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Chapter 12: Personality: Theory, Research, and Assessment

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Defining Personality: Consistency and Distinctiveness Personality Traits Dispositions and dimensions The Five-Factor Model Extraversion Neuroticism Openness to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 12: Personality: Theory, Research, and Assessment


1
Chapter 12 Personality Theory, Research, and
Assessment
2
Defining Personality Consistency and
Distinctiveness
  • Personality Traits
  • Dispositions and dimensions
  • The Five-Factor Model
  • Extraversion
  • Neuroticism
  • Openness to experience
  • Agreeableness
  • Conscientiousness

3
Psychodynamic Perspectives
  • Freuds psychoanalytic theory
  • Structure of personality
  • Id - Pleasure principle
  • Ego - Reality principle
  • Superego - Morality
  • Levels of awareness
  • Conscious
  • Unconscious
  • Preconscious

4
Psychodynamic Perspectives
  • Freuds psychoanalytic theory
  • Conflict
  • Sex and Aggression
  • Anxiety
  • Defense Mechanisms

5
Figure 12.2 Freuds model of personality
structure
6
Figure 12.3 Freuds model of personality dynamics
7
Table 12.1 Defense Mechanisms, with Examples
8
Freud on Development Psychosexual Stages
  • Sexual physical pleasure
  • Psychosexual stages
  • Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital
  • Fixation Excessive gratification or frustration
  • Overemphasis on psychosexual needs during fixated
    stage

9
Table 12.2 Freuds Stages of Psychosexual
Development
10
Other Psychodynamic Theorists
  • Carl Jung Analytical Psychology
  • Personal and collective unconscious
  • Archetypes
  • Introversion/Extroversion
  • Alfred Adler Individual Psychology
  • Striving for superiority
  • Compensation
  • Inferiority complex/overcompensation
  • Birth order

11
Figure 12.4 Jungs vision of the collective
unconscious
12
Evaluating Psychodynamic Perspectives
  • Pros
  • The unconscious
  • The role of internal conflict
  • The importance of early childhood experiences
  • Cons
  • Poor testability
  • Inadequate empirical base
  • Sexist views

13
Behavioral Perspectives
  • Skinners views
  • Conditioning and response tendencies
  • Environmental determinism
  • Banduras views
  • Social leaning theory
  • Cognitive processes and reciprocal determinism
  • Observational learning
  • Models
  • Self-efficacy
  • Mischels views
  • The person-situation controversy

14
Figure 12.5 A behavioral view of personality
15
Figure 12.6 Personality development and operant
conditioning
16
Figure 12.7 Banduras reciprocal conditioning
17
Evaluating Behavioral Perspectives
  • Pros
  • Based on rigorous research
  • Insights into effects of learning and
    environmental factors
  • Cons
  • Over-dependence on animal research
  • Fragmented view of personality
  • Dehumanizing views

18
Humanistic Perspectives
  • Carl Rogers
  • Person Centered Theory
  • Self-concept
  • Conditional/unconditional positive regard
  • Incongruence and anxiety
  • Abraham Maslow
  • Self-actualization theory
  • Hierarchy of needs
  • The healthy personality

19
Figure 12.9 Rogerss view of personality
structure
20
Figure 12.10 Rogerss view of personality
development and dynamics
21
Figure 12.11 Maslows hierarchy of needs
22
Figure 12.12 Maslows view of the healthy
personality
23
Evaluating Humanistic Perspectives
  • Humanistic theories are credited with
    highlighting the importance of a persons
    subjective view of reality. They are also
    applauded for focusing attention on the issue of
    what constitutes a healthy personality.
  • They are criticized for lacking a strong research
    base, poor testability, and what may be an overly
    optimistic view of human nature (Maslow had a
    hard time finding live people who had
    self-actualized).

24
Biological Perspectives
  • Eysenks theory
  • 3 higher order traits
  • Extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism
  • Determined by genes
  • Twin studies
  • Novelty seeking and genetics
  • The evolutionary approach
  • Traits conducive to reproductive fitness

25
Figure 12.14 Twin studies of personality
26
Evaluating Biological Perspectives
  • Pros
  • Convincing evidence for genetic influence
  • Cons
  • Conceptual problems with heritability estimates
  • Artificial carving apart of nature and nurture
  • No comprehensive biological theory

27
Contemporary Empirical Approaches Terror
Management Theory
  • Conflict between self-preservation and ability to
    foresee death
  • Culture and self-esteem
  • Anxiety buffer

28
Figure 12.15 Overview of terror management theory
29
Contemporary Empirical Approaches Terror
Management Theory
  • Increasing subjects mortality salience causes
    them to
  • Punish moral transgressions more harshly
  • Be less tolerant of criticism of their country
  • Give greater rewards to those who uphold cultural
    standards
  • Respect cultural icons more
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