From Washington to the Civil War Part II - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – From Washington to the Civil War Part II PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 836be7-ZjA0N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

From Washington to the Civil War Part II

Description:

From Washington to the Civil War Part II AMERICA EXPANDS FROM THE CONSTITUTION TO THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY Prof. Ruthie Garc a Vera – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:105
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 59
Provided by: Ruth1187
Learn more at: http://www.mrsruthie.net
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: From Washington to the Civil War Part II


1
From Washington to the Civil War Part II
  • AMERICA EXPANDS FROM THE CONSTITUTION TO THE
    SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY

Prof. Ruthie García Vera AP US History
2
MARTIN VAN BUREN
  • EIGHTH PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
  • 1837-1841

3
  • In 1836, Democrat Martin Van Buren won the
    Presidency.
  • Van Buren played key roles in the creation of
    both the Democratic Party and the so-called
    "second party system" in which Democrats competed
    with their opponents, the Whigs.
  • He inherited problems from the Bank Wars.
  • Declaring that the panic was due to recklessness
    in business and overexpansion of credit, he
    devoted himself to maintaining the solvency of
    the national Government.

4
Van Buren believed in the principles of a limited
federal government, defense of states rights, and
protection of the "people" from the
"powerful. He opposed the creation of a new
Bank of the United States and the placing of
Government funds in state banks. The President
proposed that the federal government deposit its
funds in an independent treasury, rather than in
state banks, which Congress authorized in the
summer of 1840. His main foreign policy concerns
were the tensions between the United States and
Great Britain over the border with Canada,
working successfully through diplomatic channels
to calm tensions in the region.
5
The Market Revolution 1815-1840
  • The first half of the 19th century in America,
    brought vast changes to technology,
    transportation, and production.
  • Known as the Market Revolution, people
    increasingly bought and sold goods rather than
    make them for themselves.

A 19th century market
6
Panic of 1837
  • After Van Burens election in 1837 a panic set in
    and many banks closed, accounts went bankrupted,
    and unemployment soared.
  • Van Buren fought for the establishment of an
    independent treasury system to handle Government
    transactions.
  • He cut off expenditures to internal improvements
    so completely that the Government sold the tools
    it used on public works.
  • Inclined to oppose the expansion of slavery, Van
    Buren blocked the annexation of Texas because it
    assuredly would add to slave territory--and it
    might bring war with Mexico.

7
Workers Rights
  • In 1834, Lowell, Massachusetts textile workers
    went on strike after their wages were lowered,
    one example of the dozens of strikes in the U.S.
    in the 1830s and 1840s.
  • Several industries formed the National Trade
    Union in 1834 in hopes of bettering their
    conditions

STRIKES AND UNIONS BECAME MORE NUMEROUS AFTER 1830
8
Labor Strikes in the 1840s
Why were they ineffective?
  • Workers were not well organized.
  • Workers had little public support.
  • Strikers could be easily replaced
  • (especially by immigrants)

9
New Inventions
  • 1837 Samuel Morse invented the Telegraph.
  • Railroads were becoming faster and more numerous
    by 1830 surpassing canals as 1 means of
    transport.
  • Robert Fulton invented the Steamboat and by 1830,
    200 were on the Mississippi.
  • John Deeres Plow and Cyrus McCormicks Reaper
    improved agriculture.

By 1854, 23,000 miles of telegraph wire crossed
the country.
10
WILLIAM HARRISON
  • NINTH PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
  • 1841

11
  • Whig William Henry Harrison defeated Democrat Van
    Buren in the election of 1840
  • Harrison, known as Tippecanoe for the battle
    against Tecumseh he won in the War of 1812, died
    of pneumonia a month into his term.
  • His Vice President, John Tyler became president.

12
JOHN TYLER
  • TENTH PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
  • 1841-1845

13
  • After Tyler vetoed a bill to resurrect the Bank
    of the United States, his entire cabinet, except
    his Secretary of State Webster, resigned in
    protest.
  • In his second year in office, the Whigs, led by
    Henry Clay, expelled him from the party and tried
    to have him impeached, but Congress only passed a
    resolution of censorship against the President.
  • Tyler introduced the annexation Texas to Congress
    as a joint resolution requiring only a majority
    vote of each chamber of Congress, not the
    two-thirds majority required to ratify a treaty,
    achieving Texas's incorporation into the Union.

14
Manifest Destiny
  • In the 1840s Americans became preoccupied with
    expansion.
  • Manifest Destiny, a newspaper editorial that
    stated the belief that the nation would expand
    from sea to shining sea and that their movement
    westward was predestined by the Divine Providence
    or God, was accepted as a complement to Monroes
    Doctrine.

