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PSYC 2201 Personality Chapter 11 Outline for Weiten (2005)

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PSYC 2201 Personality Chapter 11 Outline for Weiten (2005) Bill Hill Kennesaw State University Defining Personality An individual s unique combination of attitudes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PSYC 2201 Personality Chapter 11 Outline for Weiten (2005)


1
PSYC 2201Personality Chapter 11 Outline for
Weiten (2005)
  • Bill Hill
  • Kennesaw State University

2
Defining Personality
  • An individuals unique combination of attitudes,
    beliefs and behaviors.
  • Personality is generally assumed to be
  • Consistent
  • Distinctive

3
Trait Approaches
  • Characteristic behavior patterns (and ways of
    thinking) that are relatively consistent across
    similar situational contexts
  • Traits are often described using common
    adjectives such as friendly, outgoing, moody,
    trustwothy, etc.

4
Trait Approaches
  • The Five-Factor Model of Personality Traits
    (McCrae Costa)
  • Agreeableness
  • Conscientiousness
  • Openness to experience
  • Extraversion
  • Neuroticism

5
Trait Approaches
  • Contemporary Research on Traits
  • Sensation-Seeking
  • Self-Monitoring

6
Evaluating Trait Approaches
  • Primarily descriptive model that does not
    adequately either explain why a behavior occurs
    or predict behavior
  • Questions as to whether the Big Five Traits are
    too many or not enough

7
Theories of Personality
  • The major theories that we will discuss are
    primarily focused on identifying the origins of
    personality, not the relationship between
    personality and behavior.
  • Personality theories are also key to
    understanding both the origins of abnormal
    behavior and the approaches to the treatment of
    abnormal behavior.

8
Theories of Personality
  • The four basic theories of personality
  • Psychodynamic
  • Behavioral
  • Humanistic
  • Biological

9
Psychodynamic Theories
  • All of these approaches originate from Freud and
    emphasize unconscious processes that influence
    traits and behaviors
  • The basic element in common is conflict. The
    resolution of these conflicts between the
    individual and either unconscious or societal
    pressures, determines personality.

10
Psychodynamic Theories
  • The Big Four
  • Freud
  • Jung
  • Adler
  • Erikson

11
Freud
  • Basic assumptions underlying Freuds approach to
    personality
  • Behavior (personality) is determined and
    controlled by unconscious factors
  • Foundations for adult personality laid during
    childhood
  • Primary role of sexual urges

12
Freud
  • Structures of Personality
  • Id
  • Ego
  • Superego
  • It is the dynamic interaction between these
    three structures that results in observed behavior

13
Freud
  • Levels of Consciousness
  • Conscious
  • Preconscious
  • Unconscious

14
Freud
  • Stages of Personality Development
  • Oral (mouth)
  • Anal (anus)
  • Phallic
  • Oedipal Complex
  • Penis Envy
  • Latency
  • Genital

15
Freud
  • Defense Mechanisms
  • Repression
  • Projection
  • Displacement
  • Reaction Formation
  • Regression
  • Rationalization
  • Identification

16
What is the Defense Mechanism?
  • John thought that almost everyone but himself
    was cheating on the psychology exam.
  • Repression
  • Projection
  • Displacement
  • Reaction Formation
  • Regression
  • Rationalization
  • Identification

17
What is the Defense Mechanism?
  • Lisa was embarrassed when she kept forgetting
    her appointment with the dentist.
  • Repression
  • Projection
  • Displacement
  • Reaction Formation
  • Regression
  • Rationalization
  • Identification

18
What is the Defense Mechanism?
  • Although Joan had not been close to her mother
    during her childhood she was now so
    oversolicitous of her mothers health that her
    marriage was being threatened.
  • Repression
  • Projection
  • Displacement
  • Reaction Formation
  • Regression
  • Rationalization
  • Identification

19
What is the Defense Mechanism?
  • Curt began assuming many of the behaviors and
    characteristics of the professor he most feared.
  • Repression
  • Projection
  • Displacement
  • Reaction Formation
  • Regression
  • Rationalization
  • Identification

20
What is the Defense Mechanism?
  • After her new baby brother came home from the
    hospital the parents discovered Cheryl had
    dismembered her favorite doll.
  • Repression
  • Projection
  • Displacement
  • Reaction Formation
  • Regression
  • Rationalization
  • Identification

21
What is the Defense Mechanism?
  • A student attributed his flunking out of the
    university to the poor quality of teaching there.
  • Repression
  • Projection
  • Displacement
  • Reaction Formation
  • Regression
  • Rationalization
  • Identification

22
What is the Defense Mechanism?
  • Tommy began wetting his pants again after the
    birth of his baby brother.
  • Repression
  • Projection
  • Displacement
  • Reaction Formation
  • Regression
  • Rationalization
  • Identification

23
Jung
  • Although also emphasizing the unconscious like
    Freud, he proposed different layers
  • Personal Unconscious
  • Collective Unconscious

24
Adlers Individual Psychology
  • De-emphasizing the sexual focus of Freud, Adler
    believed the energy driving personality
    development is a striving for superiority
  • Compensation
  • Inferiority Complex
  • Emphasis on social context (e.g., birth order)

25
Evaluating Psychodynamic Approaches
  • Vague and untestable
  • Lack of objective supporting evidence
  • Claims of sexism in Freuds theory

26
Behavioral Approaches
  • Premise from behaviorism that behaviors that
    constitute ones consistent traits and actions
    are learned through behavioral principles of
    conditioning (operant and classical) and
    observational learning

27
Radical Behaviorism Personality(Skinner)
  • Internal processes omitted
  • Focus is solely on environmental factors that
    shape and determine observed behaviors
  • Personality (as defined by response tendencies)
    can easily change across ones life

