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Title: CHAPTER1: INTRO. TO METHODOLOGY


1
CHAPTER1 INTRO. TO METHODOLOGY
  • Content (Slides 1 and 2)
  • Chapter Objectives
  • Lesson Orientation
  • Approach
  • Examples Of Approach
  • Method
  • Examples Of Methods
  • Technique

2
  • Examples Of Technique
  • Methodology
  • Content and Process
  • Chapter Conclusion
  • Key For Exercises From Text B, PP 1,2,5,6,7
  • Group Work
  • Group1-prepare a doc. for grammar teaching
  • Group2-prepare a doc. for sp.via lis. teaching
  • Group3-prepare a doc. for practical phr. teaching
  • Group4-prepare a doc. for writing teaching

3
  • Chapter Objectives
  • to define Methodology and its likes
  • to get students apply Methodology and its likes
    in their teaching demonstration
  • Lesson Orientation
  • be attentive to explanation of lecturer.
  • refer to Text Book, pp 3-4, 6-7 to answer
    exercises in pp1-2, 6-7.
  • prepare and finish teaching doc., and present
    your group work by __________.
  • teaching doc. must be typed, include method (s)
    /approach (es), and technique (s)
  • doc. 2.5 marks, presentation 2.5 marks
  • 3-day late in handing over doc. and presentation,
    total mark 0

4
  • Approach
  • general attitude coloring the way of teaching
  • a set of assumptions dealing with nature of
    language, learning and teaching (by Edward
    Anthony)
  • assumptions, beliefs, and theories about the
    nature of language and language learning (by Jack
    Richards and Theodore Rodgers, 1982,1986)
  • theoretically well-informed positions and beliefs
    about the nature of language, the nature of
    language learning, and the applicability of both
    pedagogical setting
  • way of teaching base on ideas about language,
    learning, and teaching (by Paul Davie and Eric
    Pearse)

5
  • Examples Of Approach
  • Learner Center Approach-learners are at center ,
    with help of teacher, doing more pair and group
    works
  • Functional-Notional Approach-way of teaching on
    everyday conversation with lots of role play (ppl
    1970s)
  • Communicative Approach-way of teaching meaningful
    and realistic things to students with pair work,
    group work, games, role play etc. (ppl 1970s)

6
  • Methods
  • a description of more precise aspect of teaching
    than an approach
  • a collection of techniques applied in classroom
  • a description of an overall plan for systematic
    presentation of language based upon a selected
    approach (by Edwards Anthony)
  • an umbrella term for the specification and
    interrelation of theory and practice (by Jack
    Richards)
  • way of teaching base on ideas about language,
    learning, and teaching with specific indications
    about activities and techniques to be used (by
    Paul Davie and Eric Pearse)
  • a generalized set of classroom specifications for
    accomplishing linguistic objectives

7
  • Examples Of Methods
  • Direct Method-a way of teaching language with no
    translation or explanation in mother tongue
  • Grammar Translation Method-way of teaching
    grammar and vocabulary through written
    translation, from mother tongue to second
    language and vice versa (ppl for hdr yrs)
  • Audio-Lingual Method-way of teaching speaking
    through listening basing on the idea of
    Behaviorism meaning students learn through
    repetition and memorization to form habits (ppl
    in the West 1960s, in Asia 1970s)

8
  • Technique
  • specific activities manifested in classroom that
    were consistent with a method and therefore were
    in harmony with an approach as well (by Eward
    Anthony)
  • Examples Of Technique
  • pair work, group work, mime, blackboard drawing,
    drilling, games, role play etc.

9
  • Methodology
  • the study of approaches, methods, and techniques
  • the study of all teaching steps that enable
    teachers in his/her job
  • covers what to teach-content, and how to
    teach-process
  • pedagogical practice in general

10
  • Content
  • the language systems and skills
  • systems are grammar, vocabulary and discourse
  • skills are reading, listening, speaking, and
    writing
  • Process
  • a repertoire (collection) of techniques,
    activities, steps, aids, ways or organizing
    students to work, which teacher uses to make
    learning easier for them

11
  • Chapter Conclusion
  • One type of methodologies -elective methodology
  • Three types of approaches-LCA, FNA, CA
  • Three types of methods-DM, GTM, ALM
  • Seven types of techniques-pair work, group work,
    mine, blackboard drawing, drilling, games, and
    role- play
  • were already discussed.

