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A Brief History of English

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A Brief History of English OE(Old English) : 7th C 1100 ME(Middle English): 1100 1500 Early ModE(Modern English): 1500 1800 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A Brief History of English


1
A Brief History of English
  • OE(Old English) 7th C 1100
  • ME(Middle English) 1100 1500
  • Early ModE(Modern English) 1500 1800
  • ModE 1800 -
    present

2
OE ME Early ModE
ModE
  • 597 1066 1400 1500 1600
    1800 1884 1941-5
  • Germanic Movement

  • Caxton

  • The Great Vowel Shift
  • Conversion
    Shakespeare
  • Norman Conquest

  • the King James Version of the Bible(1611)

  • Chaucer Samuel Johnson

  • Wordsworth

  • Oxford English
    Dic.


  • World War II

3
Indo-European Language Family(B.C. 3-4,000)
  • Eastern Germanic (Satem) ? Slavic, Indo-Iranian
  • Western Germanic (Centum)
  • ? Celtic
  • Greek
  • Latin
  • Germanic (B.C. 1000)
  • ? N. (Danish, Norwegian, Swedish)
  • E. (Gothic, Vandalic)
  • W. ? Low German (English, Dutch,
    Flemish, Frisian)
  • High German (German)

4
Grimms Law High German Consoanant
Shift

(Germanic Consonant Shift)
(2nd Germanic Consonant Shift)
  • dh ? d vd. stop
  • d ? t ? vl
  • t ? th
  • bh ? b
  • b ? p
  • p ? f vl. stop
  • gh ? g ?fricative
  • g ? k
  • k ? h
  • p ? f
  • t ? z
  • t ? s
  • k ? x
  • d ? t
  • e.g., water ? Wasser
  • better ? besser
  • book ? buch
  • bed ? Bett

5

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6
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7
1. Celtic B.C. 2,000? Europe?? ???? ?? (B.C. 7C
A.D. 3C)
  • B.C. 6C? ? ??? Celts? ? Scots, Picts, Briton
  • ?? Gaelic, Goidelic ? Scotland, Ireland ??
  • Cymric, Brython ? Wales ??
  • Kent, London, Cornwall, York,
    Winchester,
  • Lichfield ? ??? ?? ??? ??.
  • Britain, Britannia? ?? Celtic??.
  • England Land of the Angles

8
2. Latin (B.C. 55 A.D. 450) Roman Empire,
Roman Civilization
  • B.C. 55-54 Caesar's invasion of Britain
  • A.D. 43? (The Roman Conquest)
  • Claudius?? ? Roman
    Empire?
  • ????
    ???
  • A.D. 410? Rome? ??? ??? Latin ??
  • Kettle, wine, cheese, butter, cheap, plum, gem,
    bishop, church, etc.
  • 597? Conversion to Christianity(???? ?? ) ??? ???
    ????? Latin? ??? ???? ?? ? ?? ??? ???? ??? 597?
    ?????.

9
3. The Teutonic Conquest (the Germanic
settlement)
  • 449-6C? The invasions by the Jutes, Saxons, and
    Angles
  • the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy Kent, Essex,
    Wessex, Sussex

  • East Anglia, Mercia, Northumbria
  • Center of the civilization
  • Kent ? Northumbria ? Mercia ? Wessex (the great
    Alfred until 899)
  • 597? (Conversion to Christianity) St. Augustine
    at Canterbury
  • 675-725 Beowulf (epic poem of the Old English)
  • 731 Bede, Historia Ecclesiatica Gentis Anglorum
  • (Ecclesiastical History of
    the English People) in Latin

10
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11
4. The Viking Age
  • 787-1042 Raid of the Teutonic inhabitants of
  • the Scandinavian peninsula and
    Denmark
  • 877 the Danelaw
  • (Treaty of Alfred and Guthrum
  • the Treaty of Wedmore from
    Chester to London)
  • sky, give, law, egg, outlaw, leg, ugly, scant,
    sly, crawl, scowl, take, thrust, they, their,
    them, etc.
  • 1017 Cnute, king of Denmark, obtained the
  • throne of England
  • 1042-66 Edward the Confessor

12
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13
5. The Norman Conquest
  • 1066 William I (duke of Normandy)
  • defeated the English (Harold)
  • in the great battle of Hastings.
  • In the 1040s King Edward (later St.
    Edward the Confessor), last of the Anglo-Saxon
    kings, established his royal palace (Westminster
    Palace) by the banks of the river Thames on land
    known as Thorney Island.

