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Folk and Popular Culture

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Title: Folk and Popular Culture


1
Folk and Popular Culture
  • Key Issues
  • Where do folk and popular cultures originate and
    diffuse
  • Why is folk culture clustered?
  • Why is popular culture widely distributed
  • Why does globalization of popular culture cause
    problems?

2
Key Issue 1 Where do folk and pop cultures
originate and diffuse?
  • Habit- a repetitive act that a particular
    individual performs.
  • Custom- a repetitive act that a particular group
    performs.
  • Folk culture- the culture traditionally practiced
    primarily by small, homogenous groups living in
    isolated rural areas. Amish, Basque
  • Popular culture- the culture found in large,
    heterogeneous societies that share certain habits
    despite differences in other personal
    characteristics.
  • Material Culture the physical objects produced
    by a culture in order to meet its material needs
    food, clothing, shelter, arts, and recreation.
    Carl Sauer (Berkeley, 1930s 1970s).

3
What is Culture?
  • The study of lifestyles, creations, relationships
    and supernatural-
  • Cultural Geography- all encompassing- Why culture
    is expressed in different ways
  • Anthropocentrism- interpreting or regarding the
    world in terms of human values and experiences
  • Enculturation is the process by which a child
    learns his or her culture.

4
Features of Culture
  • 1. Styles of Dress
  • 2. Ways of Greeting People
  • 3. Beliefs about Hospitality
  • 4. Importance of Time
  • 5. Paintings
  • 6. Values
  • 7. Literature
  • 8. Beliefs about Child Raising (Children Teens)
  • 9. Attitudes about Personal Space/Privacy
  • 10. Beliefs about the Responsibilities
  • 11. Gestures
  • 12. Holiday Customs
  • 13. Music
  • 14. Dancing
  • 15. Celebrations
  • 16. Concept of Fairness
  • 17. Nature of Friendship
  • 18. Ideas about Clothing
  • 19. Foods
  • 20. Eating Habits
  • 21. Facial Expressions and Hand Gestures
  • 22. Concept of Self
  • 23. Work Ethic
  • 24. Religious Beliefs
  • 25. Religious Rituals
  • 26. Concept of Beauty
  • 27. Rules of Polite Behavior
  • 28. Attitude Toward Age
  • 29. Beliefs about the Importance of Family
  • 30. General World View

5
Cultures around the world
Source Johns Hopkins Photo Share
6
The Fundamentals of Culture
  • The fundamental ways cultures differ is in the
    way they view
  • The concept of time (e.g., How important is
    punctuality? Are peoples lives driven by the
    clock, or do people have a more relaxed view of
    time?)
  • The concept of the self (e.g., Is the culture
    more individualist, or is it more collectivist?
    Is individual self-reliance and independence more
    important, or is ensuring the well-being of the
    group more important?)
  • The concept of focus of control (e.g., Do people
    believe they control their own lives and their
    own destinies, or do people believe things just
    happen to them due to fateor due to outside
    forces they cannot control?)
  • The concept of personal vs. societal obligations
    (e.g., Do the same rules apply to everyone,
    regardless of the situation, or are exceptions
    made for certain individuals depending on the
    circumstances?)

7
  • The Basics
  • Material vs. Non-Material Culture- Songbook vs.
    Song- Belief vs. Temple
  • Carl Sauer- The Cultural Landscape (Built
    Environment)- Humans footprint on their space
  • Sequent Occupancy- left over culture

8
Levels of Culture
  • National culture refers to those experiences,
    beliefs, learned behavior patterns, values, and
    institutions that are shared by citizens of the
    same nation.
  • International culture refers to cultural
    practices that extend beyond and across national
    boundaries.
  • Cultural practices may be transmitted through
    diffusion.
  • Subcultures are identifiable cultural patterns
    and traditions associated with particular groups
    in the same complex society.

