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World History to 1500 A.D.


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Title: World History to 1500 A.D.

World History to 1500 A.D.
  • 2nd Semester SOL Review

What is it
  • It was located on 7 hills, along the Tiber River.
  • It was protected from the north by the Alps.
  • It is a peninsula that extends into the central
    part of the Mediterranean Sea, and thus dominated
    trade in the region.

It is
The Alps Mts.
What is it
  • It was based on its Greek predecessor.
  • It is still used in western literature, art, and
    science such as naming plants and planets, and
    explaining natural phenomena and human behavior
    and events.
  • It had similar figures and characters- and thus
    was polytheistic, but used different names.

It is
Roman Religion
(No Transcript)
Who were they
  • Both groups were citizens- meaning they were
    responsible for paying taxes and serving in the
  • They were the ruling minority, and ruled majority
    in Roman society.

They were
Patricians and Plebeians
Who were they
  • They often exercised power, and were sometimes
    left in charge of the affairs of powerful
  • They were the lowest class in ancient Rome.
  • Their status, as in most ancient societies, was
    not based on race- rather on debt and warfare

They were
  • Slaves

What were they
  • They were the main working components of the
    Roman legislature.
  • They were the upper house of the Roman
    legislature, those who held executive powers,
    and those who represented the masses.
  • They were given the power of the veto, to block
    legislations that they feared would harm those
    they represented.

They were Assemblies,
the Senate, and Consuls
What is it
  • It is the type of government practiced during the
    Roman Republic.
  • It is different in form from the direct democracy
    that was practiced in Greece.
  • It involves voting for someone to make laws for
    you in the legislature.

It is
Representative democracy
What were they
  • They were given to the plebeians by the
    patricians in an effort to ease their demands for
    political power.
  • They were placed in the Forum for all to see, and
    were the defined the rights of citizens in the
    Roman Republic.
  • They are the source from which we draw our ideas
    of equality before the law and innocence until
    proven guilty.

They were
  • The Twelve Tables

What were they
  • They were a series of 3 wars fought from 264 to
    146 B.C.
  • They were fought between Rome and Carthage.
  • Romes victory in these wars resulted in its
    spread of culture, gain of land, and control over
    trade in the Mediterranean Basin.

They were
  • The Punic Wars

Who were we?
  • We were the two generals who fought in the 2nd
    Punic War.
  • One general was from Carthage, and famously
    invaded the Italian Peninsula through the Alps
    using war elephants.
  • The other general was the Roman who decided the
    way to make his adversary leave Rome was to
    attack him down in Carthage.

We were
  • Hannibal and Scipio

What were they
  • They were the underlying cause for the reasons
    why the Roman Republic declined.
  • They were large slave labor farms that put many
    Roman farmers out of business, causing
    unemployment, crime, and crowding in the capital
  • They caused the Roman currency to devaluate
    (loose value).

They were
  • Latifundia

Who was I?
  • Along with Pompey and Crassus, I was one of the
    members of the 1st Triumvirate (rule by three
    leaders) that replaced the republic in Rome.
  • I was a Roman General who became popular with the
    people after conquering Gaul (France), and giving
    land and money to the peasants.
  • Because of my ambition, I was feared and hated by
    the upper classes of Rome, and I eventually
    became the first dictator of Rome.
  • I was murdered on the floor of the Senate, on the
    Ides of March, by my friend Marcus Brutus and
    other Senators who plotted against me.

I was
  • Julius Caesar

Et tu, Brutae?
Who was I?
  • Following the murder of Julius Caesar, I defeated
    Marcus Brutus and then Marc Anthony for power.
  • I established the Roman Empire by instituting a
    civil service, rule by law, a common coinage, and
    secure travel throughout the empire.
  • I was once known as Octavian.

I was
  • Augustus Caesar

What was it
  • It included Northern Africa (from the Punic Wars
    and from Augustus defeat of Marc Anthony, the
    Middle East, Gaul, Spain, Asia Minor, The
    Hellenistic Empire of Alexander, and parts of
    Germania and Britain.
  • It was secured using the powerful army of Rome,
    although it became too expensive to maintain.
  • It eventually collapsed due to devaluation of
    currency, foreign invasion, changes in the
    military, and failure to find a peaceful way to
    change emperors.

It was
  • The Roman Empire

What was it
  • Beginning under Augustus Caesar, it was
    administered by a huge civil service that
    provided for the needs of the people of Rome.
  • It was characterized by peace, prosperity,
    stability in the social classes, expansion of
    trade and culture, and a uniform rule of law.
  • It lasted 200 years, and literally means the
    Peace of Rome.