14
Westminster Palace, London
15
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16
French Borrowings
  • Government words parliament, majesty, treaty,
    alliance,
  • tax,
    government
  • Church words parson, sermon, baptism, incense,
    crucifix,
  • religion
  • Words for foods veal, beef, mutton, bacon,
    jelly, peach,
  • lemon, cream,
    biscuit
  • Colors blue, scarlet, vermilion,
  • Household words curtain, chair, lamp, towel,
    blanket, parlor
  • Play words dance, chess, music, leisure,
    conversation
  • Literary words story, romance, poet, literary
  • Learned words study, logic, grammar, noun,
    surgeon,
  • anatomy, stomach
  • Ordinary words nice, second, very, age, bucket,
    gentle, final,
  • fault, flower, cry, count,
    sure, move, surprise, plain

17
Westminster Abbey
18
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19
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20
  • 1204 King John? ??? ??? ???
  • Normandy ?? ??
  • 1337-1453 Edward III ?? ??? ??.
  • France? One Hundred Years'
    War
  • the disuse of French
  • (??? inflectional forms ??)
  • 1348-69 The Black Death

21
  • 1350-69 English began to be used in the
    schools
  • 1387-1400 Geoffrey Chaucer, The Canterbury
    Tales
  • (??? prose)
  • 1455-1485 30?? The Wars of the Roses
  • (York vs.
    Lancaster)
  • York white roses Edward III,
    IV, Richard III)
  • Lancaster red roses Henry IV, V, VI
  • 1486? Henry VII? Edward IV? ?? ???? ??
  • Henry VIII, Tudor ??? ??

  • (Elizabeth I ?? 1558-1603 )
  • 1475 The first introduction of printing
  • by William Caxton.

22
Early Modern English
  • 1) Elimination of a vowel sound in certain
    unstressed positions
  • name, stone, wine, dance
  • laughed, seemed, stored
  • 2) The Great Vowel Shift
  • wine vs. mean
  • he vs. hey
  • mouse vs. moose
  • moon vs. moan

23
The Great Vowel Shift(? ????)
24
Examples Shift
  • ME ModE
    ME ModE
  • mice mis ? mays i
    ? ay
  • mouse mus ?maws u ?
    aw
  • geese ges ? gis
    e ? i
  • goose gos ? gus
    o ? u
  • break breken ? brek e ?
    e
  • broke br?ken ? brok ? ?
    o
  • name nam? ? nem a ?
    e

25
6. The Early Modern English Period (1500 1800)
  • Four World-shaking Events
  • the Renaissance
  • from Italy to Europe (1500-1650)
  • Rebirth of Ancient Learning
  • Classical Latin
    (B.C. 75 A.D. 175)
  • Cicero, Horace,
    Caesa, Quintillian etc.

26
ii) the Reformation (16C)
  • Martin Luther (1483-1536)
  • ????,
  • ????? the Protestant Episcopal Church
  • (the English Church)?
  • 1525 Tyndale, New Testament
  • (the 1st English
    from Greek text)
  • ??? ????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ? ? ???.
  • colloquial English prose style ???? ?? ??,

  • ???? ??

27
iii) the invention of Printing
  • William Caxton, the 1st person to introduce
  • a printing press into England, set up a
  • press in Westminster in 1476.

28
iv) the discovery of America
  • 1400-1600 The Great Vowel Shift
  • 1564-1616 William Shakespeare,
  • 38 plays and
    poems
  • 1561-1626 Francis Bacon, Essays
  • 1573-1637 Ben(jamin) Jonson,
  • Every Man in his
    Humour (1600)
  • 1608-74 John Milton, Paradise Lost
    (1667)

29
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30
  • 1653-58 Restoration ????
  • Cromwell(1599-1658)? ????? ??,
  • ???? ???? Charles II ??
  • 1660-1798 the Enlightenment (????)
  • (the Age of Reason ??????)
  • ?? ??? ??, ????? ??

  • Newton(1642-1727)

31
  • Latin, Greek terminologies
  • pedestrian, bonus, anatomy, contradict,
  • climax, dictionary, benefit, multiply,
  • exist, paragraph, initiate, scene, inspire,
  • etc.

32
7. The Modern English Period (1800 )
  • 1775 Samuel Johnson (Dr. Johnson)
  • A Dictionary of the English
    Language
  • Wordsworth (1770-1850),
  • Blake(1757-1827),
  • Keats(1795-1821)
  • Shelley(1792-1822), etc.
  • 1837-1901 Queen Victoria
  • 1857-1884 Oxford English Dictionary

33
The 20th C
  • World War I, II
  • American English
  • Webster's Dictionary
  • Karl Mark(1818-83)
  • Sigmund Freud(1856-1939)
  • Albert Einstein(1879-1955)
  • new intellectual environment

34
The 21st C
  • Bill Gates, IT industry, Generative Grammar
  • Cloning, DNA, Dooley, stemcell
  • avant garde, rock/rap music, CEO, plastic surgery
  • PC, e-mail, chatting, cellular phone,
  • digital camera, chip, 3G, etc.
  • mp3, usb, notebook, computer, Wi-Fi,
  • website, blog/web-blog, H1N1/swine flu
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