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Ch 17 Culture and Personality

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Documented particular culture in which women were more dominant. Today ... No exposure to Western culture. Also Japan, Brazil, Chile, Argentina, USA ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ch 17 Culture and Personality


1
4 17 07
  • Ch 17 Culture and Personality
  • 1. Cultural Universals and Differences
  • 2. Markus Kitayama (1991) Model
  • 3. Suh Self-Consistency

2
Ch 17 Culture and Personality
  • Some Cultural Universals
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • Higher status person is Dr. blank or Mr. So
    and so
  • Lower status person is Jack or Bob
  • 5.

3
Chapter 17 Culture and Personality
  • What About Sex Roles?
  • Margaret Mead (1935)
  • Documented particular culture in which women were
    more dominant
  • Today

4
Chapter 17 Culture and Personality
  • Men active, aggressive, conceited, loud,
    pleasure-seeking, reckless, tough
  • Women affectionate, dependent, emotional,
    fearful, modest, patient, prudish, timid, warm

5
Chapter 17 Culture and Personality
  • Williams Best (1990)
  • Both men and women are viewed favorably as well
    as disfavorably
  • However, in terms of different attributes
  • Such sex differences have some support (Ch 16)

6
Chapter 17 Culture and Personality
  • Ekman (1973)
  • Set of emotional facial expressions
  • Traveled to Fore foragers of New Guinea
  • No exposure to Western culture
  • Also Japan, Brazil, Chile, Argentina, USA
  • Happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, surprise

7
Chapter 17 Culture and Personality
  • Ekman (1973) your child has died, etc.
  • Lazarus (1991) studies of blind children
  • Thus, emotion expression

8
Chapter 17 Culture and Personality
  • Interpersonal circumplex
  • Why?
  • We dont know for sure
  • But knowing dominance and warmth of others is
    presumably a universal benefit

9
Chapter 17 Culture and Personality
  • Is personality a Western thing?
  • In describing the spontaneous self (TST)
  • In evaluating the behaviors of others (e.g.,
    Miller, 1984)
  • Recent research has evaluated this

10
Chapter 17 Culture and Personality
  • Is personality a Western thing?
  • No
  • Big 5 factor structure replicates in France,
    Holland, Philippines, Sino-Tibetan,
    Hamito-Semitic, Malayo-Polynesian cultures, so on

11
Chapter 17 Culture and Personality
  • Cultural diffs in traits
  • Stereotypes or reality?

12
Chapter 17 Culture and Personality
  • McCrae et al. (2005)
  • 80 colleagues
  • 51 cultures
  • 12,156 participants
  • Big 5 inventory

13
Ch 17 Culture and Personality
  • Cultural universals
  • Cultural differences
  • Also pronounced, however..

14
Ch 17 Culture and Personality
  • Americans oysters
  • French snails, frog legs
  • Zulus locusts
  • Chinese snakes
  • Jale, New Guinea people

15
Ch 17 Culture and Personality
  • Middle Eastern men kiss each other on the cheek
  • Germans do not visit Herr Professor during
    office hours
  • Iranians do not eat French Fries with their hands
  • Japanese have many customs that Americans frankly
    do poorly with

16
Ch 17 Culture and Personality
  • Norms
  • However, aware when go to other cultures
  • Scotland fork stays in left hand
  • Americans cut, drop knife, then pick up fork
    with right hand
  • Other examples of being fish out of water?

17
Ch 17 Culture and Personality
  • Very loose with time
  • Often late
  • Very tight with time
  • Perceived as obsessive by southern Europeans

18
Ch 17 Culture and Personality
  • With strangers, larger
  • With intimates, smaller
  • Those near equator prefer less space
  • Northern Europeans want more space

19
Ch 17 Culture and Personality
  • India 84
  • United States 47
  • Germany 9
  • Iceland 3

20
Chapter 17 Culture and Personality
  • Brahmins not OK
  • Americans OK
  • Brahmins OK
  • Americans not OK
  • Brahmins not OK
  • Americans not OK
  • What is considered acceptable varies by culture