It was
  • The Pax Romana

What was it
  • It gave birth to all the romance languages
    (Spanish, French, Italian, etc)
  • It was the language of Rome.

It was
  • Latin

This says If you can read this, you are
Roman Architecture you need to know about for the
The Colosseum- home of brutal gladiatorial games
and execution of Christians.
The Pantheon from pan meaning all and theos
meaning gods.
The Forum- the Roman government and religious
center. Where the 12 Tables were placed.
Roman Technology you need to know about for the
Roman Arches provides strength for the
structure while using less building materials.
Roman aqueducts that carried fresh water into
Rome, and are still in use today.
All weather roads - such as the Appian Way.
Who was I
  • Although I was a Roman citizen, I was from Egypt,
    which was then a part of the Roman Empire.
  • I was the most prominent Roman scientist and
  • I came up with the geocentric theory or earth
    centered theory of the universe, which would be
    the prominent idea of the universe until the

I was
  • Ptolemy

What were they
  • They were proof that hygiene was important to the
  • They included technology as well as studies.

They were
  • Medical schools, public baths, and public water
    systems brought in by aqueducts.

Who was I
  • I am considered by many to be the composer of
    Romes greatest work of literature.
  • My work was about a Prince of Rome (Aeneas) who
    had a tragic love with a Princess of Carthage
  • My work was called the Aeneid.

I was
  • Virgil

What is it?
  • It occurred during the middle of the Roman Empire
    in the province of Judea.
  • It is the event around which modern time is
  • It was the event that marked the beginning of a
    new Jewish sect in the middle east that would
    become one of the biggest religions in the world.

It is
  • The Birth of Jesus of Nazareth

What was it
  • It conflicted with the polytheistic religion of
    the Roman Empire.
  • It had its roots in Judaism.
  • It was centered around the belief that a Messiah
    or savior had come to redeem the souls of man.

It is
  • Christianity

Key beliefs of Christianity you must know for the
SOL -monotheism -Jesus as God, son of God, and
man -life after death -New Testament contains
account of Jesus life and his teachings -Christia
n doctrine (official beliefs) was established by
early church counsels
What was it
  • It was carried by Apostles, like Paul, throughout
    the Roman Empire.
  • Roman persecution, designed to slow it down,
    ended up creating martyrs.
  • It was eventually adopted as the official
    religion of Rome.

It was
  • The Spread of Christianity

Saul of Tarsus who became St. Paul- Author of the
What was it
  • It was issued in 330 A.D.
  • It was issued by the Emperor Constantine.
  • It was the law/proclamation that legalized
    Christianity in the Roman Empire.

It was
  • The Edict of Milan

What was it
  • It became an example of moral authority in the
    late Roman Empire, and after its fall.
  • It was the first and only church in Western
    Christendom for the first 1500 years of
  • After the fall of Rome, loyalty to it became more
    important than loyalty to the government.
  • It became the unifying force of Western Europe,
    under the Pope (Bishop of Rome).

It was
  • The Roman Catholic Church

Why did it happen
  • The Fall of Rome

It happened because
  • Economic reasons- the cost of defense and
    devaluation of Roman currency.
  • Military reasons- Army membership started to
    include invaders and discipline broke down.
  • Moral decay- peoples loss of faith in Rome and
    the breakdown of the family unit.
  • Political reasons- civil conflict and weak/ crazy
  • Invasions

(No Transcript)
Who am I
  • I was the Emperor of Rome who moved the capital
    of the Empire to the Greek City of Byzantium, and
    then named it after myself.
  • I was the first to legalize Christianity with the
    Edict of Milan.

I am
  • Constantine the Great

What was it
  • It was located in Greece along the Bosporus
    Strait between the Mediterranean and Black Seas
  • It was once the Greek city of Byzantium.
  • It became the new Capital of the Roman Empire in
    the 300s AD.
  • One of its greatest accomplishments was the
    preservation of Greek and Roman works of
    knowledge and literature.

It was
  • Constantinople

Who was I
  • I was a Byzantine Orthodox Christian missionary.
  • I spread Orthodox Christianity to the Russians
  • I created the Cyrillic Alphabet, still used in
    Russia and Eastern Europe today, in order to aid
    their conversion.

I was
  • Saint Cyril

What were they
  • They were the reason(s) The Byzantine Empire was
    influential in Eastern Europe and Russia.
  • They ran between the Black and Baltic Seas, and
    the Black and Mediterranean Seas.

They were
  • trade routes

Black Sea to Baltic Sea trade route
Constantinople - along the Bosporus Strait
Med Sea to Black Sea trade route
Who was I
  • I expanded trade in the Byzantine Empire.
  • I re-conquered Roman lands lost to barbarian
  • I codified Roman Law (Corpus Jurius Civillis)
  • My wife, Theodora was one of my closest advisors,
    despite her questionable background.

