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Program design should include:


Program design should include: Ongoing assessment using multiple measures. Integrated schooling (all language learners together) High expectations by teachers – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Program design should include:

Program design should include
  • Ongoing assessment using multiple measures.
  • Integrated schooling (all language learners
  • High expectations by teachers
  • Equal status of languages
  • Healthy parent involvement
  • Continuous staff development
  • Second language taught through academic content
  • Critical thinking across language program
  • Activation of students' prior knowledge
  • Respect for students' home language and culture
  • Cooperative learning
  • Interactive and discovery learning
  • Intense and meaningful cognitive/academic

Guidelines for Assessing Bilingual and
Trillingual Children
  • Assessment must be developmentally and culturally
  • The child's bilingual linguistic background must
    be taken into consideration in any authentic
    assessment of oral language proficiency.
    Bilingualism is a complex concept and includes
    individuals with a broad range of speaking,
    reading, writing, and comprehending abilities in
    each language. Furthermore, these abilities are
    constantly in flux.
  • A fully contextual account of the child's
    language skills requires the involvement of
    parents and family members, the students
    themselves, teachers, and staff in providing a
    detailed picture of the context of language
    learning and the resources that are available to
    the child (Nissani, 1990). What is called for is
    a description of the child's language
    environment, of the extent to which significant
    others-adults or children-provide language
    assistance by modeling, expanding, restating,
    repeating, questioning, prompting, negotiating
    meaning, cueing, pausing, praising, and providing
    visual and other supports. Assessment of the
    child needs to take into account the entire
    context in which the child is learning and

Seven observations of good multilingual programs
  1. First, successful multilingual programs start
    foreign language instruction early, normally in
    elementary school.
  2. Second, successful multilingual programs teach
    through coherent, well-articulated frameworks,
    which are careful to scaffold their learning in a
    developmental style.
  3. Third, the successful multilingual schools
    typically enjoy strong leadership, and have
    enthusiastic backing from key stakeholders.
  4. Fourth, successful multilingual programs teach
    languages as core subjects, (unlike the American
    tendency to make foreign languages electives).

Elizabeth Clayton, Center for Applied
  • Fifth, successful multilingual school teachers
    receive rigorous preparation and are trained how
    to manage students from different language
    backgrounds. They also make language a priority,
    giving it equal status with prestigious courses
    like Math, Physics and Core Language.
  • Sixth, good multilingual programs creatively use
    technology in the classroom to increase
    interaction with native language speakers.
  • Seventh, successful multilingual schools offered
    support for heritage language, or the childs
    mother tongue

Ten additional characteristics of successful
multilingual schools
  1. Successful multilingual schools ensure that
    language basics, including phonemic awareness,
    phonic fluency, age appropriate vocabulary, text
    comprehension and grammar are taught explicitly.
  2. They emphasize good oral skills and encourage
    active, authentic language use by students.
  3. Successful multilingual schools integrate the
    students family in a positive way.

Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa, 2008
  1. They use a variety of assessment tools and
    consider the product, the process and the
    progress of the student.
  2. Some of the most successful schools use thematic
    syllabi and work within dual-immersion structures
    in which all students take pride in their home
    language while learning a second or third.
  3. The most successful schools conduct linguistic
    and ethnic audits and know their clients
    (students) well. When possible, they hire staff
    that speak the home languages of the families
    they serve and make every effort to keep clear
    channels of communication.

  1. Successful schools conduct regular teacher
    training to ensure that teachers keep an up to
    date toolbox of activities handy.
  2. They also have high expectations of their
  3. The best multilingual schools allow a portion of
    their budget to be invested in multilingual
    materials and media.
  4. Successful multilingual schools do their best to
    create a significant learning experiences, which
    relate new information to prior knowledge, and
    give students a certain level of autonomy
    (control and choice).

Questions?Thank you for coming!
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For more information
  • Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa, Ph.D.
  • IDEA Instituto de Enseñanza y Aprendizaje
  • Universidad San Francisco de Quito
  • Casa Corona Planta Baja
  • Telf. 297-1700 x 1338 o 297-1937
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