28
Social Learning Theory(Bandura)
  • Although out of the behavioral tradition,
    Bandura incorporates cognitive influences
  • Reciprocal Determinism
  • Perspective that behavior tendencies are the
    result of an interaction between cognition,
    environment and observed behavior

29
Social Learning Theory(Bandura)
  • Observational Learning
  • Ability to imitate
  • Role of the model
  • Consequences of models behavior (Vicarious
    conditioning)
  • Attention to model (higher when model liked or
    respected and seen as similar to observer)
  • Self-Efficacy

30
Social Learning Theory(Mischel)
  • Emphasized role of situational factors, thus
    raising questions as to whether behavior is
    consistent (person emphasis) or varies with ones
    perception of the situational context
  • Response choices are a function then of the
    persons perception of the consequences
    associated with a response and consequence
    likelihood for the same behavior varies across
    situations

31
Evaluating Behavioral Approaches
  • Question of application of fundamental
    principles developed through animal research to
    humans
  • De-emphasis of role of cognitive factors and
    free will by radical behaviorists
  • Lack of unifying structure of personalityit is
    simply characterized as set of acquired behaviors

32
Humanistic Approaches
  • Key Elements
  • Emphasis on human uniqueness and potential for
    personal growth.
  • As counterpoint to both Psychodynamic and
    Behavioral approaches, also includes strong
    emphasis on human free will
  • Adopts phenomenological approach to understanding
    human behavior

33
Person-Centered Theory(Rogers)
  • Key personality construct is the self or
    Self-Concept, which is ones collection of
    beliefs about
  • who he or she is (often described using traits)
  • typical behavior patterns

34
Person-Centered Theory(Rogers)
  • Personality (self-concept) is largely developed
    as a function of childhood and adolescent
    experiences that are related to the interplay
    between an individuals need for affection and
    acceptance and parenting practices.
  • Conditional love
  • Unconditional love

35
Person-Centered Theory(Rogers)
  • Subjectively we try to maintain a match between
    our self-concept and our behavioral experiences.
  • The degree of congruence (match) or incongruence
    (mismatch) between self-concept and experience
    that determines ones mental health.

36
Self-Actualization Theory(Maslow)
  • Hierarchy of Needs (Human Motivations)
  • Physiological
  • Safety Security
  • Belongingness Love
  • Esteem
  • Cognitive
  • Aesthetic
  • Self-Actualization

37
Evaluating Humanistic Approaches
  • Vague and untestable
  • Lacks strong research base to support claims
  • Idealized view of human nature that may be
    overly optimistic (e.g., Maslows self-actualized
    person)

38
Biological Approaches
  • Basic premise is that personality tendencies
    (traits) may be genetically influenced

39
Biological Approaches(Eysenck)
  • Eysencks theory combines elements from trait
    and behavioral approaches to personality
  • Although basically a trait approach, his premise
    is that trait tendencies are genetically
    determined. Actual observed traits are then
    shaped through conditioning.

40
Biological Approaches(Eysenck)
  • Eysencks Fundamental Traits
  • Extraversion-Introversion
  • Neuroticism
  • Psychoticism

41
Behavioral Genetics
  • Evidence that suggests personality traits are
    inherited
  • Twin studies
  • Variability in personality traits despite shared
    family environment
  • Possibility of detecting specific genes related
    to traits

42
Evolutionary Perspectives
  • Traits, such as the Big Five, have emerged
    through natural selection. Supporting evidence
    includes
  • Cross-cultural consistency in the Big Five
  • Adaptive viability of the Big Five for survival

43
Evaluating Biological Approaches
  • Limitations on accuracy of heritability ratios
  • Fails to adequately address the interaction
    between nature and nurture
  • No unifying theory

44
Culture Personality
  • Cultural and sociohistorical factors have
    influenced many of the major theories discussed,
    particularly the Psychodynamic and Humanistic
    approaches.
  • What may be characterized as a personality ideal
    in one culture is not necessarily to same in
    another.

45
Culture Personality
  • Variations in Self-Concept
  • Western Ideal independent self
  • Asian Ideal interdependent self

46
Imagine that several psychologists are having
lunch together, and that you are eavesdropping on
their conversation. Which type of psychologist
is MOST likely to have made each of these
comments?
  • Aggression is a human instinct. Although
    society may control it somewhat, we can never
    eliminate it.
  • Humanistic
  • Biological/evolutionary
  • Psychoanalytic
  • Behavioral

47
Imagine that several psychologists are having
lunch together, and that you are eavesdropping on
their conversation. Which type of psychologist
is MOST likely to have made each of these
comments?
  • Your student may be under a lot of pressure, but
    that is no excuse for cheating. We are
    personally responsible for what we do.
  • Humanistic
  • Biological/evolutionary
  • Psychoanalytic
  • Behavioral

48
Imagine that several psychologists are having
lunch together, and that you are eavesdropping on
their conversation. Which type of psychologist
is MOST likely to have made each of these
comments?
  • There are not any values inherent in human
    nature. Values are acquired in the same way we
    learn to say please and thank you.
  • Humanistic
  • Biological/evolutionary
  • Psychoanalytic
  • Behavioral

49
Imagine that several psychologists are having
lunch together, and that you are eavesdropping on
their conversation. Which type of psychologist
is MOST likely to have made each of these
comments?
  • People just dont want to believe that infants
    get sexual pleasure from sucking and exploring
    anything they get in their hands with their
    mouth.
  • Humanistic
  • Biological/evolutionary
  • Psychoanalytic
  • Behavioral
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