I was
  • Justinian

Byzantine mosaic depicting the Emperor Justinian
and his wife Theodora.
What is it
  • It was destroyed during the Nika Riot, and
    rebuilt by the Emperor Justinian.
  • It was the domed Byzantine church of holy
  • It was considered so beautiful by the invading
    Muslims, that it was made into a mosque, and
    future mosques were built to resemble it.

It is
  • The Hagia Sophia

What were they
  • They an art form that combined eastern and
    western influences.
  • They were created using small pieces of colored
    pottery or glass put together into a larger
  • They often told stories or depicted historic
    events and figures.

They were
  • mosaics

What was it
  • Use of these was a major reason for the split
    between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox
  • They often took the form of statues, mosaics,
    pictures, etc.
  • It was a depiction of a religious figure or event.

It was
  • an Icon

What was it?
  • It was the first major split within Christianity.
  • It was a split between the Popes Roman Catholic
    Church and the Patriarchs Eastern Orthodox
  • The split occurred over the use of icons, the
    marriage of priests,

It was
  • The Schism

Roman Catholic Church -Pope (Bishop of Rome) was
head of church and dominated politics. -no
marriage for priests (celibacy) -use of
icons -uses Latin in liturgy (church services)
Eastern Orthodox Church -Patriarch (Bishop of
Constantinople) was head of church but dominated
by the Emperor. -marriage for priests (not
celibate) -no use of icons -uses Greek in liturgy
(church services)
Who am I
  • I am from the Saudi Arabian Peninsula.
  • I was driven from my home city of Mecca, to the
    city of Medina, but returned in triumph to Mecca.
  • I received a revelation from the Angel Gabriel
    sent from Allah, and became the prophet of Islam.

I am
  • Muhammad

What is it
  • It is one of the three major monotheistic
    religions that accepts the Judeo-Christian
    prophets, such as Moses and Jesus.
  • It originated on the Arabian Peninsula, in the
    city of Mecca- approximately 622 AD.
  • It is based on the revelations of the Prophet
    Muhammad-and its followers are called Muslims-
    literally meaning, one who submits to Allah.

It is
  • Islam

What is it
  • It is composed of versus called surahs.
  • The word literally means recitation.
  • It is the holy book of Islam.

It is
  • The Holy Koran (also spelled Quran)

What are they
  • They are Shahadah, Salah, Saum, Zakah, and Hajj.
  • They include a declaration of faith, alms to the
    poor, prayer 5x a day, fasting during Ramadan,
    and a pilgrimage to Mecca.

They are
  • The Five Pillars of Islam

Declaration of Faith, Fasting for Ramadan,
Prayer 5X A Day, Alms to the
poor, Pilgrimage to Mecca
What is it
  • It is a uniting force for Muslims worldwide.
  • It was the language in which Muhammad received
    the revelation from Allah.
  • It is the language of the Holy Koran.

It is
  • Arabic

What are they
  • They are groups based on who Muslims chose to
    follow following the death of Muhammad.
  • It is divided into two sects, one more moderate,
    and one more fundamental.
  • One group believe that the successor of Muhammad
    must be a direct descendent of his daughter and
    son in law who were divinely inspired by Allah
    (fundamentalists), one believes that Muhammads
    successor can be anybody because he is only a
    religious leader (moderate).

They are
  • Shia and Sunni Muslims

Light Green Sunni Muslims (moderate)Dark Green
Shia Muslim (fundamentalist)
What was it
  • It was the result of cultural diffusion.
  • It was the result of the weakening and eventual
    fall of the Byzantine Empire.
  • It moved into the Fertile Crescent, Iran, and
    Central Asia although a united Muslim Empire was
    short lived.

It was
  • The spread of Islam

What was it
  • It was a battle that was fought in 732 AD.
  • The victorious forces in the battle were led by
    Charles The Hammer Martel.
  • It was the battle in which the spread of Islam
    into Europe was halted.

It was
  • The Battle of Tours

Who am I
  • I was king of the Franks, and grandson of Charles
    The Hammer Martel.
  • On Christmas Eve in the year 800 AD, I was
    crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope. Thus, I
    formed an alliance between the Pope and the
    Frankish kings, that made the Pope a political
    power in Western Europe.
  • I sought to revive the glory of the Roman Empire.
  • I am also known as Charles the Great.