12
  • Key For Exercises From Text B, PP 1,2,5,6,7
  • Page1
  • 1 gtA teaching Approach is a general attitude that
    colors teachers how to teach students.
  • gtAn example of an approach is the Learner-
    Centered Approach with features more work for
    students-more pair and group works some help
    from teacher.
  • gtA Method is not the same as an Approach because
    method is used to describe a more precise aspect
    of teaching than and approach.
  • gt An example of a method is the Direct Method.
  • gt The two techniques used in the Direct Method
    are mine and blackboard drawing, but not
    translating words.
  • Page2
  • 3gt An example of techniques is Drill, which was
    popularly used in 1960s to achieve Audio-Lingual
    Method.

13
  • Page2
  • 4gt Methodology is the study of Approaches,
    Methods, and Techniques used in teaching.
  • 5gt Content, which is referred to What To Teach,
    is the language systems and skills..
  • gt Systems are grammar, vocabulary,
    pronunciation, and discourse.
  • gt Skills are reading, writing, speaking, and
    listening.
  • Page2
  • gt Process, which is referred to How To Teach, is
    a repertoire of techniques, activities, steps,
    aids, ways of organizing students to work, which
    teacher uses to make learning easier for them.
  • 6gt Many different techniques employed when a
    teacher has an elective methodology. Its
    importance are (a) to accommodate different
    learning styles, (b) to keep up with changes
    (every 10 year) of methodology.

14
  • Page6
  • 1 Grammar Translation Method
  • gtHundreds of years
  • gtGrammar and vocabulary
  • gtGrammar Translation Method
  • gtYes, most teaching places
  • 2 Audio-Lingual Method
  • gt1960s in West, 1970s in Asia
  • gtGrammar pattern, and peaking through listening
  • gtDrills
  • gtYes, most modern teaching places
  • Page7
  • 1 Functional-Notion Approach
  • gt1970s
  • gtPractical phrases and vocabulary for everyday
  • life and social situations
  • gtRole-play
  • gtRarely
  • 2 Communicative Approach

15
  • Further Reading 1 (source Alive To Language,
    pp 117-130)
  • Pedagogical Approaches To Grammar
  • Traditional Grammar
  • bases on, for teaching EL1 learners, Latin model,
    exercises involved parsing-dividing up of
    sentences into constituent (elements) parts.
  • rules were thought up in order to illustrate the
    particular structure in question.
  • ELT approaches
  • structural approach teaching materials were
    concerned with sentence-based grammar e.g. s v
    obj, examples, and exercises.
  • communicative approach aims at teaching of spoken
    language.
  • A Reduced Model of Grammar
  • Chunk-based approach is to separate long
    sentences into short bits for low levels.

16
  • Further Reading 2 (source Alive To Language,
    pp 117-130)
  • Some Alternative Approaches focus on
  • relevance high frequency of items in certain
    areas
  • flexibility exceptional cases in grammar rules,
    words with variety of meaning, and of parts of
    speech. E.g. get, shoulder (nV) etc.
  • volume regularity and frequency of items
    existing in a particular text. E.g. article
    usage.
  • range variety of functions of items- adv to
    answer to question etc. e.g. R u interested?
    Definitely.
  • Further Reading 3 (source Aspects of Language
    Teaching, pp 117-191)
  • General Perspectives On Pedagogy
  • General Perspectives On Pedagogy
  • two main types of Approaches
  • semantic approach provides an account of how
    language contains within itself, within its
    grammar and lexis, the essential resources for
    meaning.
  • pragmatic approach focuses on how these resources
    have to be exploited for language users to
    achieve meaning via certain procedures and
    contextual conditions.

17
  • Further Reading 4
  • General Perspectives On Pedagogy
  • communicative language teaching
  • medium account of meaning associates with
    semantics of sentence grammar.
  • mediation account associates with pragmatics of
    language use.
  • syllabus is the specification of teaching program
    or pedagogic agenda defining a particular subject
    for particular group of learners.
  • comparison of approaches
  • medium perspective tends to see syllabus as
    primary, the learners is dependent on the
    teacher, teacher with more power.
  • mediation view tends to see methodology as
    primary, the learners exploit their experience to
    achieve new knowledge, students with liberty in
    class participation.
  • medium perspective and mediation view are known
    as two pedagogic paradigms (pattern).
  • complementary approaches
  • do not be a slave to syllabus.
  • be flexible to methodology in harmony with
    situation.

18
  • Further Reading 7
  • The problems and principles of syllabus design
  • Pedagogic and educational aspects of syllabus
  • syllabus is the specification of a teaching
    program or pedagogic agenda which defines a
    particular subject for a particular group of
    learners.
  • syllabus is an idealized schematic construct
    which serves as reference for teaching (Halliday,
    McIntosh, and Strevens 1964 Meckey q965)
  • syllabus is the formulation of pedagogic goals,
    an instrument of educational policy.

