  • C 18
  • D 48
  • E 54
  • F 183
  • G 46
  • H 11
  • I 15
  • J 78

45
Leading to the Revolution
  • In 1763, the colonists living in the thirteen
    English colonies, were not only content, but
    proud to a part of the most powerful empire in
    the world.
  • The American colonists enjoyed more rights than
    any other people on earthtrial by jury,
    representative governments which taxed them. The
    colonists controlled their every-day-life.
  • England controlled the empire, conflicts with
    other nations and trade.
  • Yet, within a dozen years, armed conflict would
    break out between England and her American
    colonies.
  • Why?

46
Question of the Day
  • Why is the Magna Carta important to American
    government?
  • A. It freed the colonists from British control
    and gave the colonies the freedom to establish
    their own government.
  • B. It lists the grievances held by the colonists
    against their mother country of Great Britain.
  • C. It was Americas first constitution and
    became the foundation for the countrys modern
    system of government.
  • D. It contains ideas such as the right to a
    speedy trial and the right to due process of law,
    both of which are rights granted under the Bill
    of Rights.

47
The American Revolution
48
Mercantilism
  • One of the main reasons England founded the
    colonies was to make money from trade. (p. 92-93)
  • European nations practiced mercantilism, a system
    of creating and maintaining wealth through
    controlling trade.
  • A country was wealthy by having fewer imports
    than exports.

49
Mercantilism
  • A favorable balance of trade was having more
    exports than imports. In other words, more money
    was coming into England than leaving England.
  • Under mercantilism, colonies existed in order to
    make the mother country, in this case England,
    wealthy.

50
English Trade Policies
  • 1. Name one of two reasons England wanted to
    have colonies.
  • 2. How did England believe that the colonies
    benefited from mercantilism?
  • 3. Give a reason the colonists disliked the
    Navigation Acts.
  • 4. What was a product the colonists got from the
    West Indies? (p. 92)
  • 5. Which region of the colonies provided few raw
    materials to England and so was competition for
    English industries?

51
Proclamation of 1763
52
Main Idea 1British efforts to raise taxes on
colonists sparked protest.
  • Great Britain had to pay for the French and
    Indian War and for keeping troops in North
    America to protect the colonists.
  • Parliament passed the Sugar Act in 1764 to tax
    colonists to make them help pay costs.
  • Parliaments actions upset many colonists.
  • Colonists believed there should be no taxes
    without representation in Parliament.
  • Samuel Adams, a colonial leader, set up the
    Committees of Correspondence to protest.

53
Question of the Day
  • In 1689, the British crown agreed to the English
    Bill of Rights, a series of laws further
    increasing the power of Parliament over the king.
    The king could no longer raise taxes or maintain
    an army without the consent of Parliament. This
    document also guaranteed the right to a jury
    trial, prohibited cruel or unusual punishment,
    and limited bail. The rights that were in the
    English Bill of Rights in 1689 were later
    incorporated into the
  • A. U.S. Bill of Rights.
  • B. U.S. Declaration of Independence.
  • C. Magna Carta.
  • D. Anti-Federalist Papers.

54
The Sugar Act
  • Parliament needed money to pay for the French and
    Indian War
  • 1764, the Sugar Act was passed by Parliament
  • It was a tax on imported sugar and molasses
  • Greater efforts would be made to stop smuggling

55
The Sugar Act
56
The Sugar Act
  • The Sugar Act also took some power from the
    colonial court system
  • Vice-Admiralty Courts were set up to try cases of
    suspected smugglers

57
Vice Admiralty Courts
  • No juries
  • Guilty until proven innocent

58
Colonial Reaction
  • Committees of Correspondence
  • Taxation without representation
  • James Otis and Sam Adams (p. 99)

59
The Stamp Act
  • Sugar Act did not raise enough money
  • Needed money to pay off the military debt
  • Planned to send an army of 10,000 to North
    America
  • Stamp Act was already used in Great Britain

60
The Stamp Act
  • Easy to collect
  • Bring in large amounts of money
  • Taxing colonists and not people in Great Britain

61
The Stamp Act
  • March, 1765 Stamp Act was passed
  • Examples of the uses of stamps
  • on all legal papers such as wills, and house
    sales
  • Ship owners needed them on lists of goods and
    owners of inns needed them on their license
  • Printers had to have them on calendars, notices,
    newspapers and all printed matter
  • Dice and playing cards also had to have them

62
Taxing the Colonies
  • Reaction to the
  • Stamp Act
  • Immediate protests
  • Committees of Correspondence invited all colonies
    to a meeting to discuss the Stamp Act
  • Stamp Act Congress of 1765 declared the tax a
    violation of colonial rights.
  • Sons of Liberty sometimes used violence to
    enforce a boycott and to frighten tax collectors.

63
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64
The Declaratory Act
  • With London merchants losing money due to the
    boycott of British goods, Parliament repealed the
    Stamp Act.
  • However, to remind the colonists of who was in
    control, the Declaratory Act was passed at the
    same time. The Declaratory Act declared that
    Parliament could tax the colonists if they chose
    to do so.

65
The Quartering Act
66
Question of the Day
  • Which statement is true?
  • A. Although the British had been at war with
    either France or Spain throughout the middle part
    of the 1700s, their successful battles rewarded
    Britain with large amounts of money and wealth.
  • B. The Stamp Act of 1765 imposed taxes on almost
    everything made of paper, and American colonists
    had to have a stamp receipt proving the tax was
    paid.
  • C. The Boston Massacre of 1770 was caused by
    British soldiers dressing up as Indians and
    throwing tea into Boston Harbor. The colonists
    loved tea and were so angry that they attacked
    British soldiers.
  • D. The Intolerable Acts of 1774, written by the
    colonists, restricted anyone from housing or
    feeding British soldiers until the British
    replenished the tea that was dumped into Boston
    Harbor at the Boston Tea Party.

