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From the end of the Civil War to the outbreak of the Spanish-American War

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1865-1898 From the end of the Civil War to the outbreak of the Spanish-American War Also known as Late 19th Century America The Gilded Age Characterized by – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: From the end of the Civil War to the outbreak of the Spanish-American War


1
1865-1898
  • From the end of the Civil War to the outbreak of
    the Spanish-American War
  • Also known as
  • Late 19th Century America
  • The Gilded Age
  • Characterized by
  • Final subjugation of the Native Americans in the
    West
  • Rapid industrialization
  • Rapid urbanization

2
The West
  • A key characteristic of the Late 19th Century is
    the settlement of the American West
  • By American West we are referring to the Great
    Plains and Rocky Mountains
  • This is the period in American history of the
    Wild, Wild, West and Cowboys and Indians

3
The Homestead Act (1862)
  • Federal Government land west of the Mississippi
    River offered to loyal Americans
  • Up to 160 acres is made for the purpose of
    actual settlement and cultivation
  • Required to build a structure on the land
  • Paved the way for the settlement of the Great
    Plains

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The Pacific Railway Act (1862)
  • Established federal government funding for a
    transcontinental RR
  • Central Pacific and Union Pacific RRs
  • The companies were given millions of acres of
    public land and lent money by the federal
    government
  • Chinese laborers on west coast
  • Promoted the settlement of the West

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8
The Peopling of the West
  • 8 minutes The Grandest Enterprise Under God
    The origins of the Transcontinental RR
  • 6 Minutes Good Company The settlers of the
    West

9
The Peopling of the West
  • 15 Minutes The Geography of Hope - Exodusters,
    Proud settlers
  • 6 minutes - Fast forward to Chinese
  • 4 minutes Fast forward to Mexican experience

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12
The West
  • We are going to focus on the series of events
    that led to the destruction of the cultural life
    of the native Americans that lived on the Great
    Plains
  • What were characteristics of their culture?
  • Nomadic hunters
  • Followed buffalo herds and utilized the buffalo
    in every way imaginable
  • No individual ownership of land

13
Causation
  • How did the peopling of the west affect the
    natives that lived on the Great Plains?
  • 5 Minutes - A Wound in the Heart The
    Destruction of the Buffalo

14
Document Analysis Fort Laramie Treaty to
Wounded Knee
  • Primary or Secondary Source?
  • Who is the author of the source?
  • When was the source created? (Contextualization)
  • Analysis
  • The significance or importance of the source
  • A counter-argument
  • Additional Point
  • Argument made
  • Intended Audience
  • Purpose
  • POV

15
The Fort Laramie Treaty (1868)
  • Peace agreement between the U.S. government and
    some representatives of the Lakota (Sioux)
  • U.S. government promised the sacred Black Hills
    to the Lakota (Sioux)
  • Sioux agree to leave western settlers alone and
    stop attacking railroads
  • Treaty violated when white settlers moved into
    the Black Hills looking for gold

16

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The Battle of Little Bighorn (1876)
  • General George Armstrong Custer and the 7th U.S.
    Cavalry was sent to round up some Lakota leaders
    (including Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse) who left
    their reservation and refused to renegotiate the
    Fort Laramie Treaty (so the new settlers could
    stay in the Black Hills)
  • Custer and over 200 of his men were slaughtered
    (Custers Last Stand)

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23
The Dawes Act (1887)
  • A sincere attempt to assimilate American Indians
    into U.S. society
  • Tried to establish individual ownership of land
    so that natives could become farmers
  • The folly in this was that they were historically
    nomadic hunters that considered land to be
    communally owned

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26
Wounded Knee (1890)
  • The symbolic end to Native American resistance to
    U.S. authority
  • Over 300 men, women, and children massacred in
    the snow by the U.S. military after months of
    tension
  • The Ghost Dance had spread across the plains as a
    last, desperate hope for the Plains Indians

27
Frozen body of Bigfoot
28
Frozen body at Wounded Knee
29
Frozen body at Wounded Knee
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32
Mass Grave at Wounded Knee
33
The Rise of Big Business
  • The Civil War ignited a second American
    industrial revolution
  • By 1900 the U.S. was the leading manufacturing
    nation on earth

34
The Rise of Big Business
  • The railroad, oil, and steel industries paved the
    way for this economic growth
  • Even the ex-Confederate states became more
    industrialized (The New South) as businessmen
    took advantage of cheap southern labor (Textile
    mills)

35
The Role of Government
  • Pro-Business government policies also encouraged
    industrialization
  • Laissez-Faire (virtually no government taxation
    or regulation of business)
  • Anti-labor union
  • Promoted westward expansion and global markets