19
  • Further Reading 8
  • Problems and principles of syllabus design
  • Pedagogic and educational aspects of syllabus
  • syllabus to meet the needs of English for
    specific purposes is called positioned-oriented,
    requiring positioned-oriented methodology.
  • syllabus to be disposed towards the individual,
    allows for a greater degree of divergence
    (crossed ideas) and self-realization is called
    person orientation requiring person-orientation
    methodology.
  • formal education is defined as a superimposed
    second order culture consisting of schemes of
    conceptual organization and behavior designed to
    supplement the first-order processes of the
    primary socialization of family upbringing.

20
  • Further Reading 9
  • The problems and principles of syllabus design
  • Syllabus and methodology
  • choose appropriate methodology for a syllabus
  • it is better to choose communicative methodology
    for a structural syllabus.

21
  • Further Reading 10
  • The problems and principles of syllabus design
  • The specification of syllable content
  • choose appropriate methodology for a syllabus
  • it is better to choose communicative methodology
    for a structural syllabus.
  • Functional/Notional syllabus also can be matched
    with communicative methodology.
  • Further Reading, pp 137-191
  • (Self research)

22
CHAPTER2 CONCEPS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
  • Content
  • Chapter Objectives
  • Lesson Orientation
  • Basic Principles Student and Teacher
  • Learners
  • Teachers
  • Reasons and Motivation For Learning English
  • Motivational Differences of People Toward The
    Learning

23
CHAPTER2 CONCEPS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
  • Chapter Objectives
  • To get students learn Basic Principles
  • To get students see interrelation of learners and
    teachers
  • To get students learn Reasons and Motivation For
    Learning English
  • To get students learn Motivational Differences of
    People Toward The Learning

24
CHAPTER2 CONCEPS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
  • Lesson Orientation
  • Be attentive to lecture.
  • Refer yourselves to lecture note.
  • Refer yourselves to Text B, pp 8-17
  • Refer yourselves to Text B, pp 18-24
  • List down 15 intrinsic and 15 extrinsic
    motivations

25
CHAPTER2 CONCEPS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
  • -Basic Principles Student and Teacher 1
  • Learning is more important than teaching.
  • Teaching is not the terminal objective in the
    classroom.
  • Teaching changes in students behavior.
  • A good lesson in class is not how teacher
    performed.
  • A good lesson in class is how students learned.
  • It is a serious mistake when a teacher is
    constantly pre-occupied by his own role.
  • A teacher is just a catalyst in class.
  • A good teacher does not teach the same lesson in
    the same way for years.
  • Different situations call for different
    materials, methods, activities, and strategies.

26
CHAPTER2 CONCEPS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
  • -Basic Principles Student and Teacher 2
  • Teach the students, not the book.
  • do not try to finish the book without teaching
    students.
  • do not be a slave to lesson plan.
  • prioritize students needs.
  • Involve Students in the Learning Process.
  • create pre-activities.
  • create objectives of lesson.
  • explain objectives of lesson to students.
  • get them learn topic by proper approaches,
    methods, techniques.
  • create post-activities.

27
CHAPTER2 CONCEPS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
  • -Basic Principles Student and Teacher 3
  • Involve Students in the Learning Process.
  • lobby students every end of lesson.
  • motivate students.
  • give students clear instruction and examples for
    each lesson.
  • advise students ways of learning.

28
CHAPTER2 CONCEPS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
  • -Basic Principles Student and Teacher 4
  • Dont tell students what they can tell you.
  • dont talk to much.
  • provides students with opportunities to practice
  • ask students, not tell them.
  • must realize that learning is more important than
    teaching.
  • Show your reactions to what students say.
  • your reaction can flow talk of students.
  • your reaction is not a-too-much correction.
  • get other students react to talk of a particular
    student.

29
CHAPTER2 CONCEPS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
  • -Basic Principles Student and Teacher 5
  • Students need practice, not you.
  • Donts
  • explain when they dont need to.
  • repeat themselves unnecessarily.
  • answer for students, without waiting long enough.
  • correct too much and too quickly.
  • talk about something which interests them, but
    not their students.
  • talk unnecessarily about the process of the
    lesson.
  • prepare lesson plan providing teacher more time
    than students.

30
CHAPTER2 CONCEPS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
  • -Basic Principles Student and Teacher 6
  • Dont emphasize difficulties.
  • precisely explain difficulties of topic to
    students.
  • but dont tell them how difficult they will face.
  • Vary what you do, and how you do it.
  • teach the unit in different order.
  • use different ways of reading text.
  • vary who perform the task-you or students.
  • introduce alternative activities from time to
    time-games, pair work
  • change the seating plan for different activities.

