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Early Latin America


Early Latin America ... Consolidation/ Maturity 1570-1700 (colonial institutions and society formed) ... Chapter 19 Notes Author: chris – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Early Latin America

  • Early Latin America

Latin America
  • The incentive for European explores was wealth,
    social advancement, adventure, and prestige. In
    1492 Columbus reached the Caribbean and forever
    changed Latin America. By 1493 the first Spanish
    colony had been established.
  • The societies first formed by colonists were ones
    of subjugation however the culture morphed into
    more complex and diverse societies that would
    eventually break free from colonial control and
    fight for their independence by the 18th century.

Iberian Kingdoms (Spain and Portugal)
  • The Spanish and Portuguese were at the frontier
    of the Mediterranean and as such were in both
    Christian and Muslim territory.
  • If you remember your history from Spain. Spain
    was formed when Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella
    from Castile wed. The two sought to unite their
    diverse kingdoms by many reforms including the
    Reconquista which expelled Moors and Jews from
    Spain making it one Christian kingdom. In 1492,
    Granada, the last Muslim kingdom was conquered by
    Spain during the Reconquista. This unification
    process gave the monarchs a chance to support
    another goal increased access to Asia goods.
    Thus Columbus was supported in his quest for
    Asian markets.
  • After conquest, Spain gave land and labor grants
    (encomiendas) to good Spaniards willing to fight
    for the mother country. These plantations would
    produce raw materials for the mother country. The
    Spanish and Portuguese were already used to
    African slavery from their experience in
    sub-Saharan African trade. There were already
    African slaves present in the Iberian peninsula!
    Therefore, this labor system seemed like a good
    choice once so many of the Native population of
    the Americas began to die off.
  • Chronology
  • Conquest 1492-1570 (set administration and
    economy of New World)
  • Consolidation/ Maturity 1570-1700 (colonial
    institutions and society formed)
  • Reform/ Reorganization 18th century (seeds of
    dissent and revolt)

Caribbean Crucible/ Experiment
  • The Caribbean became the great experiment for the
    Spanish. They conquered islands and set up
    colonies and established relationships with the
    native population. They literally tested out
    various concepts for maintaining rule and gain
    from the land all that was possible.
  • 1492 Caribbean and island of Hispaniola
    discovered, 1493 -1st colony, 1513 Panama and
    other islands conquered and colonized!
  • The encomienda system was first established
    during the Caribbean phase. The Spaniards given
    these labor grants and could tax or use the
    natives on the land as workers. This system and
    contact led to massive population declines which
    led to the islands becoming something of a
    colonial backwater until it was seen they would
    be effective for sugar. Then slaves were brought
    to the Caribbean to fill the labor demands of the
    great sugar plantations.
  • Good things-new markets and towns and cities laid
    out on nice grid patterns unlike Europe. (like
    Mohenjo-Daro in India) Spain established a
    colonial bureaucracy with governors and various
  • The Church became very important and priests came
    over on mission trips Bartolome de la Casas
  • By the time that Mexico (Aztecs by Cortes) and
    Peru (Incas by Pizarro) were conquered the
    colonial system of Latin America was already
    established by the Spanish with their exploits in
    the Caribbean!

Paths to Conquest
  • Spanish conquered 2 continents with millions of
    people in less than 2 centuries with small forces
    of only 50-500 Spaniards! (due to disease,
    working with native allies, better technology,
    and manipulation)
  • Crown would give approval for various individual
  • Mexico/ Aztecs Cortes 1519 expedition and by
    1521 he had killed Moctezuma II and captured
    Tenochtitlan (Mexico City). By 1535 most of
    central Mexico was under Spains control. (Aztecs
    had so many enemies due to tribute and human
  • Peru/ Incas 1532 Pizarro and by 1533 Cuzco was
    captured and by 1540 Peru was under Spanish
    control (Incas were in the middle of a civil war
    over succession)
  • In spite Spanish control there were still much
    resistance to Spanish rule Buenos Aires!
  • Franciso Vazquez de Coronado cities of gold
    Kansas (US)

God in the sky, the king of Spain, and me here
  • The Spanish crown received 1/5 of all treasure
    from New Spain (conquered lands). Men got reward
    on a share basis with men with horses or special
    skills getting double shares. Many times more
    reward was based on nepotism with their family
    and friends getting more of the booty. Many of
    the conquistadors were in fact not soldiers
    (female Ines Suarez in Chile)!!!
  • By 1570 conquest was coming to an end and
    bureaucrats, merchants, and colonists came and
    New Spain became a colony with functioning law
    courts and viceroys