67
Townshend Acts
  • Townshend Acts of 1767
  • Duties on glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea
  • Writs of assistance used to enforce.
  • Colonists boycotted British goods.
  • Sons of Liberty attacked customs houses.
  • British troops sent in 1768.

68
Main Idea 2 The Boston Massacre caused colonial
resentment toward Great Britain.
  • A crowd gathered in Boston after a British
    soldier struck a colonist on March 5, 1770.
  • Soldiers fired into the crowd, killing three,
    including Crispus Attucks. Two others were
    mortally wounded.
  • The shootings were called the Boston Massacre by
    colonists.
  • This caused more resentment against the British.
  • Paul Revere engraved a picture showing the
    events. (propaganda)

69
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70
Committees of Correspondence
71
Research Assignment Due Dates
  • Topic Selection 11/11
  • Focus Questions 11/13
  • Working Bibliography 11/18
  • Outline 11/21
  • Rough Draft 11/25
  • Final Copy 12/5

72
Main Idea 3 Colonists protested the British tax
on tea with the Boston Tea Party.
  • Colonial merchants smuggled tea to avoid paying
    the British tea tax.
  • Parliament passed the Tea Act in 1773 to allow
    the British East India Company to sell cheap tea
    to the colonists.
  • Colonial merchants and smugglers were opposed to
    this.
  • On December 16, 1773, colonists disguised as
    Indians attacked British tea ships and threw the
    tea overboard.
  • The incident was called the Boston Tea Party.

73
Question of the Day
  • Which of the following did NOT contribute to the
    Revolutionary War?
  • A. The Quartering Act
  • B. The Stamp Act
  • C. The Alien and Sedition Acts
  • D. The Townshend Acts

74
Tea Act
  • As a result of the Boston Massacre, the English
    Parliament repealed the Townshend Acts on glass,
    lead, paper and paint.
  • The tax on tea was left to remind the colonists
    of who was in charge.
  • The colonists ended the boycott of British goods,
    EXCEPT for tea.

75
The Tea Act
  • The colonists smuggled tea to avoid paying the
    tax.
  • The British East India Company had a huge surplus
    of tea.
  • The company suggested that they be allowed to
    sell tea directly to the colonists, instead of to
    colonial merchants.

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The Tea Act
  • By selling to the colonists, the middleman
    (colonial merchant) would be cut out.
  • This would make the tea cheaper, even with the
    tax.
  • This might end the smuggling and so more taxes
    would be collected.
  • Parliament agreed and in 1773, the Tea Act was
    passed.

77
The Tea Act
  • Colonial reaction?
  • They were angry that merchants would be driven
    out of business.
  • The tax was still going to be collected.
  • They were insulted that the British thought that
    it was the price which concerned them.

78
The Boston Tea Party
  • Ships filled with tea were sent to the colonies.
  • When the ships arrived in places such as
    Philadelphia and New York, colonial leaders met
    with the royal governors and suggested that the
    tea be returned, without being unloaded.
  • When the tea arrived in Boston, the colonial
    governor refused to send the tea back.

79
The Boston Tea Party
  • The tea ships arrived in November, 1773.
  • The Sons of Liberty would not allow the tea to be
    unloaded.
  • The governor would not send the tea back.
  • The tea ships sat in the harbor for three weeks.

80
The Boston Tea Party
  • After three weeks, the tea would be unloaded and
    sold at auction.
  • Before that could happen, the Sons of Liberty
    went into action.
  • Colonial leaders met with the governor one last
    time.
  • When he refused to return the tea, they put their
    plan into action.

81
The Boston Tea Party
  • They were dressed as Indians (a disguise).
  • They went out to the harbor and asked the captain
    for the keys.
  • They went aboard the ships, dumped the tea into
    the harbor.
  • Before they left, they cleaned up any loose tea.
  • Nothing else was damaged.

82
  • This was the Boston Tea Party!

83
Question of the Day
  • Which of the following was NOT a cause of the
    United States War of Independence?
  • A. Slavery
  • B. Taxation by the British
  • C. Lack of representation in Parliament
  • D. Trade restrictions.

84
The Intolerable Acts
  • When the British found out about the Boston Tea
    Party they were furious.
  • Thousands of pounds (dollars) of tea had been
    destroyed.
  • Lord North decided to make Boston an example for
    the rest of the colonies.

85
The Intolerable Acts
86
Rights of the Colonists
  • Rights of Englishmen greater than anyone else
    included
    right to own property, trial by jury,
    peaceful assembly, petitions, representative
    government
  • Colonies had self-government, elected
    representatives who made the laws, controlled the
    militia and taxed the colonists
  • Parliament had the right to control foreign
    affairs, war and trade, in other words, what had
    an impact over the entire empire

87
Question of the Day
  • The Second Continental Congress was faced with
    several tasks. In 1777, delegates devised a
    national government it consisted of a loose
    organization of the 13 states and was known as
    the
  • A. Mayflower Compact
  • B. Declaration of Independence
  • C. Articles of Confederation
  • D. Constitution

88
Main Idea 4 Great Britain responded to colonial
actions by passing the Intolerable Acts.
The acts had several effects
1.
Boston Harbor was closed.
2.
Massachusetts's charter was canceled.
Royal officials accused of crimes would be sent
to Great Britain for trial.
3.
General Thomas Gage was made the new governor of
Massachusetts.
4.
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