21
Short film clip
  • Cultural differences
  • Are they chaotic and random?
  • Or can we understand them more systematically?
  • Recent work contrasts
  • Americans, Europeans
  • Vs. Japanese, Korean, Chinese, African, Indian
  • Loosely Western versus Eastern
  • And self-concept differences
  • Film fact sheet

22
Cultural Differences
  • Markus Kitayama (1991) model
  • Very influential
  • Cultures differ in self-concept

23
Cultural Differences
  • Markus Kitayama (1991) model
  • American, European
  • Self exists apart from others

father
mother
self
girlfriend
friend
24
Cultural Differences
  • Markus Kitayama (1991) model
  • Asian, Indian, African
  • Self overlaps with others

father
mother
self
girlfriend
friend
25
Cultural Differences
  • Consequences for cognition
  • (1)
  • Self varies across contexts (or not)
  • Contradictions allowed (or not)
  • Me as friend caring, submissive
  • Me as boss hard-assed, uncaring

26
Cultural Differences
  • Consequences for cognition
  • (2)
  • Independent
  • Behaviors attributed to traits (e.g., he is a
    jerk)
  • Interdependent
  • Behaviors attributed to situation (e.g., he must
    be in a hurry)

27
Cultural Differences
  • (1)
  • - ego focused anger, pride
  • Own needs wants
  • Independent self, Western self
  • - other focused sympathy, shame, caring
  • Others needs wants
  • Interdependent, Eastern self

28
Cultural Differences
  • Consequences for emotion
  • (2)
  • amae need to be at anothers indulgence
  • oime feeling of indebtedness

29
Cultural Differences
  • Consequences for emotion
  • (3)
  • Yes
  • Internal attributes (feelings) seen as authentic
    reflection of self
  • No
  • Feelings seen as selfish, disruptive, primitive
  • (4)
  • Japan less intense feelings, expressions
  • China, Ghana emotions seen as body problems not
    social ones

30
Cultural Differences
  • Consequences for motivation
  • (1)
  • - deference need to defer, follow
  • - similance need to emulate
  • abasement need for self-deprecation

31
Cultural Differences
  • Consequences for motivation
  • (2)
  • Japan - no desire to view self gt other
  • - the nail that stands out gets pounded
  • (3)
  • Western - yes
  • - success me failure situation
  • Eastern - no
  • - success not me failure me

32
Culture and Self-Consistency (Suh, 2002)
  • Western conception of mental health
  • Self-actualization
  • Self as guidance, meaning
  • Others just screw you up

33
Culture and Self-Consistency (Suh, 2002)
  • Eastern conception of mental health

34
Culture and Self-Consistency (Suh, 2002)
  • Importance of self-consistency in West
  • People seek, trust feedback that confirms self
    concept
  • Maintaining coherent self-view an important
    motive
  • More inconsistency across roles
  • more depression, neuroticism

35
Culture and Self-Consistency (Suh, 2002)
  • Less cognitive dissonance arising from behavior
    that violates ones prior attitudes
  • Less critical of public behavior that mismatches
    private
  • Americans would call this hypocrisy

36
Culture and Self-Consistency (Suh, 2002)
  • A tree changes colors, loses leaves, etc.
  • It is still the same tree
  • Thus, acting differently in different situations
    is natural

37
Culture and Self-Consistency
  • Personal Pentagram
  • self interacting with different people
  • Romantic partner, parents, same-sex friend,
    stranger, teacher/professor
  • How characteristic of you is each trait?
  • Talkative (T), serious (S), nervous (N),
    intellectual (I), cheerful (C)
  • Rank from 1 most characteristic to 5 least
  • Connect each trait across contexts

38
Culture and Self-Consistency (Suh, 2002)
  • Extent to which equally talkative across
    situations
  • Extent to which equally serious across situations
  • traited in this sense
  • Always the same regardless of who Im interacting
    with

39
Ch 16 Culture and Personality
  • Self is always the same
  • Self changes
  • Koreans pentagrams less ordered (more variation)
  • Consistency more predictive of happiness for ___
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