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Title: Culture%20in%20language%20teaching


1
Culture in language teaching
  • Multi Pluri Inter
  • The Prefixes of Culture

2
Culture in language teaching
  • Although some L2/FL teachers seem to think that
    the presence of culture in current writings is
    relatively recent, a review of the L2/FL
    literature shows that this is clearly not the
    case (Lessard-Clouston, M. 1997).
  • Culture and Language come together in LT, culture
    appearing and disappearing from theoretical
    approaches regularly. Now it is enjoying a
    revival.

3
Culture the prefixes
  • If at first the terms contrastive and
    cross-cultural were the key terms in cultural
    studies, the incorporation of multicultural and
    intercultural approaches widened our perspective.
  • The scope of cultural studies nowadays includes
    the self, the group and the communicative
    situation.

4
The prefixes
Interculturality
Pluriculturality
Pluriculturality
Multiculturality
5
Definitions two approaches
  • Static definition
  • Inter- definition of a communicative situation
  • Pluri- definition of the identity of a person
  • Multi- definition of the social context
  • Dynamic definition
  • Inter- active and critical participation in
    communication
  • Pluri- perception and construction of the
    multiple identifications of a person
  • Multi- ackowledgement and appreciation of the
    coexistence of a number of cultures in the social
    context

6
Multiculturalism (I)
  • Multiculturalism describes a general situation
    (region, country, community) of culture
    contact.
  • Normally, the term comprises three visions of
    diversity
  • culture as state-nation (multicultural
    different nationalities)
  • culture as religion (multicultural different
    religions)
  • culture as ethnic groups (multicultural
    different ethnic groups).

7
Multiculturalism (II)
  • However, none of these metaphoric definitions of
    culture are satisfactory
  • it could be argued that other cultures could be
    added culture as age, culture as gender,
    culture as profession, culture as
    ability/disability, ...
  • Consequently, any country, region, community or
    group is multicultural by definition, as
    different cultures interact simultaneously at any
    level.
  • So, we would keep multiculturalism for the
    description of contexts where cultures are in
    contact, not restricted to nations, religions or
    ethnic groups.

8
Pluriculturalism
  • Identity is the by-product of experiences in
    different cultures.
  • Thus, multiple identifications create our unique
    personality more than a static identity.
  • Pluriculturalism implies an approach to the self
    and the other as complex, rich beings which act
    and react from the perspective of those multiple
    identifications.

9
Interculturality
  • Interculturality is, undoubtedly, one of the key
    notions in language teaching at the moment.
  • ECML projects
  • Candelier, Oomen-Welke and Perregaux (2004)
  • Dupuis et al. (2003)
  • Huber-Kriegler, Lázár and Strange (2003)
  • Aleksandrowicz-Pedich, Draghicescu, Issaiass and
    Šabec (2003), Skopinskaja (2003) and Facciol and
    Kjartansson (2003)
  • Zarate, Gohard-Radenkovic, Lussier and Penz
    (2003)
  • Grima Camilleri (2002)

10
Interculturality
  • Interculturality is, for our perspective,
    intimately related to communication it is the
    link between language and culture.
  • Being intercultural is a way of participating in
    communication in which interlocutors
  • Are aware of the relevance of culture in
    communication.
  • Participate actively in communication.
  • React critically to communication.

11
Awareness of culture
  • The language learner must be aware of three
    layers of culture multi-cultural, pluri-cultural
    and inter-cultural.
  • First, the language learner must be aware of
  • diversity in society and
  • how social groups, including nations, create, use
    and manage cultures, which are intermingled in a
    complex matrix of social contact.
  • We will refer to it as awareness of culture from
    a multicultural perspective.

12
Awareness of culture
  • Secondly, awareness of culture from a
    pluricultural perspective implies
  • to define identity as a complex, flexible,
    dynamic composite which, in any situation, can
    adopt an apparently definite layout for a certain
    purpose with a particular interlocutor.
  • culture as product which is static
  • culture as process which is dynamic.

13
Awareness of culture
  • From an intercultural perspective, awareness must
    be displayed in two directions.
  • First, the learner must be aware of the
    pluricultural identity of his or her interlocutor
    as defined above.
  • Second, the language learner must be aware of the
    cultural conventions of the language(s) they may
    use.
  • Language is a culture-bound phenomenon and there
    are conventions ruling any communicative act,
    written or spoken.
  • Awareness of these cultural conventions can
    smooth communication
  • At the same time, a positive, cooperative
    attitude on the part of the listener/reader can
    help overcome ignoring, forgetting or flouting
    these conventions.

14
The LEA Project
  • To raise awareness of diversity as a key element
    of society.
  • To enrich language teacher education with the
    potential to exploit cultural diversity at
    individual and social levels
  • To facilitate curricular changes aimed at
    incorporating a pluricultural dimension into
    language classes.
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