15
United States Expansion by 1853 - Manifest Destiny
16
Trails To The West
  • No highways existed, thus wagon trails served as
    the roads to the West.
  • Santa Fe Trail ran from Independence, Missouri to
    Santa Fe, New Mexico.
  • Oregon Trail stretched from Missouri
    (Independence) to Oregon City, Oregon.
  • Mormons especially utilized the Oregon Trail on
    their way to Salt Lake City.

17
Mexico Controls Texas
  • After 300 years of Spanish rule, Mexican settlers
    felt at home in Texas territory.
  • Mexico won their independence from Spain in 1821.
  • Mexican officials offered land in Texas to
    Americans to make the area more stable.
  • Americans soon outnumbered Mexicans in Texas and
    trouble started.

18
Texas Independence
  • Stephen Austin established a colony of Americans
    in Texas.
  • Conflicts intensified between Mexicans and
    Americans in Texas.
  • One issue was the slaves many Americans had
    brought with them.
  • Mexico had outlawed slavery in 1829.

19
Remember The Alamo
  • Mexican President Santa Anna was determined to
    force Texans to obey Mexican law.
  • Santa Anna marched his troops toward San Antonio
    at the same time Austin issued a call to arms
    for all American Texans.
  • American forces moved into a mission known as the
    Alamo in 1836.
  • After 13 days the Mexican troops scaled the walls
    and slaughtered all 187 Americans.

THE ALAMO IN SAN ANTONIO
20
JAMES POLK
  • ELEVENTH PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
  • 1845-1849

21
Territory, Tariffs, and Slavery
1844 presidential election winner, James Polk,
eagerly wanted to secure Texas as part of the
U.S. which had been annexed by President John
Tyler in his last days in office in
1845. President Polk acquired the territory
containing present-day Oregon, Washington, and
Idaho from the British, and then turned his
attention to Texas. Congress declared war on
Mexico, which refused to give up the rights to
its disputed territories with the United States.
The war became Polks War.
22
Mexican - American War
  • Negotiations failed and U.S. troops moved into
    Mexican territory in 1845.
  • America victories soon followed, and in 1848
    Mexican leader Santa Anna conceded defeat.
  • In the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo United States
    imposed a Rio Grande border for Texas and paid
    15 million to Mexico for the territories of
    California and New Mexico.

Mexican President Santa Anna
23
  • Domestically, Polk wanted to stabilize the U.S.
    banking system and to lower tariffs.
  • He found himself challenged by the Wilmot
    Proviso, a bill that intended to ban slavery in
    all territories acquired from Mexico, that passed
    the House repeatedly, but the Senate never
    concurred.
  • The unresolved status of slavery in the new
    western territories outlived disputes over
    banking and the tariff, becoming the most
    contentious issue facing the United States in the
    years immediately following Polk's presidency.

24
(No Transcript)
25
ZACHARY TAYLOR
  • TWELFTH PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
  • 1849-1850

In all disputes between conflicting governments
it is our interest not less than our duty to
remain strictly neutral .?.?. ?March 5, 1849
26
  • Slavery would be the central challenge of
    Taylor's presidency.
  • He believed that the people of California,
    including the Mormons around Salt Lake, and New
    Mexico should be allowed to decide for themselves
    whether or not to permit slavery in their
    constitutions and to apply immediately for
    statehood.
  • Many in the South feared that the addition of two
    free states would upset the delicate North-South
    balance in the Senate.
  • Some southern Democrats called for a secession
    convention, and Taylor's reaction was a bristling
    statement that he would hang anyone who tried to
    disrupt the Union by force or by conspiracy.

27
The Compromise of 1850
  • Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and others proposed
    the enactment of a Second Fugitive Slave Law that
    would mandate the return of escaped slaves
    apprehended anywhere in the nation.
  • The compromise did not prohibit slavery in the
    Mexican Cession.
  • California was admitted as a free state, and Utah
    and New Mexico organized as formal territories,
    without any restrictions on slavery. This left
    open the possibility that any states formed from
    those territories could be admitted as slave
    state.

28
  • The North was outraged by that concession to the
    South and opposed any further extension of
    slavery. This was the issue that pushed the
    nation down the road to Civil War.
  • On July 4, 1850, Taylor contracted a virulent
    stomach ailment that may have been cholera and
    died on July 9.
  • He left behind a country sharply divided and a
    vice president, Millard Fillmore, who supported
    the Compromise of 1850.