31
CHAPTER2 CONCEPS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
  • -Basic Principles Student and Teacher 7
  • Select!
  • select knowledge, skills, and performance to
    teach students.
  • good teaching is not to tell students what you
    know, but to help students learn.
  • Activities and relationships in the classroom
    change. (Basic Method)
  • T-method teacher uses intelligible structure in
    context before formal presentation.
  • T-T method teacher talks to himself, while
    students eavesdrop.
  • T-C method teacher questions to the class.

32
CHAPTER2 CONCEPS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
  • -Basic Principles Student and Teacher 8
  • Activities and relationships in the classroom
    change. (Basic Method)
  • T-S/S-T method teacher questions to individual
    or vice versus.
  • S-S method a student asks and answers another in
    pair work.
  • Group Work/GW method small or large group work
    together with less control of teachers.
  • Note
  • The above methods apply well with group of not
    more than 30 people.

33
CHAPTER2 CONCEPS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
  • -Basic Principles Student and Teacher 9
  • Students need to learn how to learn
  • Introduce students effective learning styles
  • Examples how to learn vocabulary, grammar
  • Useful and Fun Is Better than Either Alone
  • Produce your lesson useful and fun for students.
  • Do not address difficulty to students.
  • Useful and fun lesson can be provided by
    different activities or techniques in accordance
    with particular situation.

34
CHAPTER2 CONCEPS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
  • -Basic Principles Student and Teacher 10
  • We all learn best when we are relaxed.
  • Get students learn continuously in long run, not
    rush in short so that they will have same time
    distribution for relaxation.
  • Inviting students for answers rather than
    demanding.
  • Students can be silent, but still involved.
  • It does not mean students do not talk do not
    involve.
  • They listen and participate your instruction
    means they involve.
  • You need to balance your time of talking and
    theirs.

35
CHAPTER2 CONCEPS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
  • -Learners
  • Same Learners
  • Outside Class they have
  • Family, friends, work, study, responsibilities
    etc.
  • Into Class they bring
  • Names, knowledge, skills, expectations, hopes
    etc.
  • Different Learners in terms of
  • Attitude, Motivation, Confidence
  • Risk taking and learning from mistakes
  • Language learning preference, learning style
  • Workplace (often use or not the language)

36
CHAPTER2 CONCEPS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
  • -Teachers
  • Power of teachers
  • Organization prepare lesson plan, handouts.
  • Security get students feel safe in the lesson.
  • Motivation link lesson with real practice.
  • Instruction tell new things and how to deal with
    them.
  • Modeling show new things and how to do with
    them.
  • Information inform students extra sources.
  • Feedback correct them if necessary.
  • Encouragement do not correct them so often.
  • Evaluation prepare and conduct tests or else.

37
CHAPTER2 CONCEPS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
  • -Reasons and Motivation For Learning English 1
  • Reasons for learning English
  • School curriculum
  • Advancement better job
  • Target Language Community (TLC) an example of
    TLC is a student living in English Speaking
    Countries.
  • ESP EOP, EAP, EST
  • Culture learners are attracted by culture of
    English Speaking Countries.
  • Miscellaneous to make friends, to be a tourist

38
CHAPTER2 CONCEPS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
  • -Reasons and Motivation For Learning English 2
  • Motivation
  • Extrinsic motivation (Concerning with factors
    outside classroom)
  • Divided into integrative motivation and
    instrumental motivation
  • Integrative motivation learners attracted by
    culture, TLC
  • Instrumental motivation learners want better
    jobs

39
CHAPTER2 CONCEPS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
  • -Reasons and Motivation For Learning English 3
  • Motivation
  • Intrinsic motivation (Concerning with factors
    inside class room)
  • Physical condition board, markers, other
    facilities
  • Method must be effective
  • Teacher must be well-prepared, active,
    understand students needs
  • Success high and low challenges must be
    balanced.

40
CHAPTER2 CONCEPS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
  • -Motivational Differences of People Toward The
    Learning 1
  • Children
  • Do not have extrinsic motivation.
  • Need appreciation from teachers.
  • Need various activities for different lessons.
  • Adolescents
  • Do not have extrinsic motivation.
  • Appreciation from teachers is less important, but
    from their friends.
  • Teachers need to balance challenges.

41
CHAPTER2 CONCEPS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
  • -Motivational Differences of People Toward The
    Learning 2
  • Adult Beginners
  • Have both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
  • Teachers need to balance challenges.
  • Adult Intermediate Students
  • Have stronger extrinsic motivation.
  • Are aggressive.
  • Are critical.
  • Teachers must lobby.