Morality of Conquest
  • 1548 Juan Gines de Sepulveda justified
    subjugation because the Spanish were freeing the
    natives from their unjust lords and bring them to
    salvation. Sepulveda argued that the Indians were
    not human and were people that were born to
  • Father Bartolome de Las Casas former conqueror
    and encomendero, Dominican priest, and bishop of
    Chiapas was a critic of Spanish brutality and the
    opposite opinion to Sepulveda. He believed the
    natives rational and not ever done harm to
    Christians so the conquest of their lands was
  • In 1550 the crown suspended all conquests and
    held a special commission to hear arguments for
    and against Sepulveda. Debate was mixed because
    the crown did have reasons to back Casas due to
    the dangerous ambitions of the Spanish
    conquerors! Sepulvedas book was censored, but
    the conquest continued!!! The period of conquest
    was really only until about 1570 so the concern
    literally came too little to late!

Destruction of the Americas
  • Population decline (slavery, disease, cruelty,
    and destruction of native societies)
  • Mexico native population of 25 million in 1519
    and by 1580 the population was less than 2
  • Peru native population of 10 million by 1590 the
    population was only about 1.5 million!!!
  • This overall led to the movement away from the
    encomienda system with its labor grants to taking
    land from natives and starting haciendas and the
    mita system
  • Spaniards would keep aspects of native culture
    that support them and change those that did not.
    However, in spite of the Spanish and high decline
    of power and population the native were able to
    retain much of their culture and even adopted
    parts of Spanish culture that served their needs
  • By the 16th century the Spanish crown banned
    enslaving native other than POWs.

  • Mita system In many native societies commoners
    had to pay a special tax/ tribute of either labor
    or goods.
  • By 1620 the encomienda system was starting to be
    banned by the crown. This is because the crown
    was worried about the rise of a new nobility in
    the Americas. Colonists turned to grants of land
    rather than grants of labor as the basis of
  • The mita system was then used for public projects
    like buildings and mining (much abuse took place
    ? )
  • By 1600 many natives started to flee their
    villages to escape the mita. They moved to cities
    which led to the wage labor system developing in
    the Americas (mines and farms).
  • Native America culture demonstrated great
    resiliency in the face of Spanish institutions
    and forms, adopting and modifying them to
    indigenous ways!

Colonial Economies
  • Basis for the economy was mining and agriculture!
  • Mining and silver of the colonial economy
  • Real riches came during the post-conquest period
    of heavy mining!!!
  • 1545-1565 Mexico and Peru silver discoveries
    Potosi (Peru) 80 of all Peru silver with 160,000
  • 1st Indian slaves
  • 2nd Encomienda system
  • 3rd labor drafts and wage workers
  • Techniques for mining came 1st from natives and
    then from Europe. Importance of mercury in
    mining! Huancavelica, Peru Mercury find! Mining
    stimulated other parts of the economy supported
  • Spanish law subsoil rights to crown, but mines
    and processing plants were owned by individuals
    with with 1/5 of production going to the crown

Villages/ Shipping
  • Farming Spanish ranches
  • Landownership became very important and they way
    to riches. Large family estates, haciendas,
    started to spring up. The aristocracy of New
    Spain was built on this system. Workers on
    haciendas were usually natives or mix of Native/
  • America was self-sufficient, but did important
    luxury items
  • Spain only allowed the New World to take with it
    to protective its economy (mercantilism). All New
    World trade took place through Seville or Cadiz,
    Spain. There was a board of trade which
    controlled the trade. Consulado (merchant guild)
    controlled the goods shipped and sliver received.
    They keep prices pretty high in the colonies!
  • Developed convoy system where 2 fleets traveled
    together to protect themselves against other
    countries and pirates! The ships were galleons
    (heavily armed) and met in the Caribbean to
    exchange goods. There were fortified ports like
    in Havana, Cuba, coast guard fleets to protect
    shipping, galleons, and convoys!

  • Spain used the silver from New Spain to
  • 1 pay for their many wars!
  • 2 pay for debts
  • 3 pay for Chinese goods like silk
  • This flooding of silver led to inflation in Spain
    and in Europe! the poverty of Spain resulted
    from the discovery of the Indies Sancho de

Ruling an Empire
  • Spain controlled New Spain via bureaucratic
  • God King Viceroys
  • Papal Grant 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas - Brazil
    to Portugal and rest to Spain.
  • The King ruled via the Council of the Indies in
    Spain which gave advice and passed laws for New
  • 2 viceroyalities (Mexico City and Lima) with
    viceroys or high ranking nobles who were the
    direct representatives of the King and ruled over
    the lands. The viceroys had military,
    legislative, and even judicial powers!
  • The New World was then subdivided into 10
    judicial divisions controlled by superior courts
    (audiencias) staffed by professional royal
    magistrates who made law and applied it
  • Local level royally appointed magistrates
    applied laws, collected taxes, and assigned work
    of Natives (bended laws). Below them were many
    minor officials
  • Bureaucratic system core was letrados or
    university trained lawyers. By 1681 the laws of
    New Spain were codified (Recopilacion)