29
THIRTEENTH PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED
STATES1850-1853
MILLARD FILLMORE
The Constitution has made it the duty of the
President to take care that the laws be
faithfully executed. December 2, 1850
30
Millard Fillmore rise from a log cabin to wealth
and the White House, demonstrated that through
industry and competence any man could make the
American dream come true. On August 6, 1850, he
sent a message to Congress recommending that
Texas be paid to abandon her claims to part of
New Mexico. This helped influence the Whigs in
Congress away from their insistence upon the
Wilmot Proviso, that stated that all land gained
by the Mexican War must be closed to slavery.
31
Supporting the Compromise Of 1850
As President, Fillmore strongly supported the
compromise. Allying himself with the
Democratic Senator Stephen Douglas and appointing
Whig Daniel Webster as his secretary of state,
Fillmore engineered its passage. 1. Admit
California as a free state.   2. Settle the
Texas boundary and compensate her.   3. Grant
territorial status to New Mexico.   4. Place
Federal officers at the disposal of slaveholders
seeking fugitives. Fugitive Slave Act.   
5. Abolish the slave trade in the District
of Columbia.
32
  • By forcing these issues, Fillmore believed he had
    helped to safeguard the Union.
  • On foreign affairs, Fillmore dispatched Commodore
    Perry to "open" Japan to Western trade and worked
    to keep the Hawaiian Islands out of European
    hands.
  • He refused to back an invasion of Cuba by a group
    of Southern adventurers who wanted to expand the
    South into a slave-based Caribbean empire. The
    expedition failed and the Southerners blamed
    Fillmore.

33
  • The Whigs refused to forgive Fillmore for having
    signed the Fugitive Slave Act and deprive him of
    the Presidential nomination in 1852.
  • Although the Compromise had been intended to
    settle the slavery controversy, it served rather
    as an uneasy sectional truce.
  • As the Whig Party disintegrated in the 1850's,
    Fillmore refused to join the Republican Party
    but, in 1856 accepted the nomination for
    President of the Know Nothing, or American,
    Party. During the Civil War he opposed Lincoln
    and during Reconstruction he supported Johnson.
    He died in 1874.

34
The California Gold Rush
  • After gold was discovered at Sutters Mill,
    migration to California rose from 400 in 1848 to
    44,000 in 1850.
  • Folks who rushed to San Francisco in 1849 became
    known as Forty-Niners.
  • By 1857, the total of gold mined in California
    topped 2,000,000,000.

35
Reforming American Society
  • The Second Great Awakening spread Christianity
    through revival meetings.
  • Another growing religious group was the
    Unitarians who emphasized reason as path to
    perfection.
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson was a Unitarian preacher who
    developed Transcendentalism, living an ideal
    spiritual state.
  • These and other religions became the impetus for
    reforming society.

Ralph Waldo Emerson
36
The Abolitionist Movement
  • Abolitionist movement to free African Americans
    from slavery arose in the1820s.
  • Leader was a white radical named William Lloyd
    Garrison.
  • Abolitionists called for immediate emancipation
    of all slaves.

37
Frederick Douglass
  • A freed slave, Douglass escaped from bondage and
    became an eloquent abolitionist (critic of
    slavery) leader.
  • He began an anti-slavery newspaper called,
    Northstar , named after the star that guided
    runaway slaves to freedom.
  • Douglass' work as a reformer ranged from his
    abolitionist activities in the early 1840s to
    his attacks on Jim Crow and lynching in the 1890s.

38
Turners Rebellion
  • African-Americans were enslaved in the South and
    were subjected to constant degradation.
  • Most famous revolt against their condition was
    led by Virginia slave Nat Turner.
  • Turner led 50 followers in a revolt killing 60
    whites he was caught and executed.

Turner plans his rebellion
39
Women And Reform
  • From abolition to education, women worked
    actively in all reform movements.
  • Throughout the 1800s opportunity for women to
    become educated increased.
  • In 1833 Oberlin College became the first coed
    institution.