9
French Wine Regions
10
Features of Culture
  • Cultural universals are certain biological,
    psychological, social, and cultural features that
    are found in every culture.
  • Cultural generalities include features that are
    common to several but not all human groups.
  • Cultural particularities are features that are
    unique to certain cultural traditions.
  • Culture Trait- the simplest form of culture- a
    single attribute of culture
  • A handshake as a greeting- bowing for respect
  • Culture Complex- Combination of all culture
    traits
  • USA- Culture

11
  • Values Comprise ideas about what in life seems
    important. They guide the rest of the
    culture. Norms Consist of expectations of how
    people will behave in various situations. Each
    culture has methods, called sanctions, of
    enforcing its norms.Institutions Institutions
    are the structures of a society within which
    values and norms are transmitted. ArtifactsThin
    gs, or aspects of material culturederive from a
    culture's values and norms. Clothing Buildings
    Tools etc 

12
Mechanisms of Cultural Change - Acculturation
  • Acculturation is the exchange of cultural
    features that results when groups come into
    continuous firsthand contact.
  • Dominate cultures usually push
  • Acculturation- the weaker of the two adopts the
    dominate- Colonialism- Imperialism
  • This leads to Assimilation- the weaker culture
    adopts all of the dominate culture-
    African-Americans in the 20s
  • English Language vs. the USA
  • A pidgin is an example of acculturation, because
    it is a language form that develops by blending
    language elements from different languages in
    order to facilitate communication between
    populations in contact (e.g. in trade
    relationships).

13
Assimilation, Transculturation
  • Diffusion happens as we come into contact with
    each other
  • Cultural Convergence- two cultures adopting each
    others traits- Swahili
  • Transculturation- Mutual exchange-

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15
  • Independent Innovation- Creating similar
    innovation without interaction- Pyramids,
    Agriculture, domestication- Aliens???

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17
Folk and Pop Culture
  • Folk Culture- Smaller region and Number
  • Isolated- Long lasting Cultural traits
  • Amish, Geisha, Music, Housing, Country Music in
    the Appalachian Mountains
  • Spread through Relocation Diffusion
  • Pop Culture- Mass Diffusion-
  • Folk usually do not accept or have never been
    exposed
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v5SnR-e0S6Ic

18
  • Maladaptive Diffusion- Impractical cultural trait
  • Blue Jeans, Rap Music,
  • Cultural Imperialism- Imperialized the culture-
    McDonalds, KFC etc..
  • USA- Star bucks
  • Rises to Cultural Nationalism
  • Cultural Homogeneity- Destruction of Pop Culture
  • Pop Culture and Consumption- Cars, Golf Courses,
    Water Bottles,
  • Taboo- Against the Cultural Norm- Judaism,
    Hinduism, Islam
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vs_iwrt7D5OA

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20
  • Sentinelese-
  • Sentinelese exercise complete autonomy over their
    affairs and the involvement of the Indian
    authorities is restricted to occasional
    monitoring, even more infrequent and brief
    visits, and generally discouraging any access or
    approaches to the island. It is therefore de
    facto autonomous.
  • In 2006, Sentinelese archers killed two fishermen
    who were fishing illegally within range of the
    island. The archers later drove off, with a hail
    of arrows, the helicopter that was sent to
    retrieve the bodies

21
Types of Social Customs
  • First type
  • Customs which are derived from basic human needs
    especially food, clothing and clothing
  • The methods people choose to meet these needs
    result in varying landscapes around the world.
  • Second type
  • Related to peoples choices in leisure activities
  • Leisure activities arts recreation

22
Customs
  • Arts literature, performing arts visual arts
  • Leisure activities involves recreation, both
    active, such as sports, and passive, such as
    television viewing or listening to music.
  • Cultural Landscapes
  • In monochronic cultures, the belief is that time
    is fixed and people need to regulate their lives
    by it
  • In polychronic cultures, the belief is that time
    is the servant and tool of people.