Catholic Church
  • Franciscans, Dominicans, and Jesuits carried out
    many of the conversions of Natives and
    established Churches
  • The pope stated the primary reason for Spains
    rule was to Christianize the people so many tried
    to uphold this
  • Some priests became experts in native language
    and histories. Diego de Landa, Bishop of Yucatan
    admired Maya culture but detested the religion so
    much that he burned all their ancient books and
    tortured anyone he suspected of backsliding from
  • Soon missionaries led to the formal Catholic
    Church structure and parishes and bishoprics with
    even archbishops in large cities!
  • Church influenced intellectual life via
    architecture, many books were religious, printing
    press, and universities started by clergy. Sor
    Juana Ines de la Cruz- nun who was a poet,
    thinker, author, and musician. She was
    celebrated, but eventually her superiors asked
    her to focus on only spiritual matters

Brazil Plantation Colony
  • 1500 Pedro Alvares Cabral led an expedition to
    India and stopped in Brazil. The Portuguese
    government paid little attention to Brazil other
    than its dyewood trees. For about 30 years they
    took no action until the French started to
    pressure them. They cleared rivals and began
  • Minor noble were given land along the coast to
    colonize and develop (capitaincies). They had
    feudal like powers but lacked the capital
    necessary for commercial development. Some had
    problems with natives, but overall relations were
  • In 1549 king sent a governor general and other
    officials to create a royal capital in Salvador.
    Missionaries soon left. By 1600 much native
    resistance was broken by the military,
    missionaries, and disease.
  • Growth of sugar plantations with support of
    African slaves began

Sugar and Slaves
  • Brazil leading sugar producer. the cane had to be
    cut and then processed (pressed). The juices were
    heated to form sugar. The process required much
    capital and labor! Turned to African slaves. By
    the end of the 17th century 150,000 slaves were
    in Brazil that made up ½ of the population of the
  • Brazil became the 1st great plantation colony and
    set a model for others
  • Hierarchy of plantation system white planter
    families at the top with African slaves at the
    bottom. There were mixed people who were artisans
    or small farmers as well
  • Portugal also set up the rule of Brazil like
    Spain with a bureaucratic system with a governor
    general who ruled from Salvador and local
    governors (capitaincy). They worked independently
    and reported directly to a council in Portugal.
    Royal official were trained in law like Spain.
    Portugal unlike Spain had posts outside of the
    Americas in Asia and Africa! Brazil was dependent
    on Portugal economically and intellectual unlike
    New Spain!
  • The Catholic Church sent missionaries, Jesuits.
    They had cattle and sugar plantation which
    supported the construction of various churches
    and schools.

Brazils Golden Age
  • For 60 years the Habsburg kings of Spain also
    ruled Portugal (1580-1640). During this time
    there was much cooperation between Spain and
    Portugal as you can imagine.
  • 1630-1654 as part of a global struggle against
    Spain, the Dutch seized some of Brazil and its
    sugar!!! They were expelled the same year
  • By the 1680s the English, Dutch, and French had
    established sugar plantations in the Caribbean
    which drove down sugar prices and up the price of
    African slaves
  • Brazil lost its power over the sugar trade. They
    began to explore the country more led by
    Paulisas. They explored and discovered gold
    mines. This led to a boom and a gold rush!
    1735-1760 3 tons of gold a year were mined making
    Brazil the greatest source of gold in the West.
    The government collected high taxes to control
    the population. Native population suffered as
    they moved deeper into Brazil
  • Rio do Janeiro grew as the closest city to the
    mines and ports. It became the capital in 1763!
  • Again there was a hierarchy (white vs. Africa

Multiracial Societies
  • Mix of Indians, Europeans, and Africans created
    hierarchies of masters, servants, and Christians
    and pagans
  • Mixed groups came from the sexual exploitation of
    Indian and African women. With few European
    women, especially in frontier areas men turned to
    locals as wives, concubines/ mistresses and
    servants. This resulted in a large mixed
    population. Indian and European mestizo while
    African and European mulattos. They were stuck
    in 2 different worlds and never fully accepted as
    equals but higher than natives.
  • Wealth and occupation traditional hierarchies,
    but in the Americas new distinctions of race and
    birth became important sociedad de castas with
    Europeans at the top and black slaves or natives
    at the bottom (mixed in the middle)
  • (new genre of painting just to ID people)
  • People of mixed origins castas (kept
  • Some called themselves mesizo b/c they could
    speak Spanish

  • Whites were always gentleman but not always
    necessarily wealthy. New distinction within
    whites, peninsulares (those born in Spain) vs.
    Creoles (those born in the New World). Were seen
    suspect by peninsulares b/c of the possibility of
    mestizo or illegitimacy! Were wealthy and second
    to peninsulares in rank. Creoles developed their
    own identities which led to the movement for
  • Gender and age under authority of father until
    25. Marriages arranged with dowry. Wealthy women
    unmarried young were sent to convents. Widows
    inherited estates and typically ran them.