40
Womens Rights Movement Emerges
  • Reform movements of the 19th century spurred the
    development of a Womens Movement.
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott and Susan
    B. Anthony had been ardent abolitionists.
  • In 1848, more than 300 women participated in a
    Womens Right Convention in Seneca Falls, N.Y.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony
41
FRANKLIN PIERCE
  • FOURTEENTH PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED
    STATES1853-1857

I believe that involuntary servitude, as it
exists in different States of this Confederacy,
is recognized by the Constitution. March 4,
1853
42
Franklin Pierce became President at a time of
apparent tranquility but that was really a period
of growing tension between the North and
South. The United States, by virtue of the
Compromise of 1850, seemed to have weathered its
sectional storm. By pursuing the
recommendations of southern advisers, Pierce, a
New Englander, hoped to prevent still another
outbreak of that storm. But his policies, far
from preserving calm, hastened the disruption of
the Union.
43
Secretary of War Jefferson Davis, an advocate of
a southern transcontinental route, persuaded
Pierce to send senator James Gadsden to Mexico to
buy land for a southern railroad. The United
States bought the southern area of Arizona and
part of New Mexico for 15,000,000. (Gadsden
Purchase), providing a strip of land to the
Pacific Ocean, used for a route for the Southern
Pacific Railroad.
44
A politician of limited ability, Pierce was
behind one of the most crucial pieces of
legislation in American history. Although he
did not author the Kansas-Nebraska Act, he did
encourage its passage by Congress. That piece
of legislation set the nation on its path to
civil war. Proposed by Senator Stephen A.
Douglas, it repealed the Missouri Compromise and
reopened the question of slavery in the West.
45
  • Kansas-Nebraska 1854
  • Dos nuevos territorios federales.
  • Elimina Compromiso de Missouri.
  • Soberanía Popular en los territorios nuevos.

46
Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854
47
"Bleeding Kansas"
Stephen Douglas's proposal to organize western
territories through which a railroad might run
caused extreme trouble. In his bills, the
residents of the new territories could decide the
slavery question for themselves. (popular
sovereignty) The result was a rush into Kansas,
as southerners and northerners vied for control
of the territory The proslavery factions
installed their own government in the region and
demanded federal support. Enraged free-soil
residents tried to install their own government,
and by the end of Pierce's term, the Kansas
territory was the scene of violence and
bloodshed, "Bleeding Kansas."
48
Violence occurred in May 1856 when the town of
Lawrence was looted and burned by proslavery
Border Ruffians" from Missouri. A few days
later, militant abolitionists under John Brown
murdered five proslavery men at Pottawatomie in
retaliation for attacks on free-soil communities.
Pierce initially resisted sending federal troops
to restore order.
49
Border Ruffians
In 1859, John Brown seized the Southern town of
Harpers Ferry in Virginia in a futile attempt to
spark an uprising of slaves. Although Brown was
captured and hanged, his action drove another
wedge between North and South.
50
The Crime Against Kansas
Congr. Preston Brooks(D-SC)
Sen. Charles Sumner(R-MA)
51
JAMES BUCHANAN
  • FIFTEENTH PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED
    STATES1857-1861

I shall have no motive to influence my conduct
in administering the Government except the desire
ably and faithfully to serve my country and to
live in grateful memory of my countrymen.
March 4, 1857
52

Relying on constitutional doctrines to close the
rift over slavery, Buchanan failed to understand
that the North would not accept constitutional
arguments which favored the South. He did not
realize how sectionalism had realigned political
parties the Democrats split the Whigs were
destroyed, giving rise to the Republicans and the
eventual election of Lincoln.
53
As President-elect, Buchanan thought the crisis
would disappear if he maintained a sectional
balance in his appointments and could persuade
the people to accept constitutional law as the
Supreme Court interpreted it. The Court was
considering the legality of restricting slavery
in the territories, and two justices hinted to
Buchanan what the decision would be.
54
Dred Scott vs. Sanford 1857
55
Dred Scott Decision
Chief Justice Roger B. Taney delivered the Dred
Scott decision asserting that Congress had no
constitutional power to deprive persons of their
property rights of slaves in their territories.
  • A slave is property. As such it cannot sue his
    master.
  • The Constitution defends the right of property.
  • Congress cannot prohibit slavery.
  • The Missouri Compromise and popular sovereignty
    are both unconstitutional.

56
Presidential Elections of 1860
Sectional differences was so intense in 1860 that
the Democratic Party split into northern and
southern wings, each nominating its own candidate
for the Presidency. Consequently, when the
Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln, it was
certain that he would be elected even though his
name appeared on no southern ballot. Rather than
accept a Republican administration, the southern
"fire-eaters" advocated secession. President
Buchanan, denied the legal right of states to
secede but held that the Federal Government
legally could not prevent them.
57
1860Presidential Elections
v Abraham Lincoln Republican
John Bell Constitucional Union
Stephen A. DouglasNorthern Democrats
John C. BreckinridgeSouthern Democrats
58
1860 Elections, a Nation Divided
About PowerShow.com