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Chapter 4.1 The Story of Judaism History (pages 98-107)


Chapter 4.1 The Story of Judaism History (pages 98-107) Life-Cycle Rituals Brit Milah or Bris The Brit Milah, or Bris, is the rite of circumcision. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 4.1 The Story of Judaism History (pages 98-107)

Chapter 4.1The Story of JudaismHistory(pages
Judaism in Canada
  • Canada has the fourth-largest Jewish population
    in the world, after the United States, Israel,
    and France.
  • Approximately 330 000 Canadian Jews today trace
    their origins back to Russian and Eastern
    European Jews who emigrated to escape persecution
    during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
  • Others are descended from the 40 000 Holocaust
    survivors who came to Canada in 1945, after WWII.
  • In the 1950s, another wave of Jewish immigrants
    came from French colonies in North Africa.
  • Most settled in large cities such as Montréal and
  • Many of the first Jewish Canadians were fur
    traders or members of the British Army stationed
    in the province of Québec.
  • Today, the largest number of Jews in Canada live
    in Toronto and Montréal.
  • Vancouver, Ottawa, Winnipeg, and Calgary also
    have large Jewish communities.

The top twelve Jewish populations in the world
(2001) 1. USA 6,500,000 2. Israel  4,950,000
3. France 600,000 4. Canada 364,000 5. Britain
  275,000 6. Russia  275,000 7. Argentina 197
,000 8. Ukraine 112,000 9. Germany 98,000 10. B
razil  97,500 11. South Africa 88,000 12. Hungar
y  55,000
The top twelve Jewish populations in the world
(2001) 1. USA 6,500,000 2. Israel  4,950,000
3. France 600,000 4. Canada 364,000 5. Britai
n  275,000 6. Russia  275,000 7. Argentina 19
7,000 8. Ukraine 112,000 9. Germany 98,000 10.
Brazil  97,500 11. South Africa 88,000 12. Hunga
ry  55,000
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Rabbi Ammos Chorny
Temple Israel of London, Ontario, Canada 605
Windermere RoadLondon, OntarioCanada        N5X
2P1 Phone (519)858-4400FAX (519)858-2070Office Rabbi Debra
The History of Judaism
  • Origins of Judaism
  • Judaism traces its origins back 3800 years to
    Abraham and Sarah, patriarch and matriarch of
    Hebrews or Israelites.
  • The story of Abraham, Sarah, and their
    descendants is told in Jewish scriptures.
  • It is the story of a covenant (promise) made
    between God and Abraham.

  • Links to the Past
  • The area we now know as Israel was once divided
    into two kingdoms the kingdom of Israel in the
    north and the kingdom of Judah in the south.
  • The religion is called Judaism because the Jewish
    people trace their heritage to the Hebrew people
    who lived in the kingdom of Judah.
  • Throughout its sacred texts, Judaism has
    maintained continuity with its distant past.
  • Even though Judaisms roots date back to ancient
    times, over the centuries it has evolved and
    changed from the practices of early Hebrews.

The Birth of Modern Judaism
  • The Judaism of King David and King Solomon was
    different from the Judaism of today.
  • The destruction of the Temple in the 1st century
    of the Common Era had an enormous impact on
    Judaism because it had been the centre of all
    Jewish worship and sacrifice.
  • In 66 CE, Judea was under the Roman Empire.
  • Zealots (Jewish revolutionaries) rebelled, and
    the Romans laid siege to Jerusalem, destroying
    the city and the Temple.
  • 3000 people perished when the Temple fell.
  • Christianity and Rabbinic Judaism survived, but
    were changed by the events.

  • Christianity
  • The destruction of the Temple forever changed a
    Jewish movement that had begun with Jesus of
    Nazareth about 40 years earlier.
  • The movement included Jews and non-Jews who had
    accepted Jesus as the Jewish Messiah or Christ.
  • Conflict developed between Christian Jews and
    Rabbinic Jews (Pharisees).
  • The two groups parted ways at the end of the 1st

  • Rabbinic Judaism
  • It was begun by Pharisees.
  • It found a new focus in sacred writings.
  • It encouraged people to gather in synagogues or
    study houses to study the Torah.
  • Torah is the teaching or guidance of God.
  • Studying and interpreting the Torah became an
    important way of helping Jewish people follow the
    laws of the covenant, wherever they lived.
  • Interpreters were known as scribes or rabbis,
    thus the name Rabbinic Judaism.