I am
  • Charlemagne

What was it
  • It was the result of a need for protection from
    invasion during the Medieval period.
  • It was based on a relationship between landowning
    lords, those who they gave land (or fiefs) to,
    who became their vassals, those who provided
    protection (knights), and those peasant laborers/
    farmers who were bound to the land (serfs).
  • It entailed obligations (or duties) that each
    member of the system exchanged, called feudal
    obligations, or feudal duties.

It was
  • The Feudal System (Feudalism)

What were they
  • They were a part of the Roman Catholic Church
    that preserved the classical heritage of Greece
    and Rome.
  • Through reading and writing Latin, they sent out
    missionaries to convert Germanic Tribes.
  • They were one of the main reasons the Catholic
    Church grew in importance during the Medieval

They were
  • Monasteries

What was it
  • It was a system that became popular and necessary
    during the Medieval period in Europe.
  • It was a totally self sufficient system.
  • It was based on a rigid class structure.

It was
  • The Manorial System (a.k.a. The
    Feudal Manor)

What were we
  • Our invasions disrupted the social, economic, and
    political order of Europe.
  • We came from Scandinavia, Central Asia, and
    continental Europe.
  • We settled in Russia, Hungary, and England.

We were
  • The Angles and Saxons (from
    continental Europe to England)
  • The Magyars (from Central Asia to Hungary)
  • and
  • The Vikings (from Scandinavia to Russia)

What were they
  • They were carried out by Western European
    political and religious leaders.
  • They ended up weakening the power of the Pope and
    nobles, and increasing the power of Monarchs.
  • They were an unsuccessful effort to take control
    of the Holy Land from the Muslims.

They were
  • The Crusades

Big Results of the Crusades that you MUST KNOW
for the SOL Test!
  • They increased demand for Middle Eastern products
    (spices and textiles), and it stimulated
    production of goods to trade in the Middle
    Eastern markets.
  • The Catholic Church changed its idea about the
    usury / charging interest, and stimulated banking
    and credit to begin trade.
  • Arabic numerals were introduced to the west along
    with new banking practices.

Who was I
  • I was the leader of the Roman Catholic Church in
    a time when Muslim invasions conquered many parts
    of Asia, and limited trade opportunities for the
  • I referred to Islam as an accursed race.
  • I was the Pope who called for the 1st Crusade-
    saying that it was Gods will.

I was
  • Pope Urban II

Who were we
  • We were an Asiatic group of nomadic warriors.
  • We invaded Russia, China, and Muslim states in
    Southwest Asia destroying cities and creating an
  • We rode war ponies that were our food source as
    well as a means of carrying supplies and serving
    as transportation, and were rarely defeated in
    combat. However we were tamed by the religion of

We were
  • The Mongols

The Mongol Empire
Who was I
  • I was one of the greatest Muslim Sultans in the
    history of the Arab world- I was portrayed in the
    movie Kingdom of Heaven.
  • I was the leader who confronted King Richard the
    Lionhearted when he went on crusade to the Holy
  • The west lost Jerusalem to me.

I was
  • Saladin (the Great)

Saladin confronts Richard the Lionhearted
What was it
  • It was largely unexpected, as the victim of the
    crime had protected the one who committed it for
  • It was largely a result of the failure of the
    crusades to free the holy land, and the failure
    to gain money and riches.
  • It weakened Constantinople to the point where it
    was vulnerable to invasion and conquest.

It was
  • The Sack of Constantinople (by
    Western Christian Crusaders)

Who were we
  • We were a Muslim group that came from Asia Minor/
  • We changed the name of Constantinople to
    Istanbul, and made it the capital of our empire.
  • We conquered the Byzantine Empire in 1453.

They were
  • The Ottoman Turks

Who was I
  • I invaded England, won a victory at the Battle of
    Hastings in 1066.
  • I was the leader of the Norman Conquest of
  • I united most of England under my rule.

I was
  • William the Conqueror (a.k.a. William of

What was it
  • It started when France attempted to confiscate
    the English territories located in Southwestern
    France. It ended when the French finally expelled
    the English from the continent.
  • It was a series of Wars fought from 1337 until
    1453- it saw many changes of the map of Europe,
    and control of land on the continent.
  • It defined England and France as NATIONS.

It was
  • The Hundred Years War

Who was I
  • I was a unifying factor for the French, who
    finally kicked the British off of our lands.
  • I was a small girl who claimed divine inspiration
    from God I led the French army to victory.
  • I was eventually burned at the stake.

I was
  • Joan of Arc

What was it
  • It was signed by King John in 1215, and literally
    means Great charter.
  • It was forced on the king by his nobles.
  • It was the first attempt of a nation-state to
    limit the power of its monarch (king).