36
The Trusts
  • This was a period of large scale production and a
    period of business consolidation
  • Trusts (Corporations that joined together to
    control production and prices to their benefit)
    emerged in all the major industries in the
    country
  • The big business interests in the country greatly
    influenced, often in unethical/corrupt ways, the
    nations political leaders

37
Labor Unions
  • The tremendous economic growth benefitted many
    Americans but also created great amounts of
    economic inequality (rich vs. poor)
  • Industrial workers organized themselves into
    unions
  • Two national labor unions emerged
  • The Knights of Labor (unskilled workers more
    radical)
  • The American Federation of Labor (skilled
    workers focused more on better pay and
    conditions, still exists)

38
Moderate Critics
  • Different groups of Americans criticized big
    business and our economic system
  • Some wanted reform and called for government to
    protect the public interests (the people) vs. the
    corporate interests (big business)
  • Liberals/Progressives in the cities
  • Populists amongst farmers

39
Radical Critics
  • Others were more radical and wanted to overhaul
    the free market, laissez-faire capitalist system
  • Socialists (wanted the workers to own and operate
    the industries)
  • Anarchists (believed all government benefitted
    the rich at the expense of the poor)

40
Social Darwinism
  • The Captains of Industry (men like Rockefeller,
    Vanderbilt, and J.P. Morgan) justified their
    wealth by promoting what is known as SOCIAL
    DARWINISM

41
Social Darwinism
  • Social Darwinism the application of Darwins
    survival of the fittest to human relations.
  • The poor are poor as a result of weaknesses in
    their character, genetic flaws, mental
    incapacity, etc
  • The best and the brightest rise to the topthey
    acquire wealth and power

42
Philanthropy
  • Many of these men also gave a lot of their wealth
    to various charities
  • Some of the finest universities in the country
    were started with gifts from Captains of Industry
    like DUKE, STANFORD, VANDERBILT, and CORNELL

43
The Gospel of Wealth
  • Men like Andrew Carnegie argued that the rich had
    an obligation to use that wealth for the
    betterment of society THE GOSPEL OF WEALTH

44
Document Analysis
  • Evaluate the 2012 DBQ

45
Horatio Alger
  • Late 19th Century author
  • Wrote stories of young boys who were poor but,
    through hard work perseverance, honesty and
    courage were able to rise in status (Social
    Darwinism)

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48
Twain Lampoons the Alger myth
  • http//historymatters.gmu.edu/d/4935/

49
Quick Review
  • What were the four largest and most violent labor
    strikes of the Gilded Age?
  • The Great RR Strike of 1877
  • The Haymarket Square Strike Chicago 1886
  • The Homestead Strike Outside of Pittsburgh 1892
  • The Pullman Strike Chicago 1894

50
Capitalism vs. Socialism
  • Benefits of Capitalism
  • Encourages inventiveness
  • Provides consumers with many different products
  • Provides many economic opportunities and chances
    to acquire wealth
  • Increases the standard of living for many people

51
Costs of Capitalism
  • Volatile Boom and bust
  • Wealth is not distributed equitably
  • The drive for profit can be more important than
    individuals (dangerous working conditions,
    lay-offs)
  • Critics of capitalism called for greater
    government control of the economic system and a
    more equitable society. Some of these critics
    wanted to replace Capitalism with whats known as
    Socialism

52
Capitalism vs. Socialism
  • Socialism has its roots in 19th century Europe
  • Karl Marx, a Prussian born philosopher and
    historian, is the most influential socialist
    thinker
  • Marx saw history as a continuous class struggle
    (rich vs. poor)
  • He witnessed industrial capitalism while living
    in London, was horrified by it and predicted its
    eventual demise

53
Capitalism vs. Socialism
  • Marx predicted that capitalism would be replaced,
    in the end, by a classless society
  • In the meantime, industrial workers needed to
    unite
  • Workers of the world unite you have nothing to
    lose but your chains
  • View Excerpts from New York including How the
    Other Half Lives video clip (Episode 3)

54
Gilded Age Politics
  • Political balance in Congress between Republicans
    and Democrats
  • Every president was a northerner
  • Republican Party
  • Party of big business
  • Party of protective tariffs
  • Party of civil service reform (how govt. workers
    got their jobs)
  • Almost exclusively a northern party

55
Gilded Age Politics
  • Democratic Party
  • Party of states rights and limited government
  • Boasted of being a white mans party both north
    and south
  • Dominated Southern politics (The Solid South)
  • Grover Cleveland only Democratic president of
    the time period

56
Gilded Age Politics
  • A time period of rampant political corruption on
    the national, state, and local levels
  • Political machines wielded power in many American
    cities

57
Political Machines
  • Urban political organizations, often headed by a
    boss, that used their power to make their
    members rich
  • The machine provided services to urban voters in
    an attempt to win their votes
  • They also won the loyalty of local businesses who
    often benefited
  • From the actions of the machine

58
Tammany Hall
  • The Democratic Party political machine that
    dominated politics in New York City for many
    years
  • Its most notorious boss was William Marcy
    Tweed Boss Tweed
  • Tweed video time baby!!!