23
Space Concepts
  • The western cultures focus their attention on
    objects, and neglect the space in between.
  • The Japanese, on the other hand, honor the space
    in between as ma.
  • In a different system, the Hopi Indians have in
    their language no words for a fixed room all
    objects are described in their relation to each
    other, but no concept of a three dimensional
    space exists.
  • Also the way we deal with space is different.
  • The concepts of the private space, the space
    orientation, the interpersonal distance and the
    space design.

24
Culture Regions and Realms
  • Cultural Regions- drawn around people with
    similar culture
  • People often share regional identity- regional
    identity common culture or emotional attachment
  • Leads to perceptual regions (Vernacular)- China
    Town- Alabama vs. Tennessee
  • Cause problems so we often use a cultural icon-
    Cowboy- Jersey Shore
  • Cultural Realm (geographic)- Merging large
    cultures together- Anglo-America, Latin America,
    Europe, Sub-Saharan, Slavic, Sino Japanese,
    Indic, austral-European

25
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26
Wine Production per year
The distribution of wine production shows the
joint impact of the physical environment and
social customs.
27
Hog Production Food Cultures
Annual hog production is influenced by
religious taboos against pork consumption in
Islam and other religions. The highest
production is in China, which is largely Buddhist.
28
  • A social custom originates at a hearth, a center
    of innovation.
  • Folk customs tend to have anonymous sources, from
    unknown dates, through multiple hearths
  • pop culture generally has a known originator,
    normally from MDCs, and results from more
    leisure time and more capital.
  • EX Folk music tells stories or conveys
    information about daily activities.
  • That terrible polka music you listen to at a
    family reunion
  • Call out songs from slavery, chariot
  • Pop music is written by specific individuals for
    the purpose of being sold to a large number of
    people.
  • TI, Katy Perry, Gagnam Style

29
  • Diffusion of folk and pop culture differs
  • Folk customs tend to diffuse slowly and then,
    primarily through physical relocation of
    individuals.
  • Pop customs tend to diffuse rapidly and primarily
    through hierarchical diffusion from the nodes.
    (Certain fads can diffuse contagiously)

30
Questions
  • Give an example of each region using a global
    relationship (country)
  • Draw an example of a cultural Icon for each
    region
  • Explain and give a current example of
    Acculturation- Assimilation- and Transculturation

31
  • Popular Music Popular music is written by
    specific individuals for the purpose of being
    sold to a large number of people. It displays a
    high degree of technical skills and is frequently
    capable of being performed only in a studio with
    electronic equipment Origin of Popular music It
    originated around 1900.The first music industry
    was developed in New York along the 28th streets
    between fifth avenue and Broadway, to provide
    songs for the music hall and vaudeville. This
    area later came to be known as Tin Pan
    Alley.Diffusion of American popular music
    started during the World War II. English became
    the language of popular music.
  • Hip Hop A more recent form of popular music.
    Originated in the south Bronx, New York, in the
    late 1970s.It spread to Oakland and Atlanta in
    the late 1980s.Then to large cities in the South,
    Midwest and West

32
  • Blue Grass
  • Mumford and Sons
  • Julia Fallows
  • Prince Royce
  • Kpop
  • Fine China- Chris Brown

33
Key Issue 2 Why is folk culture clustered?
  • ISOLATION- promotes cultural diversity as a
    groups unique customs develop over several
    centuries.
  • Folk culture varies widely from place to place at
    one time. Since most folk culture deals in some
    way with the lives and habits of its people, the
    physical environment in which the people act has
    a tremendous impact on the culture.

34
Clustering of Folk Cultures
  • Isolation promotes cultural diversity
  • Himalayan art
  • Influence of the physical environment
  • Distinctive food preferences
  • Folk housing
  • U.S. folk house forms

35
Himalayan Folk Cultural Regions
Cultural geographers have identified four
distinct culture regions based on predominant
religions in the Himalaya Mountains.
36
Broadly Defined Cultural Areas
37
The 5,000 Worldwide Indigenous Cultures
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40
  • Folk Culture rapidly changing and/or
    disappearing throughout much of the world.

