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Chapter 26

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Title: Chapter 26


1
Chapter 26 The West and the World
2
Text Describes Several Periods of European
Expansion
  • Crusades
  • Old Imperialism
  • Columbus
  • New World
  • India
  • Explosion of World Trade/Opening of Foreign
    Markets 1815-1880
  • New Imperialism 1880-1900
  • Asia and Africa
  • This Chapter Focuses on the Last Two

3
Part I. Explosion of World Trade
  • Why was there an Explosion of International Trade
    (headed by Europe) in the 19th Century?
  • Better transportation
  • Steam ship/Tramp Liners
  • Protectionism in Europe
  • Europeans Erected High tariffs, so traders looked
    to Foreign Markets
  • Think economic nationalism (Friedrich List)
  • Europeans trade more and more with India,
    Australia, China, America
  • Suez and Panama Canals
  • Telegraph cables under the sea

4
Panama Canal
5
Part II. Three Models of European Expansion in
Late 19th Century
  • Expansion into Sparsely Populated Lands
  • Expansion into Densely Populated Lands- Forced
    Trade
  • Expansion into Densely Populated Lands-
    Political Rule

6
First Model Expansion into Sparsely Populated
Lands
  • Countries
  • Australia
  • Americas
  • Railroad Makes it Feasible to Live in these Lands
  • Refrigeration cars on railroads, for example

7
Second Model- Expansion into Densely Populated
Lands - Forced Trade
  • Countries
  • China
  • Japan

8
China
  • Traditionally isolated
  • Letter to a Barbarian King
  • Restrictions on European trade in China
  • Only silver
  • Highly regulated trade
  • Creates an unfair balance of trade for European
    nations
  • British and the Opium War
  • Chinese want Opium/ British smuggle it in
  • Chinese govt protests creates a free trade
    excuse for war
  • British whoop the Chinese
  • Indian troops
  • Humiliating Treaty of Nanking
  • Opium trade is legalized
  • Hong Kong is British trade headquarters
  • Chinese Reaction
  • Turn deeper into cultural isolation

9
Japan
  • Isolated
  • gunboat diplomacy
  • Commodore Matthew Perry
  • Continuation of U.S. Manifest Destiny
  • Japanese Reaction
  • Meiji Restoration
  • Adopt at least most effective parts of Western
    culture
  • Remember when I said they are going to beat up on
    Russia?

10
A Foreign Trading House in Yokohama
11
Japan and China were Forced Open, But Never Fully
Controlled Directly
  • U.S. Open-Door Policy

12
Third Model Expansion Into Densely Populated
Lands- Political Control
  • Countries
  • Most of Africa
  • India
  • Southeast Asia
  • Parts of China
  • Why a return to this model?
  • First, what do I mean, return?
  • Old Imperialism meant direct rule
  • However, after political revolutions (American,
    French) this model was largely abandoned for
    Sphere of Influence Style Economic Imperialism
    (1815-1880)
  • South American liberation
  • So why would the Old Imperialism model return to
    fashion in 1880s?

13
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14
Why a return to Political Domination?
  • 1880-1900
  • Main reasons for the change
  • Economic
  • Indian cotton
  • South African Gold and Diamonds
  • made other areas desirable as way-stations and
    military outposts on the way (See, Egypt, Suez
    Canal)
  • If you hold important diamond mines in South
    Africa, you need to have the lands around to
    protect them.
  • What if there are diamond mines in Botswana???
  • New Technologies
  • Maxim and Quinine and the steam boat
  • New Nationalism
  • Conservative Politicians can Use Imperialism to
    Distract Their Domestic Mobs From Internal
    Problems
  • War with a guaranteed victory
  • The Jungle Book. Craze of interest in
    Imperialism
  • People of all classes liked it

15
Maxim Machine Gun
Quinine
16
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17
  • (Cont.)
  • Social Darwinism- provided a justification
  • Spread Christianity
  • Civilize barbaric cultures
  • Keeping up with the Joneses

18
Egypt
  • Set the Model for New Political Imperialism of
    the 1880s- 1900s
  • Suez had become vitally important
  • Egyptian leadership tried to westernize
  • Did, but at the expense of its peasants
  • Cash crop farming
  • Borrowed money from Europeans to build railroads,
    telephone lines, etc.
  • When it cant pay the debt???
  • When Egyptians protested growing British control
    (rioting), this allowed the British to move their
    troops in to restore order.
  • They restored order from 1880 to about 1956

