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SPANISH CIVIL WAR

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Title: SPANISH CIVIL WAR Author: PERSONAL Last modified by: PERSONAL Created Date: 10/19/2008 8:56:36 PM Document presentation format: Presentaci n en pantalla (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SPANISH CIVIL WAR


1
SPANISH CIVIL WAR
  • 1936-1939

2
WHO THE REPUBLICANS WERE
  • Urban workers, most landless peasants, much of
    the educated middle class, all the left-wing
    political groups and socialist and anarchist
    Trade Unions
  • They were particularly strong in industrial
    regions such as Asturias and Cataluña.

3
WHO THE NATIONALISTS WERE?
  • The majority of Catholic clergy and practicing
    Catholics (outside of the Basque region), most
    of the large landowners, many businessmen,
    carlists, monarchists, centralists (those opposed
    to regional autonomies) and fascists
  • They kept the best trained part of the Army,
    that is, the Army of Morocco, and many important
    officials.

4
FOREIGN INVOLVEMENT
  • Portugal, Germany and Italy helped the
    Nationalists.
  • The democratic countries decided not to get
    involved (Non Intervention)

5
FOREIGN INVOLVEMENT
  • The Soviet Union and Mexico helped the
    Republicans
  • The International Brigades and American
    Volunteers went to Spain to protect the Popular
    Front government. They were always led by
    Communists.

6
DEVELOPMENT OF THE WAR
  • On 19th July, 1936, General Francisco Franco
    assumed command of the Nationalist forces.
  • In 1936, October, Franco was named Generalísimo
    de los Ejércitos and Head of the State of the
    National area.

7
DEVELOPMENT OF THE WAR
8
MADRID
  • The main aim of the rebels was to occupy Madrid.
    But the defence of the city was fierce some
    Anarchist Brigades from Cataluña and the first
    volunteers of the International Brigades took
    part in it. The Republican government was forced
    to shift from Madrid to Valencia, out of the
    combat zone.

9
MADRID
  • Having failed to take the capital, Franco
    bombarded it from the air.

10
GUERNIKA
  • After the failed attempt to conquer Madrid,
    Franco decided to finish the Republican North
    defence.
  • In April the German Condor Legion bombed the town
    of Guernika in the Basque Country, causing
    hundreds of casualties.

11
INTERNAL PROBLEMS IN THE REPUBLICAN SIDE
  • In the anarchist-controlled areas, Aragon and
    Catalonia, workers and peasants collectivized
    land and industry, and set up councils parallel
    to the Republican government. This revolution was
    opposed by both the Soviet-supported communists,
    and Social Democratic Republicans.

12
INTERNAL PROBLEMS IN THE REPUBLICAN SIDE
  • As the war progressed, Anarchists and the POUM
    (Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista) were
    integrated with the regular army, but in May 1937
    anarchists and communists engaged each other in
    violent street battles in the city of Barcelona.

13
END OF THE WAR
At the end of March, 1939, the Nationalists
entered Madrid. The war was finished.
14
CONSEQUENCES
  • Evacuation of children to Mexico, Britain,
    Belgium, the Soviet Union and other European
    countries. Many of those in the Soviet Union,
    from Communist families, remained there and
    experienced the Second World War

15
CONSEQUENCES
  • Atrocities were committed on both sides during
    the war. The terror was used against civilians.
    In the case of the Nationalist side, these
    atrocities were ordered by fascist authorities in
    order to eradicate any trace of leftism in
    Spain.The most famous victim was the poet and
    dramatist Federico García Lorca.

16
CONSEQUENCES
  • Atrocities on the Republican side were committed
    by groups of radical leftists (not by the
    government) against the rebel supporters,
    including the nobility, former landowners, rich
    farmers, industrialists and the Church

17
CONSEQUENCES
  • After the end of the War, there were brutal
    reprisals against Franco's leftist former
    enemies. Thousands of Republicans were imprisoned
    and executed.

Many other Republicans fled abroad, especially to
France and Mexico.
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