Jews in the Diaspora
  • In 135 CE, the Romans expelled the Jews from
    Judea, forcing them to take refuge in other
  • Diaspora means dispersion or scattering.
  • This scattering among nations and the constant
    desire to return to Israel and Jerusalem is a key
    aspect of the history of Jews and their faith.

  • Jews in Christian Europe
  • In the Diaspora, Jews became divided into two
    major groups the Ashkenazim in northern,
    central, and eastern Europe, and the Sephardim
    around the Mediterranean.
  • Both groups had an immeasurable influence on the
    intellectual, economic, cultural, and spiritual
    life of every country they lived in.
  • Jews were considered the other and were set
    apart in many cases.
  • In Christian countries of Europe, they were often
    unjustly accused of being the killers of Jesus
    the Messiah and were treated as unbelievers.

The Kabbalah and Hasidism
  • Several Jewish mystical movements became popular
    in the Middle Ages.
  • Mystics search for God through a life of prayer,
    meditation, and reflection.
  • The main Jewish mystical teachings are Kabbalah
    (12th century), and Hasidism (18th century).

  • Kabbalah
  • Kabbalahs teachings are found in many texts,
    including the Zohar.
  • According to Kabbalah, the true nature of God is
  • It is known as Ein Sof, meaning without end.
  • God has no boundaries in time or space.

  • Hasidism
  • Founder was Israel ben Eliezer (16981759), also
    known as Baal Shem Tov
  • He taught that communion with God happened
    through prayer, good deeds, humility, and joy.
  • He is best known for his humorous stories of
    people encountering God while doing simple chores.

Chapter 4.2The Story of JudaismShoah(pages
The Enlightenment, the Holocaust (Shoah), and
Modern-Day Israel
  • Three events have shaped Judaism in the past
    three centuries the Enlightenment, the Holocaust
    (Shoah), and the founding of the State of Israel.

  • The Enlightenment
  • In the 17th century, a new way of knowing began
    to dominate Western Europe reason.
  • Before that, mysticism and religion were ways of
    knowing and understanding life.
  • The Enlightenment emphasized intellectual
  • Only what could be known by reason was
    acceptable everything else was superstition.
  • People became skeptical of traditional political,
    social, and religious beliefs.
  • Less emphasis was placed on religion, and Jews in
    some parts of Europe became more accepted.
  • The Enlightenment also caused divisions within
  • Ashkenazi Jews split into three traditions
    Reform, Conservative, and Orthodox.

Reform Judaism
  • This branch attracted Jews who had mixed more
    frequently with the rest of the population
  • They wanted to enjoy freedoms like everyone else,
    participate in intellectual life, and work with
  • They began to interpret scripture with more
    modern methods.
  • They became less concerned with traditional
    purity laws, kosher laws, and the desire to
    return to the homeland.
  • Today, Reform Jews use a combination of Hebrew
    and English for religious services.
  • Men and women sit together in the synagogue.
  • Women are ordained as rabbis.
  • Many, but not all, believe as long as one parent
    is Jewish, the children are Jewish.
  • Individualism is encouraged each person must
    decide what beliefs and practices are key to his
    or her spiritual life.
  • They often accept secular moral values (the
    values of society in general), but live by
    traditional values as well.
  • They stress tikkun olamrepairing the world
    through social action.

Conservative Judaism
  • The Conservative movement arose as a reaction to
    Reform Judaism.
  • It follows many, but not all, of the 613
    commandments of the Torah, and old traditions
    such as the order of prayers, the use of Hebrew,
    and some dietary laws.
  • It is open to modern historical methods of study,
    but considers Reform Judaism too loose in its
    interpretation of the scripture.
  • The needs of the community and its Jewish
    identity always come before individual wants and
  • Active participation in synagogue is very
  • Like Reform Jews, Conservatives stress tikkun
  • Men and women sit together in the synagogue.
  • Women are sometimes ordained as rabbis.
  • It is the largest branch of Judaism in Canada.

