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Culture Patterns and Processes


CULTURE PATTERNS AND PROCESSES Chapter 5 Culture Culture is a complex concept Def #1 A particular way of life, such as a set of skilled activities, values, & meanings ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Culture Patterns and Processes

Culture Patterns and Processes
  • Chapter 5

  • Def2
  • A shared set of meanings that is lived through
    the material symbolic practices of everyday
  • Could be values, beliefs, ideas, and practices
  • Culture is a complex concept
  • Def 1
  • A particular way of life, such as a set of
    skilled activities, values, meanings
    surrounding a particular type of practice

Concepts of Culture
  • Cultural geography
  • Definition
  • Study of peoples lifestyles, their creations,
    and their relationships to the Earth
  • Looks at why and how culture is expressed in
    different ways and different places
  • Involves
  • Material components of culture
  • Tangible artifacts
  • Clothing, architecture
  • Non-material components of culture
  • Thoughts/ ideas
  • Religion, laws
  • Cultural Landscape
  • built landscape
  • Physical imprint a culture makes on the
  • Buildings, artwork, music
  • Carl Sauer
  • 20th century geographer
  • Culture leaves imprint
  • Cultural Ecology
  • Study of human-environment interaction and its
  • Sequent Occupancy
  • Theory that a place can be occupied by different
    groups of people, and each group leaves its
    imprint on the place from which the next group
  • Ex. England

Cultural Ecology
  • England
  • Called Historical Geography
  • Defined as geography in the past
  • H.C. Darby
  • Implemented his historical approach to cultural
    geo and landscape by developing a geography based
    on the Domesday Book.
  • Used data to reconstruct the political, social,
    and economic forces that shaped past landscapes
  • France
  • Called genre de vie
  • Def a functionally organized way of life that is
    seen to be characteristic of a particular
    cultural group
  • Centered on livelihood practices of groups that
    were seen to shape physical, social, and
    psychological bonds.
  • Vidal de la Blanche
  • Emphasized need to study small, homogeneous areas
    to uncover relationship between people and their

Natural vs. Cultural landscape
Human-Environment Interaction
  • Environmental Determinism
  • Theory that human behavior is controlled (or
    determined) by physical environment
  • Ex ideal climates cause more productive citizens
  • Egypt vs. Siberia
  • Possibilism
  • Counterargument to environment determinism
  • Argues the natural environment places limits on
    the set of choices available to a people
  • People, not the environment, propel human
  • Cultural Determinism
  • Theory that the environment places no
    restrictions on humans whatsoever
  • Only restrictions are the ones humans create
  • Political Ecology
  • Attempts to answer why human cultures interact
    with environments the way they do
  • Government of a region affects the environment in
    that region which affects choices available to
  • Ex zoning laws

Layers of a Culture
  • Culture Traits
  • Def
  • A single attribute of a culture
  • Ex bowing to show respect
  • Not always unique to one group
  • Culture Complex
  • Def
  • Combination of all culture traits creates a
    unique set of traits
  • No two cultures in the world have the same
    culture complexes
  • Culture Systems
  • Def
  • When many culture complexes share particular
    traits, those traits can merge into culture
  • Ex Germany
  • Culture Regions
  • Def
  • Region that includes places and peoples with
    similarities in their culture systems
  • People in culture region often share a sense of
    common culture and regional identity
  • Boundaries defined by perceptions and opinions
  • Ex The South
  • Culture Realms
  • Def
  • Formed through the fusing together of culture
    regions that share enough in common to be merged
  • ex
  • Anglo-American realm
  • Latin American realm
  • Sino- Japanese realm

Culture regions Religion
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Cultural Diffusion
  • Cultural/Spatial Diffusion
  • Peoples material and non-material creations
    spread across time and space, moving to new
    places and being carries through generations.
  • Cultural diffusion
  • Spread of peoples cultural across space
  • Spatial diffusion
  • Spread of any phenomenon (such as a disease)
    across space
  • Two categories of diffusion
  • Expansion
  • relocation

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Cultural Diffusion
  • Expansion Diffusion
  • Def
  • Cultural component spreads outward to new places
    while remaining strong in the hearth
  • Forms of Expansion Diffusion
  • Stimulus
  • Idea diffuses from hearth but original idea is
  • Iced tea vs Sweet tea
  • Hierarchical
  • Idea spreads from a place or person of power
  • Hip-hop moving from large cities to other larger
    cities to smaller cities to suburbs/ rural areas
  • Contagious
  • Numerous places or people near the point of
    origin become adopters
  • Ex Tuberculosis
  • Relocation Diffusion
  • Def
  • Involves actual movement of the original adapters
    from their hearth to a new place
  • People do the moving not the innovation
  • Migrant diffusion
  • Innovation spreads and lasts only a brief time in
    the newly adopted place
  • Ex Band Concert
  • Mix of Patterns
  • Many diffusing phenomenon spread through mix of
  • Ex HIV/ AIDS

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Culture Hearths
  • Definition
  • Areas where innovations in culture began, such as
    where agriculture, government, and urbanization
  • Sources of human civilization
  • Ancient culture hearths believed to have
    developed in places with the capacity for
  • Near sources of water/ arable land
  • Not all innovations required interaction
  • Independent innovation

Ancient Hearth Direction of Diffusion of Civilization from Ancient Hearth
Andean America Eastward t/out S. America
Mesoamerica Eastern/Western N. America
West Africa T/out Africa
Nile River Valley T/out Africa and S.W. Asia
Mesopotamia T/out S.W. Asia, Europe, Central and East Asia, W. Africa
Indus River Valley T/out S.W., Central, East Asia
Ganges River Valley T/out South, SE, and SW Asia
Huang River Valley T/out East and SE Asia
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Torsten Hagerstrand
  • Theorized that innovations of all kinds tend to
    diffuse from their hearths in stages
  • 1st stage
  • Gain acceptance in place of origin
  • Early adopters
  • innovators
  • 2nd stage
  • Begin to spread rapidly outward from region
  • Majority adopters
  • 3rd stage
  • Slowing and reaching maximum dispersal and
  • Late adopters
  • Laggards
  • Research led to seeing that diffusion followed an
    S-curve pattern
  • Example Cell phone diffusion

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Cultural Convergence and Divergence
  • Cultural Convergence
  • Definition
  • Occurs when two cultures adopt each others
    traits and become more alike
  • Cultural Divergence
  • Definition
  • Occurs when two cultures become increasingly
  • Often one group moves away from the territory of
  • Acculturation
  • Occurs when two cultures come into contact with
    one another and the weaker of the two adopts
    traits from the more dominant culture
  • Assimilation
  • Sometimes acculturation leads to assimilation
  • When the original traits of the weaker culture
    are completely replaced by more dominant culture
  • Transculturation
  • When two cultures of just about equal power meet
    and exchange ideas

Acculturation Assimilation
  • NH
  • BMHAWK 3
  • BMHAWK 4
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