59
Thomas Nast Political Cartoonist
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65
  • Read from the Strenuous Life of a Tammany leader
  • Go to Honest vs. Dishonest graft
  • George Washington Plunkitt

66
Presidents of the Gilded Age
  • Hayes (R) (1877-1881)
  • Garfield (R) (1881)
  • Arthur (R) (1881-1885)
  • Cleveland (D) (1885-1889)
  • Harrison (R) (1889-1893)
  • Cleveland (D) (1893-1897)

67
Gilded Age Vocab/Identification
  • Conspicuous consumption
  • Mother Jones
  • The New South
  • Dept. of the Interior
  • Sierra Club
  • NAWSA
  • WCTU
  • Ghost Dance movement
  • Chinese Exclusion Act
  • Gospel of Wealth
  • The Social Gospel

68
Promontory Point, Utah (1869)
69
The Farmers Dilemma
  • Technological improvements created greater
    efficiency in production
  • Fewer farmers produced more crops the U.S.
    became a world leader in agriculture and meat
  • But farmers now had to buy expensive machinery in
    order to plant and harvest crops (increased debt
    owed to Eastern financial institutions)

70
The Farmers Dilemma
  • Farmers competed in an extremely competitive
    world market with NO tariffs to protect them
  • Therefore, their own production along with crops
    grown around the world (Wheat from Russia for
    example) created an oversupply that drove down
    prices

71
The Farmers Dilemma
  • Periodic droughts, floods, as well as grasshopper
    and cotton-boll weevil infestations ravaged farms
  • Farmers in the South and West (Texas, Kansas,
    Nebraska, the Dakotas, Colorado) were hit hardest
  • They also faced declining influence/status as the
    U.S. became more industrial and more urban
    (hayseeds, hicks)

72
Farmers Organize
  • Farmers began to organize Granges, Farmers
    Alliances, Populist Party
  • They blamed
  • RR companies for high rates of transport
    (sometimes burning corn for fuel was more
    efficient than transporting it)
  • eastern financial institutions for high interest
    rates
  • A low money supply that contributed to high
    interest rates

73
The Omaha Platform
  • The Populist Party emerged to speak to these
    concerns (Mary Lease Raise more hell and less
    corn)

74
Free Silver!
  • The Omaha Platform (1892)
  • Unlimited coinage of silver at a ratio of 16 oz.
    of silver to 1 oz. of gold
  • This would increase the money supply, create
    inflation thus raising the price of their crops,
    and making it easier to pay off debts (Debtors
    vs. Creditors issue like Shays Rebellion in
    1786)

75
The Omaha Platform
  • A graduated income tax (higher percentage paid by
    wealthier Americans)
  • Government ownership of the RRs, telephone and
    telegraph companies
  • The direct election of senators (greater
    democracy)
  • Positions many Progressives will also support

76
The Election of 1896
  • On the heels of a terrible depression
  • The Democratic Party adopted many of the
    proposals of the Populists

77
  • The Democrats and the Populists both nominated
    William Jennings Bryan of Nebraska after his
    resounding Cross of Gold speech at the
    Democratic National Convention

78
Cross of Gold Speech (1896)
  • We will answer their demands for a gold standard
    by saying to them You shall not press down
    upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you
    shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.

79
The Election of 1896
  • The Republican Party represented the established
    business interests in the country
  • They nominated William McKinley of Ohio (Bryan
    vs. McKinleyThe agricultural West vs. the
    industrial eastbusiness interests vs.
    agricultural interests)

80
Electoral Results - 1896
81
Importance of the Election of 1896
  • Ushered in a period of Republican Party control
    of both Congress and the Presidency
  • Clearly established the dominance of the
    industrial and financial interests over the
    agricultural interests

82
By the end of the Gilded Age
  • The U.S. was a world economic power
  • The U.S. was beginning to expand its influence
    around the world economically and militarily
  • A small but growing conservationist movement
    began
  • More and more Americans called for Government
    (federal and state) to level the playing field by
    reigning in the power of big business and the
    influence of the super rich

83
Federal Government Interference in the economy
  • The Interstate Commerce Act (1887) gave the
    federal government power to regulate the RR
    industry
  • The Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890) gave the
    federal government the power to break up
    monopolies
  • Pay attention to how strictly these laws were
    enforced in the late 19th and early 20th centuries
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