  • Orthodox Judaism
  • Orthodox Jews continue to observe all the ancient
    rules and practices.
  • They want to avoid watering down the Jewish
  • They believe God gave the whole Torahoral and
    writtento Moses at Mount Sinai.
  • Some Orthodox Jews accept some secular moral
    values, but being Orthodox means following the
    commandments of the Torah, strictly observing the
    Sabbath and other Jewish holy days, using Hebrew
    in the synagogue, dressing modestly, and
    following dietary laws.
  • Men and women sit separately in the synagogue.
  • Judaism can only be passed down to children by
    the mother.

The Holocaust (Shoah)
  • During WWII, between 16 and 20 million people
    were killed in concentration and labour camps by
    German Nazis and their allies.
  • About 6 million of these victims were Jews.
  • Adolf Hitler was elected chancellor of Germany in
  • Even though German Jews were well integrated into
    European society, Hitler considered them an
    inferior race and declared them enemies of the
  • He blamed Jews for Germanys loss in WWI
    (19141918) and Germanys economic problems
    during the Great Depression of the 1930s.
  • Many Jews were alarmed by Hitlers actions and
    tried to leave Germany.

  • But many countries limited the number of
    immigrants they would allow in during the Great
  • Anti-Semitism was widespread, even in Canada,
    which contributed to other countries not wanting
    to take them in.
  • The Nazis deliberately set out to exterminate all
    Jews in Europe this is known as the Holocaust.
  • Jews were imprisoned, starved, forced to do heavy
    manual labour, medically experimented on,
    tortured, and killed.
  • The Jewish population of Europe was reduced from
    9.5 million to 1.6 million in just 12 years.

  • Effects of the Holocaust on the Jewish Community
  • After the horrors of the war, the faith of many
    Jews was shaken.
  • They wondered if God was punishing them for their
    lack of faithfulness.
  • This is a question still faced by many modern
  • The fact that Judaism lives on is a testimony
    that came from this struggle to understand.
  • For others, the traditional Jewish belief that
    God is with us in good times and bad remains
  • They believe goodness and love will prevail and
    Gods reign will triumph at the end of history.

  • The central message of the Torah is What is
    hateful to you, do not do to others.
  • This is the rallying cry for many Jews of all
    denominations in response to the Holocaust.
  • Greater emphasis on the tikkun olam has been a
    Jewish response to the cruelty of WWII.
  • The Mishnah (oral Torah) teaches that Adam was
    created single to teach people that the
    destruction of any persons life is the same as
    destroying a whole world, and the preservation of
    a single life is the same as preserving a whole
  • Life is sacred because it is from God for many
    Jews, preserving life is a key response to the

  • Zionism and the State of Israel
  • Zionism
  • The persecution Jews experienced in Europe
    fuelled a desire to return to the land God had
    promised them.
  • By the late 1800s, many Jews supported Zionism, a
    movement to establish a national Jewish state in
  • Some Zionists began to emigrate to Palestine.
  • Arabs who lived there objected to the Jews coming
    to what they saw as their homeland and fighting
    broke out several times.
  • After WWII, many Western countries began to
    support Jewish struggles for a homeland in

Zionism (contd)
  • Britain, which controlled the region, submitted
    the issue to the United Nations.
  • In 1947 the UN voted to divide Palestine into an
    Arab and a Jewish state with Jerusalem under
    international control.
  • Arabs felt betrayed by the Western countries,
    whom they had supported during the war.
  • Palestinian Arabs felt particularly betrayed by
    the British who, in 1915, had promised them
    independence in Palestine.
  • On May 14, 1948, Jews proclaimed the independent
    State of Israel.
  • The next day, Israels neighbouring Arab nations
    invaded in attempt to destroy the new Jewish
  • When the war ended about eight months later,
    Israel controlled its part and about half of the
    land the UN had planned for the new Arab state.
  • The rest was annexed by Arab neighbours.
  • Almost a million Palestine Arabs left the country
    or were expelled by the Israelis.
  • Most became refugees living in the
    Arab-controlled part of Palestine.

