THE TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE APPROACH TO LEARNING FOREIGN LANGUAGE - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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THE TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE APPROACH TO LEARNING FOREIGN LANGUAGE

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Using action-based drills in the imperative form ... (3) The imperative mood is the most common language function employed, even well into advanced ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE APPROACH TO LEARNING FOREIGN LANGUAGE


1
THE TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE APPROACH TO LEARNING
FOREIGN LANGUAGE
2
CONTENT
  • How it all started
  • The basic technique of TPR
  • Brain lateralization
  • How can I use it in the class?
  • The basic procedure
  • An example of TPR song
  • When should I use it?
  • Why should I use it?
  • Disadvantages

3
HOW IT ALL STARTED?
  • In the 1960s James J. Asher developed it on
    previous work of French teacher Francois Gouin
    (1800s).
  • It is based on analogy to parent-child
    interaction, in which parent speaks and child
    reacts physicaly.
  • The child acquires language through motor
    movement (a right hemisphere activity).
  • It is focused on the ideas that learning should
    be as fun and as stress free as possible.

4
Theory of language
  •  Asher does not directly adress his view of
    languag, but Richards and Rodgers state that the
    labeling and ordering of classroom activities
    seem to be build on the structural view of
    language.

5
Theory of learning
  • Asher's language learning theories seem similar
    to those of other behavioral psychologists. There
    are three principles he elaborates
  • Second language learning is parallel to first
    language learning and should reflect the same
    naturalistic processes
  • Listening should develop before speaking

6
  • Children respond physically to spoken language,
    and adult learners learn better if they do that
    too
  • Once listening comprehension has been developed,
    speech devlops naturally and effortlessly out of
    it.
  • Adults should use right-brain motor activities,
    while the left hemisphere watches and learns
  • Delaying speech reduces stress.

7
  • Objectives Here are some of the objectives of
    Total Physical Response 
  • Teaching oral proficiency at a beginning level
  • Using comprehension as a means to speaking
  • Using action-based drills in the imperative form
  • The syllabus TPR uses a sentence-based
    grammatical syllabus.

8
Key Features
  • (1)  The teacher directs and students "act" in
    response - "The instructor is the director of a
    stage play
  •       in which the students are the actors"
    (Asher, 197743).
  • (2)  Listening and physical response skills are
    emphasized over oral production.
  • (3)  The imperative mood is the most common
    language function employed, even well into
    advanced
  •       levels.  Interrogatives are also heavily
    used.

9
  • (4) Whenever possible, humor is injected into the
    lessons to make them more enjoyable for learners.
  • (5)  Students are not required to speak until
    they feel naturally ready or confident enough to
    do so.
  • (6)  Grammar and vocabulary are emphasized over
    other language areas.  Spoken language is
  •       emphasized over written language.

10
THE BASIC TECHNIQUE OF TPR
  • Learners act out simple commands given by the
    teacher or their fellow pupils (at a later stage)
    stand up, sit down
  • Learners are totally involved in TPR activities
    - they are allowed to concentrate on one thing
    only they act out what they've heard.
  • There is no pressure on them to speak the foreign
    language yet their inner readiness will develop
    gradually.

11
  • (1)  Using Commands to Direct Behavior
  •       (The use of commands requiring physical
    actions from the students in response is the
    major teaching
  •         technique)
  • (2)  Role Reversal
  •       (Students direct the teacher and fellow
    learners)
  • (3)  Action Sequence
  •       (Teacher gives interconnected directions
    which create a sequence of actions also called
    an
  •       "operation" - as students progress in
    proficiency, more and more commands are added to
    the
  •       action sequence.  Most everyday activities
    can be broken down into a sequence of actions)

12
BRAIN SWITCHING
  • THE LEFT BRAIN RESPONDS TO INPUT SUCH AS
  • analyzing
  • critiquing
  • discussing
  • explaining
  • talking
  • telling
  • THE RIGHT BRAIN RESPONDS TO INPUT SUCH AS
  • acting
  • drawing
  • games
  • gesturing
  • metaphor
  • physical movements

13
THE BASIC PROCEDURE
  • The teacher says and performs a command.
  • The teacher repeats the command, and the teacher
    and students perform the command.
  • The teacher repeats the command, and the students
    perform the command.
  • The teacher tells one student to perform the
    command.
  • Students give commands to one another and perform
    each one.

14
AN EXAMPLE OF TPR SONG
  • 1. This is the way you wash your face
  • wash your face, wash your face.
  • This is the way you wash your face
  • all on a Saturday morning.
  • 2. This is the way you wash your hands,
  • wash your hands, wash your hands.
  • This is the way you wash your hands,
  • all on a Sunday morning.
  • 3. This is the way you brush your teeth ()
  • all on a Monday morning.
  • 4. This is the way you brush your hair ()
  • all on a Tuesday morning.
  • 5. This is the way you clean your shoes ()
  • all on a Wednesday morning.
  • 6. This is the way you eat your food ()
  • all on a Thursday morning.
  • 7. This is the way you drink your tea ()
  • all on a Friday morning.

15
WHEN SHOULD I USE IT?
  • Vocabulary connected with actions (smile, chop,
    headache, wriggle)
  • Tenses past/present/future and continuous aspects
    (Every morning I clean my teeth, I make my bed, I
    eat breakfast.)
  • Classroom language (Open your books.)
  • Imperatives/instructions (stand up, close your
    eyes)
  • Story-telling

16
WHY SHOULD I USE IT?
  • a lot of fun
  • very memorable
  • is very effective
  • can be used in large or small classes
  • doesn't require a lot of preparation or materials
  • good for kinaesthetic learners

17
DISADVANTAGES
  • Students who are not used to such things might
    find it embarrassing
  • More suitable for beginner levels
  • Mindless repetition
  • It is fairly difficult to give instructions
    without using imperatives
  • You can't teach everything by means of TPR
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