42
CHAPTER2 CONCEPS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
  • -Motivational Differences of People Toward The
    Learning 3
  • Adult Advanced Students
  • Are highly extrinsically motivated.
  • Do not learn much new things
  • Learn how to use what they know properly.
  • Teachers must lobby.

43
CHAPTER3 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND GENERAL TIPS
HOW TO BE A GOOD TEACHER
  • Content 1
  • Chapter objectives
  • Chapter orientation
  • Seating arrangement
  • Standing up and directing activity
  • Looking at students
  • Using your hand to encourage and direct students
  • Using the back of your hand to point

44
CHAPTER3 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND GENERAL TIPS
HOW TO BE A GOOD TEACHER
  • Content 2
  • Varying your voice
  • Keeping your language at minimum when students
    are doing something
  • Using pair work to increase student talking
    time-even if it seems chaos
  • Using group work to increase student talking time
  • No asking Do you understand?

45
CHAPTER3 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND GENERAL TIPS
HOW TO BE A GOOD TEACHER
  • Content 3
  • Admitting your ignorance
  • Dividing the whiteboard
  • The skill of reinforcement
  • A good teacher
  • Teacher talks to students
  • Teacher gives instructions
  • Who talks in class?

46
CHAPTER3 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND GENERAL TIPS
HOW TO BE A GOOD TEACHER
  • Content 4
  • The best kinds of lesson
  • Importance of following pre-arranged plan
  • Chapter objectives
  • Classroom management with 13 details
  • How to be a good teacher with 6 details

47
CHAPTER3 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND GENERAL TIPS
HOW TO BE A GOOD TEACHER
  • Chapter orientation
  • Brainstorm how
  • To manage classroom
  • To be a good teacher
  • Refer yourselves to lecture note
  • Refer yourselves to text book, pp 27-37
  • Draw attention to lecture

48
CHAPTER3 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND GENERAL TIPS
HOW TO BE A GOOD TEACHER
  • Seating arrangement
  • Arrange seats avoiding the behind sees only the
    front neck.
  • Arrange half-circled or u-shaped seats for adult
    class btw 5-15 students.
  • Arrange seats, for a class of 30 or so, in simple
    status so that they can move desks or chair to
    participate pair and group work.
  • Arrange seats so that teacher can approach all
    students.

49
CHAPTER3 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND GENERAL TIPS
HOW TO BE A GOOD TEACHER
  • Standing up and directing activity
  • Students may hear better when seeing your mouth.
  • Students may understand better instructions when
    seeing your body language.
  • Students attention may be drawn with your eye
    contact.
  • You may see who involve your instructions and
    who does not.
  • You may sit at your desk in two cases students
    are doing something and students are doing class
    discussion.

50
CHAPTER3 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND GENERAL TIPS
HOW TO BE A GOOD TEACHER
  • Looking at students
  • Your eye contact gets students involve.
  • Your eye helps reducing unnecessary language.
  • Your eye can ask students.
  • Your eye can see students doubt.
  • Using your hand to encourage and direct students
  • Three ways to contact students voice, eyes and
    hands.
  • Two reasons to use hands to avoid unnecessary
    language while the topic is completely clear.

51
CHAPTER3 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND GENERAL TIPS
HOW TO BE A GOOD TEACHER
  • Using the back of your hand to point
  • Try not to use your hand in aggressive manner.
  • Use the back of your hands to convey an
    invitation to students.
  • Varying your voice
  • It does not mean speaking in fun voice.
  • Pause, stress, and change pitch of voice when
    changing subject of lecture or discussion.
  • Your voice may encourage or discourage students.

52
CHAPTER3 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND GENERAL TIPS
HOW TO BE A GOOD TEACHER
  • Keeping your language at minimum when students
    are doing something
  • Do not interrupt students while they are doing
    something.
  • Do not dominate discussions yourself.
  • Do not tell students what they want to say.
  • Do not use more language than is necessary to
    direct and control classroom activity.

53
CHAPTER3 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND GENERAL TIPS
HOW TO BE A GOOD TEACHER
  • Using pair work to increase student talking
    time-even if it seems chaos
  • Teacher must develop strategies for maximizing
    students talking time.
  • Pair work is one good amongst strategies.
  • Effective pair work is with precise instruction.
  • Go around to control and/or facilitate students
    activities.
  • Follow up it by inviting one or more pair to
    present.
  • Give feed back to presentation, then invite next
    pair.

54
CHAPTER3 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND GENERAL TIPS
HOW TO BE A GOOD TEACHER
  • Using group work to increase student talking
    time
  • Teacher must develop strategies for maximizing
    students talking time.
  • Group work is one good amongst strategies.
  • Effective group work is with precise instruction.
  • Go around to control and/or facilitate students
    activities.
  • Follow up it by inviting one or more groups to
    present.
  • Give feed back to presentation, then invite next
    group.