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Chapter 4.3The Story of JudaismRituals(pages
  1. Rosh Hashanah / Jewish New Year
  2. Yom Kippur / Day of Atonement
  3. Sukkot / Feast of Tabernacles/Booths
  4. Pesach / Passover
  5. Shavu'ot / Feast of Weeks/Pentecost
  6. Hanukkah / Feast of Lights
  7. Purim / Feast of Lots
  8. Simchat Torah / Rejoicing in the Torah
  9. Tisha BAv / Destruction of Two Temples

  • Year Hanukkah starts at sundown on... Hanukkah
    ends on
  • 2009 December 11 December 19
  • 2010 December 1 December 9
  • 2011 December 20 December 28
  • 2012 December 8 December 16
  • 2013 November 27 December 5
  • 2014 December 16 December 24
  • 2015 December 6 December 14

  • A Greek King (2200 years ago) was in control of
    Judah and he forbade the Jewish people from
    praying to their God, practicing their customs,
    and studying their Torah.

  • Antiochus forced the Jews to worship the Greek
    gods. It is said that he placed an idol of the
    Greek God Zeus on the alter in the Holy Temple of

Zeus god of the sky and thunder
Image of Antiochus on coin
  • In response to this persecution, Judah Maccabee
    and his four brothers organized a group of
    resistance fighters known as the Maccabees.

  • The Maccabees reclaimed the Holy Temple in
    Jerusalem. They cleaned the Temple, removing the
    Greek symbols and statues. When Judah and his
    followers finished cleaning the temple, they
    rededicated it.

  • According to tradition, when the Maccabees
    entered the Holy Temple, they discovered that
    their was only enough one days worth of oil for
    the temple lamp.
  • Miraculously, the Maccabees lit the menorah and
    it burned for not one, but eight days.
  • This is why the Hanukkah Menorah has eight
    candles and why Jews celebrate Hanukkah for eight

  • Many traditional Hanukkah foods are cooked in
    oil, in remembrance of the oil that burned in the
  • Latkes, or potato pancakes are a favorite food at

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  • The Lighting of the Menorah
  • Blessing of the Candles
  • Singing and playing Dreidle
  • Eating Foods Cooked in Oil

  • Courage
  • Hope
  • Light
  • Freedom

Hanukkah Menorah
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  • The dreidel is a four-sided spinning top.
  • Each side is engraved with a different Hebrew
  • The letters mean Nes Gadol Haya Sham"A great
    miracle happened there"

  • February/March

  • Remembers the defeat of a plot to exterminate the
    Jewish people in Persia (Babylon).
  • The story of Purim is told in the Book of Esther.

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  • Becomes Queen of Persia after being chosen by the
  • She saved the Jewish people from Haman.
  • Very beautiful and brave

  • Esthers Cousin
  • Leader of the Jews in Persia
  • He took care of Esther after she became an orphan

  • Powerful Prime Minister in Persia
  • He declares that the Jews in Persia must bow down
    to him
  • He plots to annihilate the Jews because they
    refuse to bow down to him

  • King of Persia
  • Divorced his wife and was searching for a new
  • He chose Esther (an Israelite) and she became his

King Xerxes AKA Ahasuerus
  • Triangle shapped pastries filled with Jam
    (tradition states that Haman wore a triangular
    shapped hat)

  • Rattles
  • Masks
  • Hamentashen

  • On Purim, all Jews are required to fulfill the
    Purim mitzvot
  • Reading of the Story of Esther
  • Festive meal (Drink Wine)
  • Gifts of food
  • Act of Charity
  • Some dress up as the Purim characters and put on

  • Marking Time
  • Shabbat (the Sabbath)
  • Shabbat is the day the Lord rested and is the
    most sacred day for Jews.
  • Shabbat begins at sunset on Friday and ends at
    sundown on Saturday.
  • It is celebrated in the synagogue.
  • It focuses on the family.
  • It celebrates the heavens and Earth and
    everything on Earth as gifts from God.

  • Pesach (Passover)
  • Passover is one of the most important feasts of
    Jewish year.
  • It is celebrated in the first month of the year,
    on the 15th day of Nisan.
  • Like Easter, it happens around the first full
    moon after spring equinox.
  • It celebrates the freedom won by Jewish slaves
    when they escaped from the Egyptian Pharaoh over
    3000 years ago.
  • The most important part of the festival is the
    Passover Seder, a ritual meal during which Jews
    recall the story of the Exodus from Egypt.

