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Chapter 12 Mongol Eurasia and Its Aftermath, 1200-1500


Chapter 12 Mongol Eurasia and Its Aftermath, 1200-1500 AP World History Ivan the Terrible First Russian prince to fight the Golden Horde. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 12 Mongol Eurasia and Its Aftermath, 1200-1500

Chapter 12Mongol Eurasia and Its
AP World History
I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200-1600
  • A. Nomadism in Central and Inner Asia
  • Mongols were strongly hierarchical.
  • Mongols had complex federations tied to together
    by marriage alliances.
  • Their seasonal movements brought them into
    contact with all types of religions.
  • They accepted religious pluralism.
  • Mongol khans were thought to represent the Sky

Mongol empire Largest land empire ever created
(from Korea to Poland)
Mongol empire Largest land empire ever created
(from Korea to Poland)
  • B. The Mongol Conquests, 1215-1283
  • Genghis Khan conquered Northern China.
  • The khanates of the Golden Horde, Jagadai, and
    the Il-Khans all swore allegiance to Genghis.
  • When Kublai Khan took over, the Jagadai Khan
    refused to accept him.
  • Kublai established the Yuan empire and in 1279 he
    conquered the Southern Song.
  • The Mongols were able to conquer a vast amount of
    territory because of their superior horsemanship,
    better bows, technique of following a volley of
    arrows with a cavalry charge, using non-Mongol
    soldiers, reputation for slaughtering those who
    would not surrender, and their ability to take
    advantage of rivalries among their enemies.

Genghis Khan Founder of the Mongol empire.
Khubilai Khan (Grandson of Genghis) finished the
conquest of China, created the Yuan dynasty,
claimed the title of Great Khan, assumed
supremacy over the other Mongol khanates.
Mongols fighting the Russians at the Battle of
the Kalka River. Ended Kievan Russia rule of
modern day Russia.
After the death of Genghis, the empire splits
into the four different Khanates Great Khan,
Golden Khan, Il-Khan, Jagadai
Modern day reenactment of Mongol warriors.There
was no infantry.
Most Mongols were expert horse archers. Asian
bow was more superior could shoot 1/3 farther
than their enemies bows.
Mongols carried 5 dozen arrows into battle and
rarely used them all.
Mongols fighting the Teutonic Knights in Germany.
Ogodei dies and the Mongols return to China to
elect a new Khan.
  • C. Overland Trade and Plague
  • Mongol conquests opened overland trade routes and
    brought commercial integration of Eurasia.
  • Disease including the bubonic plague spread among
    the world.

Route of Marco Polo along the reopened Silk Road.
He stimulated the European desire to explore the
Illustration of the spread of the Bubonic Plague
which originated in southwestern China. Mongols
and flea infested rats carried it along trade
(No Transcript)
The effects of the Bubonic Plague.
II. The Mongols and Islam, 1260-1500
  • A. Mongol Rivalry
  • In the 1260s the Il-Khan Mongols murdered the
    Abbasid Caliph because of religious differences.
  • Batu Khan of the Golden Horde in Russia,
    converted to Islam and vowed to attack the
    Il-Khan region.
  • Europeans attempted to help the non-Muslim
    Il-Khans repel the Golden Horde Mongols, but the
    Il-Khan ruler Ghazan became a Muslim in 1295.

The Il-Khan ruler Ghazan studying the Quran.
  • B. Islam and the State
  • The goal of the Il-Khan state was to collect as
    much tax revenue as possible.
  • The tax farming system was able to deliver large
    taxes, but over taxation led to inflation and a
    severe economic crisis.
  • Attempts to solve this crisis involved using
    paper money, but depression lasted until 1349
    when the Golden Horde destroyed the Il-Khan
  • As the Golden Horde and the Il-Khan empires
    declined in the 14th century, Timur built the
    Jagadai Khanate and his descendents, the
    Timurids, ruled the Middle East for several