19
Who Got What?
20
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21
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22
Britain Was the Dominant Imperialist
  • In 1900 The British Navy Was Twice the Size of
    Any Other
  • Think about the most popular sports in the world
  • Soccer
  • Rugby
  • Cricket
  • India is the Jewel in the British Crown
  • Forced into a coherent political unit
  • Kinda like if Europe was conquered and forced
    under one government

23
Imperialism Led to European Conflict
  • What happens when two countries see an African or
    Asian nation as vital to their economic
    interests?
  • Berlin Conference to Settle African Colonial
    Claims peacefully
  • No Africans invited
  • You must meaningfully occupy an area to claim
    it
  • The rush is on
  • Why would Italy and Germany be behind other
    countries when it came to New Imperialism
  • Kaiser Wilhem II
  • I promise to win for Germany a place in the
    sun.

24
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25
Justifications For Imperialism
  • White Mans Burden
  • Social Darwinism
  • Some Good Things Are Brought to Asia and Africa
  • Technology, medicine, best parts of Western
    intellectual tradition, science
  • Salvation
  • Save the heathens
  • Free trade- Adam Smiths Ideas

26
Rudyard Kiplings White Mans Burden
  • Take up the White Man's burden--Send forth the
    best ye breed--Go bind your sons to exileTo
    serve your captives' needTo wait in heavy
    harness,On fluttered folk and wild--Your
    new-caught, sullen peoples,Half-devil and
    half-child.Take up the White Man's burden--In
    patience to abide,To veil the threat of
    terrorAnd check the show of prideBy open
    speech and simple,An hundred times made plainTo
    seek another's profit,And work another's gain.

27
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28
and Criticism of Imperialism
  • Radical Socialist criticism
  • Helps only the bourgeois
  • Lenin held this idea and we are going to see that
    this is one of the reasons that when Asian and
    African empires free themselves from New
    Imperialism, many are drawn to Communism (China,
    Vietnam)
  • Against western Classical Liberal position
    (breaks the golden rule)
  • Remember, Many European Nations Have Just Fought
    for National Independence
  • Social Darwinism clashes with Christianity
  • Blessed are the strong, for they shall conquer
    the weak?

29
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30
Colonial Reaction to Imperialism
  • Chinese versus Japanese model
  • Japan will ultimately serve as a model to Asian
    anti-Imperialists
  • They are often sent to Japan to study
  • Europeans often train locals to run their
    bureaucracies
  • Puppet governments
  • Dangerous, because this introduces natives to
    Western ideas. Why dangerous?
  • Western ideas are largely contradictory to
    Imperialism
  • Natural rights
  • Nationalism
  • Popular sovereignty
  • Romanticism
  • This is the origin of independence leaders like
    Gandhi

31
Independence Movements
  • India
  • Indian National Congress
  • Japan
  • Meiji Restoration
  • Its own brand of Imperialism
  • Korea, Taiwan, Manchuria
  • Defeats Russia in 1905
  • Puts it on a collision course over spheres of
    influence in Asia
  • China
  • Slower to reform, but eventually did try
  • Hundred Days of Reform
  • Chinas inability to reform and deal with
    foreigners led to chaos
  • Boxer Rebellion against foreigners
  • Eventually Manchu Dynasty is toppled and China is
    declared a Republic on the eve of WWI

32
End of Day 2 Lecture
33
Case Studies in Imperialism
  • The Belgian Congo
  • Belgium claimed this land, but was having trouble
    turning a profit
  • Ironically, few of the colonies actually did
    ultimately return a profit
  • The most valuable good in Congo was rubber
  • Native Congolese were given quotas of rubber to
    gather
  • If they didnt meet their quotas.