Guatemalan Market
Portuguese Fishing Boat
Turkish Camel Market
41
  • People living in folk culture are likely to be
    farmers growing their own food, using hand tools
    and/or animal power.
  • Local food preferences are a large part of the
    folk customs of that region.
  • Pork vs. Beef, Fish vs. Red Meat, Bread, Chicken
    etc..
  • Religious, social, or economic factors often
    determine the type and amount of food consumed in
    a given region.

42
Hog Production and Food Cultures
Fig. 4-6 Annual hog production is influenced by
religious taboos against pork consumption in
Islam and other religions. The highest production
is in China, which is largely Buddhist.
43
FOLK FOOD
How did such differences develop?
44
  • Housing preference is another major contributor
    to folk culture. Local traditions, as well as
    environmental factors determine the type of house
    that is built in a region.

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47
FOLK ARCHITECTURE
48
House Types in Western China
Four communities in western China all have
distinctive house types.
49
FOLK ARCHITECTURE
  • Effects on Landscape usually of limited scale
    and scope.
  • Agricultural fields, terraces, grain storage
  • Dwellings historically created from local
    materials wood, brick, stone, skins often
    uniquely and traditionally arranged always
    functionally tied to physical environment.

50
The Cultural Landscape and Identity
  • Land Survey- parceling methods of land
  • Nucleus- English Settlements including the USA-
    Nucleus and farm around it
  • Metes-and-Bounds- Natural boundaries
  • Leads to issues when the boundaries move
  • Rectangular land survey- USA after England
  • Put it on a grid
  • Long Lot System- found in French areas of the USA
    and areas the Spanish came
  • Found with a river at the front for the soil

51
  • Derelict Landscape
  • Consumption Landscape
  • The Citarum River in Indonesia.
  • Corn Belt
  • Nodes Navigation

52
  • Taboo a restriction on behavior imposed by
    social custom.
  • Ex little to no pork is consumed in
    predominantly Muslim countries.

53
Food Taboos Jews cant eat animals that chew
cud, that have cloven feet cant mix meat and
milk, or eat fish lacking fins or scales
Muslims no pork Hindus no cows (used for
oxen during monsoon)Taboo Project
Washing Cow in Ganges
54
Folk Culture Review
  • Stable and close knit
  • Usually a rural community
  • Tradition controls
  • Resistance to change
  • Buildings erected without architect or blueprint
    using locally available building materials
  • anonymous origins, diffuses slowly through
    migration. Develops over time.
  • Clustered distributions isolation/lack of
    interaction breed uniqueness and ties to physical
    environment.

55
North American Folk Culture Regions
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57
Key Issue 3 Why is popular culture widely
distributed?
  • Pop culture, compared to folk, varies widely from
    time to time in a given place. This is due to
    its widespread and rapid diffusion, and the
    relative wealth of the people to acquire the
    materials associated with pop culture. Pop
    culture flourishes where people have sufficient
    income to acquire the tangible elements of the
    culture and the leisure time to make use of them.

58
  • Housing in the US, from the 1940s on, has been
    less dependent on what type of house is
    appropriate for what site or region, but more on
    what the dominant trend is in the architectural
    field at the time of construction.

59
U.S. House Types by Region
Small towns in different regions of the eastern
U.S. have different combinations of five main
traditional house types.
60
  • The most prominent example of pop culture in the
    realm of clothing is the mighty blue jeans. They
    have become a symbol of youth and
    westernization throughout the world. Many
    people in foreign countries are willing to depart
    with a weeks earnings just for a pair of Levi
    jeans.

61
  • Clothing Jeans, for example, and have become
    valuable status symbols in many regions including
    Asia and Russia despite longstanding folk
    traditions.

62
  • Food preferences in pop culture depend on high
    income and national advertising. The spatial
    distribution of many food or beverage trends are
    difficult to explain.
  • Wine is generally consumed in areas where the
    vineyards grow best, and where people can afford
    to drink it.
  • Religious taboos often are responsible for
    certain areas preference or dislike of specific
    foods, much as in folk custom.
  • Ex Wine is rarely consumed outside Christian
    dominate countries.