55
CHAPTER3 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND GENERAL TIPS
HOW TO BE A GOOD TEACHER
  • No asking Do you understand?
  • Asking question above reveals laziness of
    teacher.
  • Ask questions about the topic you have just
    explained.
  • Example
  • Topic Factory
  • Questions
  • Is there a factory near your house?
  • What does that factory produce?
  • Are there a lot of employees working in the
    factory?

56
CHAPTER3 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND GENERAL TIPS
HOW TO BE A GOOD TEACHER
  • Admitting your ignorance
  • In case you are not clear with questions of
    students, admit that you do not know, consult a
    colleague or look the answer up.
  • Excuse students for next lesson and you do it
    clearly at the next lesson.
  • Advice students to consult with relevant source.
  • Do not explain them with no clear base knowledge.

57
CHAPTER3 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND GENERAL TIPS
HOW TO BE A GOOD TEACHER
  • Dividing the whiteboard
  • Divide white board into three parts-two smaller
    sides on the side, and a large central area.
  • One smaller side is for new words and phrases, no
    clearance from, and adding on this section during
    lesson.
  • Another smaller is for doodles (drawing lines),
    drawings, unexpected odds and ends/BrE. odds and
    sods (less important things) etc. it may be
    cleaned constantly.
  • The central part is for main systems and skills
    of the lesson.

58
CHAPTER3 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND GENERAL TIPS
HOW TO BE A GOOD TEACHER
  • The skill of reinforcement
  • All students-smart, less clever- will learn
    better with reinforcement from lecturers.
  • Reinforcement is of six folds
  • Words Yes, Correct, Thats right!, Uh-huh,
    Great
  • Sentences Well done, Dara. You have caught on
    very quickly. You are doing better
  • Gesture facial- smiling, raising eyebrows...
    bodily-clapping, thumbing up, nodding
  • Proximity walking nearby, advancing towards
  • Contact a pat on the shoulders, shaking hands
  • Token/object food, candies, gold stars, stamp
    comments-good, well done, much improve, and
    excellent

59
CHAPTER3 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND GENERAL TIPS
HOW TO BE A GOOD TEACHER
  • A good teacher 1
  • Should make lesson interesting, and love his job.
  • Should be with good personality.
  • Should be with lots of knowledge.
  • Should be an entertainer in positive manner.
  • Should be approachable.
  • Should be able to identify hopes, aspirations,
    and difficulties of students.
  • Should be able to draw the quiet students and
    control the more talkative ones.

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CHAPTER3 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND GENERAL TIPS
HOW TO BE A GOOD TEACHER
  • A good teacher 2
  • Should be able to correct people without
    offending them.
  • Is someone who helps rather than shouts.
  • Is someone who knows students names.
  • Teacher talks to Students
  • Can talk to students in two ways.
  • The two ways are voice and body language.
  • Voice should be as natural as parents
  • Body language is gestures, expressions, mime.

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CHAPTER3 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND GENERAL TIPS
HOW TO BE A GOOD TEACHER
  • Teacher gives instructions
  • The best activity of the world is just a waste of
    time, if instruction is not precise.
  • Two ways to establish instruction
  • Keep it as simple as possible.
  • Keep it logical.
  • To ensure if instruction is precise or not to
    students, after explanation, get a student to
    explain to the class.

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CHAPTER3 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND GENERAL TIPS
HOW TO BE A GOOD TEACHER
  • Who talks in class
  • Students need practice, not teachers.
  • Good teachers must maximize (STT)-Students
    Talking Time, and minimize (TTT)-Teachers Talking
    Time.
  • TTT may work beneficially if teachers know how to
    rough-tune their language to the students
    levels.
  • TTT may also be terribly if it is over-used.
  • Therefore, it must be balanced.

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CHAPTER3 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND GENERAL TIPS
HOW TO BE A GOOD TEACHER
  • The best kinds of lesson
  • Lessons must not be so easily predictable.
  • Lessons must be with proper level of various
    activities.
  • Teachers may some time break his own rules to
    surprise students.
  • Teachers own rules include rule of dressing,
    class managing.

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CHAPTER3 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND GENERAL TIPS
HOW TO BE A GOOD TEACHER
  • Importance of following pre-arranged plan
  • Pre-arrange plan is a good guide to follow while
    giving lesson to students, but one must not be a
    slave to the plan.
  • Therefore, he must be flexible to situation.
  • Situation include
  • Students can not finish tasks as time managed.
  • Only some pairs finished on time.
  • Teacher forgot teaching materials at home.
  • Tap recorders do not work etc.