Reforms of 18th century
  • New intellectual ideas spread from Europe to the
    New World. This led to reforms (typically
    economic, educational, and philosophical). New
    associations like amigos del pais.
  • Colonial system had become outdated by the 18th
    century with Spains declining population,
    increasing debts, wars, and revolts. With France,
    Holland, and England become increasing rivals.
    (Protestant vs. Catholic)
  • Buccaneers started to raid (no allegiance to any
    country!) and took from Spain
  • The Caribbean islands were taken by other
    nations. England took Jamaica in 1654 while
    France took Hispaniola (Haiti) in 1697. (Other
    island fell too and many turned to sugar)
  • Economy began to fail with fleets not coming as
    much with silver payments declining. More
  • Politically, government got weaker with more
    local aristocrats governing (corruption)

Spain and economy
  • 1702-1713 King Charles II of Spain died without a
    heir. Nations started fighting for Spain and
    claiming the right to rule. Two big contenders
    were Philip of Anjou of the Bourbon family
    (grandson of Louis XIV) and the son of the king
    of Austria. The treaty of Utrecht (1713) ended
    the war with Philip of Anjou on the throne of
    Spain. Legally, Philip opened up Spain to French
    and even to some extend English trade (in
  • Groups or institutions that opposed these reforms
    were punished or expelled like the Jesuits in
    1767 (1759 from Portugal)
  • Spanish Bourbon monarchs like Charles III worked
    to reform Spain to make the state more efficient
    and stronger and better able to direct the
    economy. French bureaucratic models were followed
    and taxation tightened. New viceroyalties were
    created with royal investigators like Jose de
    Galvez who looked for abuses and then helped to
    reform them. Spain moved to end the corregidores
    (local magistrates) and replaced by the French
    system of intendants. Due to loses by other
    nations like England ( 7 Years War Spain allied
    with France) with Florida and Cuba Spain began to
    establish regular troops with even local militia
  • Bourbon reforms led to government monopolies of
    industries like tobacco and gunpowder. Companies
    were given granted if they developed the
    economies of the regions they working within

  • These liberal regulations led to trade expanding
    in the Caribbean
  • Negative side was that as goods from Europe
    became cheaper they competed with locally
    produced goods and many natives were unable to
    compete with the imports
  • Short term reforms improved the Spanish
    government while the long term effects created
    dissatisfaction of elites in the Americas

Pombal and Brazil
  • Marquis of Pombal was the prime minister and led
    the reforms of Brazil along English techniques
    (expel Jesuits, no contraband, smuggling, no tax
    evasion, monopoly companies formed, new crops
    introduced, banned slavery in Portugal so more
    could be imported to Brazil! Reforms to
    strengthen the mother country like Spain.
  • Pombals reforms led to a 20 year boom in Brazil

Reforms, Reactions, Revolts
  • Rapid population growth which led to more
    development and greater demand for American
    products (18th century boom)
  • Changing government including tighter tax
    collecting, reformist policies, and taking powers
    from people led to increasing revolts like the
    Comunero Revolt of 1781 in Columbia occurred and
    were successful. A royal army and viceroy were
    overthrown and the rebels almost took the entire
  • Peru-Tupac Amaru led uprisings until his death
  • Brazil- independence conspiracy and Tiradentes
  • The various colonies had many similar complaints
    by being controlled and limited by their mother
    countries. The 18th century economic boom led to
    confidence as colonists sought to free themselves
    from rule. Yet the racial and social division of
    that society kept them divided and undercut their
    revolutionary movements.

Latin Civilization and the World
  • Within 3 centuries Spain and Portugal created
    very large American empires that supported them
    and were the basis of their power. They expanded
    the world economy and shipped mineral/ metals and
    crops. The colonies adopted the mother countries
    ways and policies / government were established
    to benefit the mother country not the colonies!
    This led to 19th century revolutionary movements
  • Colonies were multiethnic and multiracial drawing
    on native, African, and European ideas
  • Latin America although homogenous was quite
  • Russian and Iberian expansion similar (maritime
    vs. overland)
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