Il-Khan gold coin during the time of Ghazan.
The Jagadai Khanate rose in the 14th century with
the decline of the Golden Horde and the
Il-Khan.(modern day Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan)
Timur built the Jagadai Khanate. Ethnically he
was a Turk, not a Mongol, so he could not be
Timurs Jagadai Khanate (1365 - 1405)
  • C. Culture and Science in Islamic Eurasia
  • Juvaini wrote the first comprehensive work of the
    rise of the Mongols under Genghis Khan.
  • Rashid al-Din published a history of the world.
  • Muslims under Mongol leadership made great
    strides in astronomy, calendar making, and the
    predication of eclipses.
  • Devised decimal fractions, calculated the value
    of pi, and had a significant effect on the
    development of European science and mathematics.

Mongols were not only great conquers, they
allowed their subjects to pursue intellectual
Muslim historian, Rashid al-Dins, history of the
world Included history of Europe and China.
Under Mongol leadership, the Muslim scholar Nasir
al-Din made great strides in astronomy small
circles rotating within a large circle.
III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia
  • A. Russia and Rule from Afar
  • The Golden Horde used Russian princes to tax the
    people and kept the Orthodox Church in place.
  • Favored Prince Alexander of Novogorod because he
    had aided in the Mongol conquest of Russia.
  • Moscow emerged as the new center of the Russian
  • Structure of government did not change under
    Mongol rule.
  • In 1480 Ivan III, the prince of Moscow, ended
    Mongol rule and adopted the title of Tsar.

Prince Alexander Nevskii of Novogorod allied with
the Mongols because Russia would be destroyed if
he resisted, essentially saving Russia. (right -
example of Russian man at arms)
Depiction of Russian Prince Alexander Nevskii
preparing for battle against the German
Teutonics in the 1930s Russian film of the same
name. (Propaganda)
Christian church in Moscow.
Ivan the Terrible First Russian prince to
fight the Golden Horde. He adopted the title of
  • B. New States in Eastern Europe and Anatolia
  • Europe was divided and the states of Hungary and
    Poland faced Mongol attacks alone.
  • Mongol armies drove to the outskirts of Vienna,
    but withdrew in 1241 because they needed to elect
    a successor to he deceased Khan Ogodei.
  • Europeans then initiated a variety of diplomatic
    and trade overtures toward the Mongols.

  • Mongol invasions and the bubonic plague caused
    Europeans to question their religious beliefs.
  • After Mongol power began to wane in the 13th and
    14th centuries, strong centralized states such as
    Lithuania and the Balkan Kingdoms began to assert
    their control over their neighbors.
  • Anatolia functioned as a route by which Islamic
    culture spread to Europe.
  • The Ottomans were kept in check by the Timurids,
    but expanded eastward and conquered
    Constantinople in 1453.

Ottoman Turks under Mehmet II on his way to
conquer the Byzantine empire. (notice the 2-ton
Mehmet II enters Constantinople victorious.
IV. Mongol Domination in China, 1271-1368
  • A. The Yuan Empire, 1279-1368
  • Kublai Khan practiced Chinese traditions of
  • Unified the Tanggut, Jin, and Southern Song
  • Made innovations of tax farming, Western Asian
    Muslims as officials, legally defined status
    groups, status of merchants and doctors was
    elevated, and Confucians lowered.
  • Chinas cities and ports prospered, trade
    recovered, and merchants flourished.
  • Chinese population dropped as much as 40,
    probably because of the spread of disease,
    warfare, infanticide, and the flooding of the
    Yellow River.

Mongols unified the Tanggut, Jin, and Song
empires into the Yuan dynasty. (unified China as
we know it)
Example of early weaponry using of gunpowder.
  • B. Cultural and Scientific Exchange
  • China imported Il-Khan science and technology.
  • Il-Khans imported Chinese scholars and texts.
  • Iranian astronomical knowledge, algebra,
    trigonometry, Islamic and Persian medical texts,
    seeds, and formulas were brought to China.