From Rosh Hashanah to Yom Kippur The Days of Awe
  • Rosh Hashanah is the Jewish new year.
  • It is celebrated in the synagogue.
  • People declare God king again for the coming year
    and pray for Gods protection and blessing.
  • One of the most exciting rituals is the sounding
    of the shofar, or rams horn, to herald the start
    of the new year.
  • The 10 days between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur
    are called the Days of Awe.
  • During this time, Jews turn inward and remember
    God will be their judge at the end of time.
  • Yom Kippur is the Day of Atonement.
  • It is a solemn day of fasting, when Jews seek
    reconciliation with God.
  • They atone for their sins by asking forgiveness
    from God and anyone they have sinned against over
    the previous year.

Life-Cycle Rituals
  • Brit Milah or Bris
  • The Brit Milah, or Bris, is the rite of
  • It is performed when a baby boy is 8 days old.
  • The circumcision is a sign on the body of Gods
    covenant with Abraham.
  • It is also the time when a baby is given his
    Hebrew name.
  • Parents of a baby girl can have a Simchat Bata
    ceremony in the synagogue where the baby receives
    her Hebrew name.

  • Betrothal and Marriage
  • Judaism strongly encourages people to marry.
  • Before a wedding, a marriage contract is prepared
    to ensure that the husband will treat his wife
    respectfully and fulfill his obligations to her.
  • The couple exchange rings under a canopy, which
    symbolizes the home they will make together.
  • The ceremony ends with the recitation of seven
    blessings for the marriage.

  • Death
  • When a parent dies, a son or daughter recites a
    special prayer of sanctification called the
    kaddish every morning and evening for 11 months
    after the death.
  • For seven days after a burial, mourners gather at
    one home and receive visitors, who often bring
    food so the grieving family does not have to
    worry about ordinary activities like cooking.

Chapter 4.4The Story of JudaismCommunity
Beliefs(pages 123-133)
The Jewish Community
  • When the Temple was destroyed, Jews no longer had
    a centre of worship or a role for the high
  • There is no one person who can give a final
    interpretation of the Jewish tradition.
  • Most Jews choose a rabbi or join a more
    structured community to help them observe their

  • The Synagogue
  • After being exiled to Babylon, the Jews were
    dispersed among other nations.
  • They set up synagogues so they would not be
    dependent on the Temple in Jerusalem.
  • When the Temple was destroyed in 70 CE, more
    synagogues were built.
  • Synagogues have two purposes
  • they are places were Torah is taught
  • they are places of worship outside Jerusalem

  • The Synagogue
  • The synagogue contains an ark, or cabinet, where
    the Torah scrolls are kept.
  • The ark is usually on the eastern wall so the
    congregation face Jerusalem when they face the
  • The Torah is read from a raised platform, and the
    rabbi speaks from a pulpit to explain the Torah.
  • A lamp is kept burning at all times to remind
    people that God is present.

Central Beliefs
  • The Shema, Hear, O Israel, the Lord is our God,
    the Lord is one, is the most important
    confession of faith in Judaism.
  • Jewish morning and evening prayers are built
    around this prayer.
  • It sums up the Jewish scriptures, or Tanakh.
  • The Tanakh has three parts Torah (or Teaching),
    Neviim (or Prophets), Ketuvim (or Writings).

  • The Torah
  • The Torah presents the teachings of Judaism in
    the form of a story.
  • Genesis, the first book of the Torah, contains
    the two stories of creation.
  • In the first story, God creates the world in 6
    days, creates humans on the 6th day, and rests on
    the 7th day, making that day holy.
  • In the second story, God creates Adam and Eve,
    then banishes them from the garden of Eden when
    they eat the fruit of the forbidden tree.

  • The Story of Abraham
  • Genesis also tells the story of Abraham and his
    wife Sarah.
  • God asks Abraham (then called Abram) to leave his
    home and go to a new land, where God will make
    him the father of a new people.
  • Abrams faith in God is tested many times, but
    never wavers.
  • The rest of Genesis tells the story of Gods
    faithfulness to his covenant with Abraham.

The Story of Moses
  • The second book of the Torah is Exodus.
  • The story picks up when Abrahams descendants,
    the children of Israel, had become slaves to the
  • Moses was called by God, through the burning
    bush, to lead Gods people out of slavery.
  • Moses showed Pharaoh the power of the Lord
    through the 10 plagues, then Pharaoh agreed to
    let people of Israel go.
  • When Pharaoh sent his chariots after them, the
    Red Sea parted to let the Israelites through, but
    drowned Pharaohs men.
  • At Mount Sinai, God made a covenant with Moses
    and gave him the Ten Commandments and the rest of
    the Law.
  • The Ten Commandments contain the most important
    instruction on how to live the covenant.