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65
Beijing, China2004
66
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67
  • TELEVISION IS THE MOST IMPORTANT MECHANISM FOR
    THE RAPID DIFFUSION OF POP CULTURE. It is also
    the most popular leisure activity in MDCs
    throughout the world. There are four levels of
    television service
  • Near universal ownership. US, Japan, Europe,
    etc.
  • Ownership common, but not universal. Latin
    American countries, etc.
  • Ownership exists, but is not widely diffused.
    Some African and Asian countries,
  • Very few televisions. Sub-Saharan Africa, some
    regions of Mid East.

68
Diffusion of TV, 19541999
Television has diffused widely since the 1950s,
but some areas still have low numbers of TVs per
population.
  • Much media is still state-controlled.
  • Ten Most Censored Countries
  • North Korea
  • Myanmar (Burma)
  • Turkmenistan
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Libya
  • Eritrea
  • Cuba
  • Uzbekistan
  • Syria
  • Belarus
  • Source The Committee to Protect Journalists.
    www.cpj.org.

69
Diffusion of TV1954 - 2005
Television has diffused widely since the 1950s,
but some areas still have low numbers of TVs per
population.
70
  • Diffusion of the Internet is following roughly
    the same pattern as TV did at the start, which is
    the U.S. has a disproportionately large share of
    the Internet hosts compared to its share of the
    world population. As the Internet increasingly
    becomes the peoples resource of choice, pop
    culture will have yet another conduit to rapidly
    and effectively diffuse to nearly every inhabited
    place on the planet.

71
Distribution of Internet Users, 1990 - 2005
Internet users per 1000 population. Diffusion of
internet service is following the pattern of TV
diffusion in the 20th century, but at a much
faster rate.
72
Internet Connections
The Internet is diffusing today, but access
varies widely.
73
Internet Connections
The Internet is diffusing today, but access
varies widely. Some countries censor the
Internet, but this is much harder to do.
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75
Key Issue 4 Why does globalization of popular
culture cause problems?
  • DOMINANCE OF WESTERN PERSPECTIVES
  • Three MDCs, the U.S., the U.K., and Japan,
    virtually control the television industry.
  • At least one of the three serves nearly every LDC
    on Earth.
  • The U.S. serves primarily Latin America
  • the U.K. serves primarily Africa
  • Japan serves mainly S. and E. Asia.
  • Many LDC leaders claim that because the
    westerners own nearly all of the TV broadcast
    within their countries, a fair, unbiased report
    of local news is not presented. Instead, the
    media focuses only on sensational,
    rating-boosting stories.

76
Why Does Globalization of Popular Culture Cause
Problems?
  • The basic problems related to social customs
    derive from
  • the increasing dominance of popular culture,
    originating in more developed countries, and
  • the diffusing more rapidly around the world than
    in the past due to modern communications.
  • This increasing dominance of popular culture
    poses two problems
  • the threat to survival of distinctive folk
    customs and
  • increasing pollution.

77
Impacts of the Globalization of Popular Culture
  • Threats to folk culture
  • Loss of traditional values
  • Foreign media dominance
  • Environmental impacts of popular culture
  • Modifying nature
  • Uniform landscapes
  • Negative environmental impact
  • NIMBY

78
The Generational and Cultural Divide
  • Theyre well-off, well educated, widely traveled,
    fluent in several languages.
  • The elder woman, mother of the younger, is a
    biochemist, married to a prosperous businessman
    in Mumbai.
  • Her daughter (in a PVC catsuit of her own design)
    is a model and former host on the music video
    channel VTV.
  • Parents vs. You!!

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84
Marboloro Man in Egypt
85
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88
Problems with the Globalization of Popular Culture
  • Western Media Imperialism?
  • U.S., Britain, and Japan dominate worldwide
    media.
  • Glorified consumerism, violence, sexuality, and
    militarism?
  • U.S. (Networks and CNN) and British (BBC) news
    media provide/control the dissemination of
    information worldwide.
  • These networks are unlikely to focus or provide
    third world perspective on issues important in
    the LDCs.