  • C. The Fall of the Yuan Empire
  • Chinese leader Zhu Yuanzhang overthrew the
    Mongols and established the Ming Empire.
  • The Mongols still held Central Eurasia and were
    able to disrupt overland trade to threaten the
  • The Ming were also threatened by the Jurchens

Ming dynasty began after the Yuan fell and the
Mongols were expelled.
Zhu Yuanzhang overthrew the Mongols and
established the Ming Empire.
The Early Ming Empire,1368-1500
  • A. Ming China on a Mongol Foundation
  • Zhu Yuanzhang made great efforts to reject the
    culture of the Mongols, close off trade relations
    with Central Asia and the Middle East and
    reestablish Confucian ideology.
  • The Ming still used hereditary professional
    categories, the Mongol calendar, and Beijing as
    the capital.
  • Mongols continued to serve in the army.

  • The Muslim eunuch admiral Zheng He launched a
    series of expeditions to Southeast Asia and the
    Indian Ocean to reestablish trade links and bring
    these areas under Chinese control or influence.
  • However, no real trade relations were established
    and the voyages were non-profitable.
  • The voyages were made more for the Yongle Emperor
    to prove his worth.
  • The Zheng He voyages were the last time that the
    state sponsored such voyages.

Muslim eunuch admiral Zheng He launched a series
of expeditions to Southeast Asia and the Indian
Comparison of ships from Zheng He and Columbus.
Zheng Hes voyages.
  • B. Technology and Population
  • Chinese lost the knowledge to make high-quality
    bronze and steel.
  • Korea and Japan moved ahead of Ming China in
    technological innovation.
  • However, the Ming period was a time of great
    wealth, consumerism, and cultural brilliance.
  • The novels, Water Margin and Romance of the Three
    Kingdoms, porcelain making, furniture, lacquered
    screens, and silk all contributed to this
    cultural brilliance.

Example of Ming furniture.
Example of Ming jade artwork.
Example of Ming porcelain.
VI. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia,
  • A. Korea from the Mongols to the Yi, 1231-1500
  • The Korean King of Koryo joined the Mongols by
    marriage in 1258.
  • Koryo collapsed when the Yuan dynasty fell apart
    and it was replaced by the Korean Yi dynasty.
  • The Yi dynasty reestablished local identity and
    restored the status of Confucian scholarship
    while maintaining Mongol administrative practices
    and institutions.
  • The Yi had technological innovations of moveable
    copper frames, meteorological science, local
    calendar, use of fertilizer, engineering of
    reservoirs, ships with canon, gunpowder arrow
    launchers, and armored ships.

Gunpowder arrow launcher of the Korean Yi dynasty.
  • B. Political Transformation in Japan
  • Two Mongol invasions of Japan failed because of
    the Kamikaze winds and strong defensive
  • The Kamakura shogunate was destroyed in a civil
    war and the Ashikaga shogunate was established in
  • Black ink painting, sand gardens, and the tea
    ceremony were adopted by the Yoshimasa shogunate
    and they were influenced by Zen Buddhism.
  • The Onin War of 1477 showed that the shogunate
    had no real power and the provincial lords fought
    each other for power.

Japanese samurai from the Kamakura shogunate.
  • C. The Emergence of Vietnam,
  • 1200-1500
  • Vietnam was divided into two states
  • Chinese influenced Annam in the north
  • Indian influenced Champa in the south.
  • The Mongols extracted tribute from both states.
  • The Ming ruled Annam for almost thirty years in
    the early 15th century, but Annam overthrew them
    and they completely conquered Champa.
  • Established a Chinese style government over all
    of Vietnam.
  • The dominant faith of Annam was Mahayana Buddhism
    which distinguished them from other Southeast
    Asian groups who practiced Theraveda Buddhism.