  • The Story of David
  • The story of David is in the book of Kings.
  • David was Israels second king and he united all
    the tribes into one kingdom.
  • Davids son Solomon built the Temple in Jerusalem.

The Talmud
  • The Talmud is the second most important Jewish
    sacred writing.
  • It is a huge book of civil and religious laws and
    ethical teachings.
  • It contains layer upon layer of interpretations
    of the Torah made by rabbis between the 1st and
    5th centuries.
  • It is a written record of the oral Torah (the
  • The Halakhah contains prescribed ways to apply
    the commandments in the Torah to daily life.
  • It includes laws about ritual purity, such as
    what foods cannot be eaten, and other impure
    things to avoid.

  • These laws were first kept by priests in the
    Temple in Jerusalem.
  • Later, the Pharisees also kept them, and these
    ritual laws of purity became part of Jewish life.
  • After the second defeat by the Romans in 135 CE,
    the rabbis began to write down and interpret the
    oral Torah, and this written material became the
  • This process happened in two different places by
    different rabbis, so there are two versions of
    the Talmud.
  • The more extensive, most commonly used version is
    called the Babylonian Talmud.

Chapter 4.5The Story of JudaismMorality/Family
Life(pages 134-140)
  • The Ten Commandments
  • Jewish moral life is a response to Gods covenant
    with the Jewish people at Mount Sinai.
  • Keeping the covenant means following Gods
    mitzvot, or guidance.
  • The Ten Commandments are at the heart of this
  • Religious Jews also try to follow as many of the
    other mitzvot as they can, from the Torah, oral
    law, Talmud, and Rabbinic law.

  • Sin
  • Sinning is a failure to follow the mitzvot.
  • It is a breaking of the covenant.
  • In the days of the Temple, rituals and sacrifices
    were carried out to repair the covenant
  • Today, Jews atone and repent for sin on Yom

  • Sexuality
  • All forms of Judaism see sexuality as a blessing
    from God.
  • The Halakhah states that sexuality is to be
    celebrated and enjoyed only in marriage.
  • The Talmud permits abortion only when the
    mothers life is in danger.
  • Reform Jews usually share some of the sexual
    values of the culture they live in.

Family Life
  • Shabbat in the Home
  • The Shabbat meal and prayers take place in the
    home at sunset on Friday.
  • The mother lights two Shabbat candles and says a
    silent prayer for the well-being of her husband
    and children.
  • Before the meal, a parent holds a special cup of
    wine and recites the kiddush, a prayer that
    welcomes and sanctifies Shabbat.
  • At the end of Shabbat on Saturday night, a
    blessing is recited thanking God for the division
    between Shabbat and the rest of the week.
  • There are many rules to be followed on Shabbat,
    such as no work is to be done, and no lights or
    electrical devices are to be switched on or used.
  • Orthodox Jews strictly observe these rules, while
    Conservative Jews interpret them more loosely and
    Reform Jews may not feel bound to observe them.

  • Keeping Kosher
  • There are many rules about how to keep a kosher
  • They include not eating pork or shellfish, and
    not eating dairy products and meat in the same
    meal, among others.
  • Some homes that keep kosher have separate sets of
    dishes, pots, and utensils for dairy and meat.
  • Kosher laws are complex but are second nature to
    Jews who have grown up with them.

The Jewish Family and Community Welcome and
  • Hospitality is a key feature of Judaism.
  • For Jews, it is an honour to welcome guests into
    the home.
  • Jews also practise hospitality by helping others
    in the community and being active in causes that
    benefit all people.
  • Judaism emphasizes the concept of tikkun olam
    (repairing the world).

  • Interreligious Dialogue
  • Judaism and the Catholic Church
  • Christianity understands itself as coming out of
  • Christianity has many common links with Judaism,
    such as through scripture, rituals, and values.
  • Judaism must be Christianitys first partner in
  • Christianity has found joy in rediscovering
    Judaism, its older relative.

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