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CHAPTER4 TECHNIQUES AND LANGUAGE LEARNING
  • Content 1
  • Chapter objectives
  • Chapter orientation
  • Some points on the words technique, activity,
    task, and exercise
  • A knowledge of good techniques and how to adapt
    them
  • The three basic decisions in planning techniques
    to use in class

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CHAPTER4 TECHNIQUES AND LANGUAGE LEARNING
  • Content 2
  • The seven features of a technique
  • Study Task Identifying Technique Features
  • A lesson is a sequence of techniques
  • The idea of control when planning techniques

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CHAPTER4 TECHNIQUES AND LANGUAGE LEARNING
  • Chapter objectives to get students learn
  • the words technique, activity, task, and
    exercise
  • how to adapt them
  • The three basic decisions in planning techniques
    to use in class
  • The seven features of a technique
  • The word lesson
  • Interrelation btw techniques and objectives
  • The idea of control when planning techniques

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CHAPTER4 TECHNIQUES AND LANGUAGE LEARNING
  • Chapter orientation
  • Refer yourselves to lecture note.
  • Be attentive to lecture.
  • Refer yourselves to lecture note.
  • Be ready for end-chapter presentation.

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CHAPTER4 TECHNIQUES AND LANGUAGE LEARNING
  • Some points on the words technique, activity,
    task, and exercise
  • Technique has Stress on the second syllable.
  • Its related words activity, task, and exercise.
  • A technique produces a lot of activities.
  • Activity is referred to as things teachers and
    students do.
  • Task/training task is a practical procedure
    trainee teachers do to discuss aspects of
    teaching.
  • Exercise is a particular combination of technique
    and data.

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CHAPTER4 TECHNIQUES AND LANGUAGE LEARNING
  • A knowledge of good techniques and how to adapt
    them
  • A technique is a practical procedure to help
    students learn a foreign language.
  • Teachers should know a range of basic techniques,
    how to use and adapt them in class and for
    different students and purposes.
  • Teachers should know how to match technique with
    suitable data texts, sentences, words, pictures,
    real objects etc. to achieve different
    objectives.
  • Lessons are built up from techniques. Main
    objectives are to match with main techniques.

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CHAPTER4 TECHNIQUES AND LANGUAGE LEARNING
  • The three basic decisions in planning techniques
    to use in class
  • The three basic decisions (1) are
  • To identify the objective learning and
    management objectives.
  • Learning objectives to build up precise Learning
    Objectives is to answer to Questions what does a
    teacher want students to be able to learn and do?
    Can she state her wants clearly? And how will she
    judge whether or not student learn or do?
  • Mgt. objective is known as a match of suitable
    techniques with particular data or topic of
    lesson.

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CHAPTER4 TECHNIQUES AND LANGUAGE LEARNING
  • The three basic decisions (2) are
  • To choose and adapt a suitable technique
    teachers must be able to predict students
    response resulted from any technique (s) used.
  • To select suitable data any good technique is
    just a piece of stone if no suitable data linked.
    Data is both linguistic and non-linguistic
    materials like texts, sentences, word, pictures,
    mimes, actions and real objects. One can first
    start with selecting data, then search for best
    matched technique (s), and finally create
    objectives or techniques-data-objectives or
    objectives-data-techniques or objectives-techniqu
    es-data.

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CHAPTER4 TECHNIQUES AND LANGUAGE LEARNING
  • The seven features of a technique (1) are
  • Objectives consist of learning and mgt
    objectives.
  • Technique is the main practical procedure.
    Dictation, word storm, sequencing sentences,
    finding the with pictures etc. are typical
    techniques.
  • Data is both linguistic and non-linguistic
    materials. Data and technique are different.
    Knowing their differences is important in
    teaching large class with limited resources.
  • Guide is a special type of data itself. It
    includes questions, list of T/F, word
    definitions, grids, etc.

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CHAPTER4 TECHNIQUES AND LANGUAGE LEARNING
  • The seven features of a technique (2) are
  • Students response is feedback of students of
    doing any particular techniques telling to
    teachers and students if they are achieving
    learning objectives. Students response can be in
    form of T/F, tick or cross, circle, underline,
    full grammatical sentences, short answers,
    speaking etc.
  • Work arrangement is how students are organized to
    do any techniques. Individual (solo),
    teacher/whole class (T/WC)... This must be with
    precise explanation.
  • Time balance it with particular technique.