34
5-8 Million Victims! (50 of Popul.)
It is blood-curdling to see them (the soldiers)
returning with the hands of the slain, and to
find the hands of young children amongst the
bigger ones evidencing their bravery...The rubber
from this district has cost hundreds of lives,
and the scenes I have witnessed, while unable to
help the oppressed, have been almost enough to
make me wish I were dead... This rubber traffic
is steeped in blood, and if the natives were to
rise and sweep every white person on the Upper
Congo into eternity, there would still be left a
fearful balance to their credit. --
Belgian Official
35
Leopold II
News About the Congo Eventually Leaked Out and
Became a cause celèbre in about 1900
36
South Africa
  • Originally colonized by the Dutch during Old
    Imperialism
  • Mediterranean climate
  • Very appealing colony
  • Key way-station on the pre-Suez route to Asia
  • Dutch became known as Boers or Afrikaners
  • British eventually wanted the colony as their
    imperial empire grew and they grabbed it as the
    Dutch Golden Age was ending (early 19th century)

37
First Boer War
  • British colonists and Boers increasingly came
    into conflict over land, especially after
    Diamonds were discovered
  • De Beers
  • From the name of the war, can you guess who won?

38
The Great Trek
  • Boers have to move inland to find farmland
    outside of British areas
  • This brings them into competition with local
    African tribes

39
Cecil Rhodes
  • Successful British now own Northern and Southern
    coasts of Africa
  • Cecil Rhodes
  • Champion of white domination of Africa
  • I contend that we English are the finest race
    in the world and the more of the world we inhabit
    the better it is for the human race.

40
Hansen Name ___________AP Euro New
Imperialism (note-taking guide)
  • The Text Describes Several Periods of Expansion
  • Crusades
  • Old Imperialism
  • Columbus
  • New World
  • India
  • Explosion of World Trade/Opening of
    _________________________________
    _______
  • ___________________________ 1880-1900
  • Asia and Africa
  • This Chapter Focuses on the Last Two
  • Part I. Explosion of World Trade
  • Why was there an Explosion of International Trade
    (headed by Europe) in the 19th Century?
  • ________________________________
  • Steam ship/Tramp Liners
  • _______________________ in Europe
  • Europeans Erected __________, so traders looked
    to ___________________________
  • Think __________________________ (Friedrich
    List)
  • Europeans trade more and more with __________,
    ___________________, China, America
  • ______________and Panama Canals
  • British and ________________________
  • Chinese want Opium/ ____________________
  • Chinese govt ___________ creates a
    __________ excuse ______________
  • British _________ the Chinese
  • ______________________
  • Humiliating Treaty of _____________
  • Opium trade is legalized
  • ____________________ is British trade
    headquarters
  • Chinese Reaction
  • ____________________________________
  • Japan
  • Isolated
  • ____________________________
  • Commodore _______________________
  • Continuation of U.S. ____________________
  • Japanese Reaction
  • _______________Restoration
  • Adopt at least ____________________ Western
    culture
  • Remember when I said they are going to
    ________________________ ?

41
  • Why a Return to Direct Political Domination?
  • _____________________
  • Main reasons for the change
  • Economic
  • __________________
  • South African ____________________
  • made other areas desirable as way-stations and
    military outposts on the way (See, __________
    _____________________________)
  • If you hold important diamond mines in South
    Africa, you need to have the _________________ to
    protect them.
  • What if there are ______________________
    Botswana???
  • New Technologies
  • ______________________________________
  • New Nationalism
  • Conservative Politicians can Use Imperialism to
    _________________________________ From Internal
    Problems
  • War with a ______________________
  • ___________________________ . Craze of interest
    in Imperialism
  • People of _________________ liked it
  • Social Darwinism- provided a justification
  • _______________________
  • ________________________ cultures
  • Who Got What?
  • The Sun Never _________ on the ___________________
    _________
  • _____________ Was the Dominant Imperialist
  • In 1900 The ______________ Was ____________ of
    Any Other
  • Think about the most popular sports in the world
  • __________
  • __________
  • _________
  • ___________ was the ____________________
  • Forced into a coherent political unit
  • Kinda like if _________________________ and
    forced under one government
  • Imperialism Led to European Conflict
  • What happens when two countries see an African or
    Asian nation as __________________________________
    ______?
  • ________________ to Settle African Colonial
    Claims peacefully
  • No ___________________ invited
  • You must ______________________ an area to claim
    it
  • The _____________ was on
  • Why would Italy and Germany be behind other
    countries when it came to New Imperialism? -
    ____________________________
  • Kaiser Wilhem II
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