It was
  • The Magna Carta

Who was I
  • I was the Russian Ruler who threw off the rule of
    the Mongols.
  • I centralized power in Moscow, and expanded
    Russian power.
  • It was my grandson, whom many people called Ivan
    the Terrible who became the first czar of Russia.

I was
  • Ivan the Great (Ivan III)

Ivan the Great expels the Mongols from Russia,
and centralizes power in Moscow.
Who was I
  • I established the French throne in Paris.
  • I eventually expanded my royal power over the
    rest of France from Paris.
  • I established a hereditary dynasty of French
    kings called the Capetians, or Capetian Dynasty.

I was
  • Hugh Capet

What was it
  • It spread in 1347.
  • It resulted in decline in population, decline in
    trade, scarcity of labor, people being freed from
    feudal obligations, and disruption of trade.
  • It was also know as the Bubonic Plague.

It was
  • The Black Death

Who were they
  • They translated Greek and Arabic works into
  • They were responsible for new knowledge in
    philosophy, medicine and science in Europe.
  • They were among the few people who could read or
    write during the Middle Ages, and they laid the
    foundation for the rise of universities in Europe.

They were
  • Church scholars/ monks

Big Results of the Crusades that you MUST KNOW
for the SOL Test!-Again, because it is important!
  • They increased demand for Middle Eastern products
    (spices and textiles), and it stimulated
    production of goods to trade in the Middle
    Eastern markets.
  • The Catholic Church changed its idea about the
    usury / charging interest, and stimulated banking
    and credit to begin trade.
  • Arabic numerals were introduced to the west along
    with new banking practices.

What was it
  • It was a movement that began in Northern Italian
    port cities (who had contact with the Middle East
    through trade) and spread to the rest of Europe.
  • It was a movement to revive the ancient teachings
    and art forms of the Ancient Greeks and Romans.
  • It involved humanism, or the idea that people
    were good, and could help their own redemption
    and salvation. Thus it emphasized humanistic
    themes, not just religious ones, as in the Middle

It was
  • The Renaissance

Who was I
  • I wrote a book during the Renaissance for my
    patron, in which I discuss rulers gaining and
    keeping power.
  • I advise leaders to do good if possible, but
    also to do evil when necessary.
  • My book, The Prince, supported the idea of
    absolute power and the end justifying the means
    my name became the root for a word that means
    leadership by any means necessary.

I was
  • Niccolo Machiavelli

Who was I
  • I was a Renaissance humanist, artist, painter,
    scholar. Many considered me the ultimate
    renaissance man.
  • I was persecuted by the Catholic Church for
    sodomy and necromancy (worship of the dead)
    despite being one of its greatest artists.
  • I painted the Mona Lisa, and The Last Supper.

I was
  • Leonardo da Vinci

Who was I
  • I was a contemporary of Leonardo da Vinci, yet
    was darker in my themes besides, I thought of
    myself more as a sculptor than a painter.
  • I painted biblical scenes on the ceiling of the
    Sistine Chapel for my patron, Pope Julius II.
  • I sculpted the David of Florence.

I was
  • Michelangelo

Who was I
  • I was an Italian poet who lived from 1304-1374.
  • I wrote sonnets and other humanist scholarship,
    or works that celebrated man and human topics.
  • Many consider me the father of humanism.

I was
  • Francisco Petrarch

True, we love life, not
because we are used to living,
but because we are used to
loving. There is always some madness in
love, but there is also always some reason in
madness. -Petrarch
Where was it
  • The Renaissance spread from Italy, with themes of
    humanism, to here.
  • The themes of the Renaissance shifted to reform
    of religion when it spread to here.
  • Movable type, invented by Gutenberg, made this
    the logical place for the Renaissance to spread

It was
  • Northern Europe

Who was I
  • I was a Dutch teacher and theologian.
  • I was exiled for poking fun at the Church,
    although I called for church reform, rather than
    doing away with the church.
  • I wrote In Praise of Folly (1511).

I was
  • Erasmus

Who was I
  • I was the Archbishop of Canterbury, who
    criticized Henry VIII for his behaviors, and was
    later assassinated for it.
  • I wrote a book about a perfect society.
  • My book was called Utopia.

I was
  • Sir Thomas More

What were they
  • They were 3 ancient kingdoms in the Americas.
    They were whipped out by disease and colonization
    when Europeans came in the late 1400s and early
  • They were known for pyramidal architecture and
    agricultural advancements.
  • They were robbed of massive amounts of gold and
    silver by the Spanish Conquistadores.

They were
  • The Maya (Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico),
  • The Aztec (Central Valley of Mexico),
  • and the Inca (Andes Mountains in Peru).
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