89
Abu Dubai
New York City
Tokyo
Bilbao
90
  • ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
  • Pop culture is less likely than folk to be
    considerate of physical features.
  • For many popular customs, the environment is
    something to be modified to enhance a product or
    promote its sale.
  • Ex golf courses, destruction/modification of
    large expanses of wilderness to promote a popular
    social custom.

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92
Problems with the Globalization of Culture
  • Often Destroys Folk Culture or preserves
    traditions as museum pieces or tourism gimmicks.
  • Mexican Mariachis Polynesian Navigators Cruise
    Line Simulations
  • Change in Traditional Roles and Values
    Polynesian weight problems

Satellite Television, Baja California
93
Popular Culture
  • Effects on Landscape creates homogenous,
    placeless (Relph, 1976), landscape
  • Pop culture also promotes uniformity of
    landscape, as evidenced by the prevalence of
    nearly identical fast-food restaurants at
    convenient stops along highways.
  • Complex network of roads and highways
  • Commercial Structures tend towards boxes
  • Dwellings may be aesthetically suggestive of
    older folk traditions
  • Planned and Gated Communities more and more common

94
Surfing at Disneys Orlando Typhoon Lagoon Are
places still tied to local landscapes?
Disconnect with landscape indoor swimming pools?
desert surfing?
95
McDonalds Restaurant, Vencie
Swimming Pool, West Edmonton Mall, Canada
Dubais Indoor Ski Resort
96
Muslim Women in Traditional Dress at Indoor Ski
Resort
97
Environmental Problems with Cultural Globalization
  • Accelerated Resource Use through Accelerated
    Consumption
  • Furs minx, lynx, jaguar, kangaroo, whale, sea
    otters (18th Century Russians) fed early fashion
    trends
  • Inefficient over-consumption of Meats (101),
    Poultry (31), even Fish (fed other fish and
    chicken) by meat-eating pop cultures
  • Mineral Extraction for Machines, Plastics and
    Fuel
  • New Housing and associated energy and water use.
  • Golf courses use valuable water and destroy
    habitat worldwide.
  • Pollution waste from fuel generation and
    discarded products, plastics, marketing and
    packaging materials

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99
Beijing, China
Palm Springs, CA
100
Marlboro Man in Egypt
101
Benefits of Economic and Cultural Globalization
  • Increased economic opportunity?
  • Higher standards of living?
  • Increased consumer choice
  • More political freedom?
  • More social freedom?
  • Is Globalization good or bad?
  • Explain using the text to back your answers

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103
World Values Survey
104
Everyone Has a Culture Everyone is Different
  1. What languages do you speak?
  2. What music do you listen to?
  3. What dances do you know?
  4. What food do you eat at home?
  5. In your family, what is considered polite and
    what is considered rude? (what manners have you
    been taught?)
  6. What do you wear on special occasions?
  7. How important is your extended family (e.g.
    grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins)?
  8. What holidays and ceremonies are important to
    your family?
  9. What things are most important to you?
  10. Based on your answers, how would you describe the
    characteristics of the culture of which you are a
    part?

105
The End
  • Sources cited
  • Rubenstein, James M. An Introduction to Human
    Geography. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle
    River, New Jersey. 2002.
  • Jordan-Bychkov, Terry G. The Human Mosaic. New
    York. W. H. Freeman and Company. 2003.
  • Paradis, Tom. Architectural Styles of America.
    http//jan.ucc.nau.edu/ntwp/architecture/index.htm
    l.

106
  • Rubenstein, James- Cultural Landscape An
    Introduction to Human Geography
  • http//www.glendale.edu/geo/reed/cultural/cultural
    _lectures.htm
  • http//www.quia.com/pages/mrsbellaphg.html
  • Ike Heard-http//geoearth.uncc.edu/people/iheard/1
    105syllabus.html
  • Google
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