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CHAPTER4 TECHNIQUES AND LANGUAGE LEARNING
  • Study Task Identifying Technique Features
  • Names of technique answering questions,
    dictation with keywords, substitution drill with
    table, same or different with pictures etc.
  • Description of technique (optional) general
    statements of what TC do within the technique,
  • Procedure of technique steps of specific
    activities TC do within the technique,
  • See examples in Text Book, pp 44-47

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CHAPTER4 TECHNIQUES AND LANGUAGE LEARNING
  • A lesson is a sequence of techniques 1
  • Advantages of Technique Sequencing
  • Teachers can plan a lesson easily if they know
    techniques well.
  • A lesson should be with an AIM, and must be with
    objectives (they were broken down from the AIM).
  • Objectives must be achieved with effective
    techniques.
  • Objective usu. started By doing tech., students
    can
  • Teachers must be able to effectively link
    techniques.
  • Often response from one student in previous
    technique can be used as DATA in another
    technique.
  • Planning a Sequence of Techniques
  • A lesson must be of at least one short warm-up
    one main (20-50 minutes) one short close-lesson
    techniques.

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CHAPTER4 TECHNIQUES AND LANGUAGE LEARNING
  • A lesson is a sequence of techniques 2
  • Example of a Lesson Built Up of a Sequence
    Technique (for more, see pp 48-54 in text book)
  • Topic Likes and Dislikes
  • Aim students can describe in written and spoken
    from personal likes and dislikes.
  • Warm-up technique chatting with students
  • Main technique 1 listen and perform its
    objectives
  • Main technique 2 substitution drill with table
    objectives
  • Main technique 3 True substitution dialogue
    objectives
  • Main technique 4 writing true statements its
    objectives
  • Main technique 5 class survey its objectives
  • Close-lesson technique Thanks/Guess the action

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CHAPTER4 TECHNIQUES AND LANGUAGE LEARNING
  • The idea of control in planning techniques 1
  • Control means how much freedom the teacher and
    the technique give the students to use their own
    language and ideas and to manage the procedure
    themselves.
  • Different control in two techniques
  • Same or different with pictures technique more
    freedom for students, for they can use their own
    language freely.
  • Substitute drill with table technique no or less
    freedom for students, for students are programmed
    to complete the table with grammar structure or
    pattern.
  • Degree of control varies according to the three
    stages of lesson Presentation, Practice, and
    Production.

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CHAPTER4 TECHNIQUES AND LANGUAGE LEARNING
  • The idea of control in planning techniques 2
  • Degree of control varies according to the three
    stages of lesson Presentation, Practice, and
    Production.
  • Presentation is the stage of an introduction of
    new language items to students, which students
    are under strict control.
  • Practice is the stage of getting students
    exercise new language items, which students can
    have better freedom.
  • Production is the stage of getting use new
    language items in freer choices.
  • Study Task Techniques and Control, see pp 60-61
    in text book.

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CHAPTER5 TEACHING AND LEARNING VOCABULARY
  • Content
  • Chapter objectives
  • Chapter orientation
  • Introductory Points
  • Key Principles of Teaching and Learning
    Vocabulary
  • The Techniques for Vocabulary

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CHAPTER5 TEACHING AND LEARNING VOCABULARY
  • Chapter objectives to get students learn
  • Key Principles of Teaching and Learning
    Vocabulary
  • The Techniques for Vocabulary

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CHAPTER5 TEACHING AND LEARNING VOCABULARY
  • Chapter orientation
  • Refer yourselves to lecture note.
  • Be attentive to lecture.
  • Refer yourselves to lecture note.
  • Be ready for end-chapter presentation.

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CHAPTER5 TEACHING AND LEARNING VOCABULARY
  • Introductory Points
  • We say students know a word when they can use
    it for simple communication in all four skills.
  • Vocabulary is an uncountable noun.
  • There are two main types of WORDS
  • Lexical Words words or phrases, divided into 3
    sub-sets
  • Rare (low-frequency) words
  • Common (high-frequency) words
  • Special (technical) words
  • Structure or Grammar Words mostly are Verbs,
    Articles, and conjunctions,

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CHAPTER5 TEACHING AND LEARNING VOCABULARY
  • Key Principles of Teaching and Learning
    Vocabulary 1
  • Practice is more important than Presentation.
  • Presentation is an act of introducing students to
    the form of a word and to the meaning that is
    associated with the word.
  • Six ways of presenting new vocabulary
  • Pointing to, or holding an object
  • Showing or holding a picture
  • Demonstrating by mime or real action
  • Translating
  • Defining
  • Contextualizing using a word in a context to
    show its meaning.

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CHAPTER5 TEACHING AND LEARNING VOCABULARY
  • Key Principles of Teaching and Learning
    Vocabulary 2
  • Teacher should use grammar and vocabulary that
    students already know to introduce and practice
    new words. Do not introduce new grammar at the
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