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The Invasion of Iraq 2003

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* Why were we there? WMD George W. Bush Bush Advisors 9/11 Preventive War US Strategic Culture Oil WMD Disbanding Iraqi Army De-Bathification Military Strategy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Invasion of Iraq 2003


1
The Invasion of Iraq 2003Operation Iraqi
Freedom?
2
  • Why were we there?
  • WMD
  • George W. Bush
  • Bush Advisors
  • 9/11
  • Preventive War
  • US Strategic Culture
  • Oil

3
Mistakes
  • WMD
  • Disbanding Iraqi Army
  • De-Bathification
  • Military Strategy Search and Destroy
  • Conveying overly negative image

4
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5
Mistakes
  • Underestimating the influence of Iran in Iraqi
    Shiite politics
  • Cultural differences Arabs vs. Kurds
  • Misunderstanding of terrorism

6
Mistakes
  • Security (Transportation, Blackwater, Weapons,
    Borders)
  • Economically Where is the money going?
  • Winning hearts and minds

7
Success
  • How do you measure success?
  • The Surge
  • COIN strategy U.S. and Iraqi forces together
  • Indirect Counterinsurgency
  • The Anbar Awakening
  • Saddam out of power
  • Increased enlistment into Iraqi Army/Reduced US
    presence
  • Elections/New Government
  • Normal life resumed?

8
the future
  • Kurd independence?
  • Mapping the new Middle East
  • Egypt

9
The War in afghanistan
10
Geography
11
Population
  • Total -- 28,395,716 (est. July 2010)
  • Structure
  • 0-14 years 43.6
  • 15-64 years 54
  • 65 years and over 2.4
  • Median Age 18 years
  • Life expectancy 44.4 years
  • 24 in urban centers

12
Ethnic make-up
  • Ethnic groups
  • Pashtun 42,
  • Tajik 27,
  • Hazara 9,
  • Uzbek 9,
  • Aimak 4,
  • Turkmen 3,
  • Baloch 2,
  • other 4
  • Religion
  • Sunni Muslim 80,
  • Shia Muslim 19,
  • Other 1
  • Language
  • Afghan Persian or Dari (official) 50,
  • Pashto (official) 35,
  • Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen)
    11,
  • 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai)
    4,

13
Economy
  • GDP
  • 27.01 billion (2009 est.) 110 in world rank
  • 1,000/capita (2009 est.) 210 in world rank
  • Labor 15 million (2004 est.)
  • agriculture 78.6
  • industry 5.7
  • services 15.7 (FY08/09 est.)
  • 35 unemployed (2008 est.)
  • Products
  • Agricultural -- opium, wheat, fruits, nuts wool,
    mutton, sheepskins, lambskins
  • Industrial -- small-scale production of consumer
    goods hand-woven carpets natural gas, coal,
    copper

14
History
  • 1747 unification of the Pashtun tribes
  • 1919 - independence from notional British
    control
  • 1973 coup and a 1978 Communist counter-coup
    resulted in Soviet Union invasion 1979
  • 1989 USSR withdrawal
  • 1996 end of civil war period control by Taliban
  • 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in NYC and
    Washington, D.C.
  • 7 October 2001 U.S., Allied, and anti-Taliban
    Northern Alliance military action toppled the
    Taliban.
  • December 2004, Hamid KARZAI became the first
    democratically elected president of Afghanistan
    and the National Assembly was inaugurated the
    following December.

15
Government
  • Executive Hamid Karzai
  • Head of state and
  • Command-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of
    Afghanistan.
  • Legislative -- National Assembly or Parliament.
  • Lower house is the Wolesi Jirga (the House of
    People)
  • Upper house is the Meshrano Jirga. (House of
    Elders)
  • Judicial
  • Supreme Court (Stera Mahkama), High Courts, and
    Appeal Courts.
  • Supreme Court is composed of nine members
  • Appointed by the President for a period of ten
    years
  • Approval of the Wolesi Jirga.

16
  • LEAD INTERNATIONAL FORCES IN AFGHANISTAN
    (pre-surge)
  • http//news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7966982.stmma
    p

17
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18
Afghanistan Facts
  • The Taliban, Sunni fundamentalists, had
    controlled most of Afghanistan since 1996 after
    defeat of the Northern Alliance. They provided
    safe haven for Osama Bin Laden and other members
    of al Qaeda during their planning of the 9/11
    Planes Operation
  • The Taliban were only recognized by 3 other
    states and were known for a brutal strict
    interpretation of Sharia Law. The provided a
    training ground for radical Islamic terrorists

19
Afghanistan Facts
Operation Enduring Freedom, The US-led invasion
in 2001 was largely special forces, CIA and air
support for Northern Alliance forces, toppled the
Taliban in just 2 months. Remnants of the Taliban
moved to the Tora Bora region in Eastern
Afghanistan or in to Pakistan
20
Afghanistan Facts
History of Invasion British, Soviet Union
21
Afghanistan Facts
  • The UN Security Council created the NATO
    International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to
    rebuild Afghanistan and provide security.
  • Hamid Karzai, The Mayor of Kabul
  • By 2003 the Taliban had regrouped in Pakistan
  • By 2007 Security incidents increased 300.
  • IED attacks rose by 37
  • The Karzai govt control only75 of the country
  • Over 1000 civilians killed by ISAF

22
Afghanistan Facts
Afghanistan is not Iraq
23
Afghanistan Facts
  • Afghanistan is 174th of 178 countries on the UN
    development index
  • Afghanistan is 176th of 180 countries on the UN
    corruption index
  • GDP per capita is 456, up from 352 last year
  • 90 of Aghan budget comes from foreign aid
  • Afghanistan supplies 90 of the worlds opium,
    worth 3 billion to the economy
  • Taliban make 200 million per year from taxing
    poppy production

24
Afghanistan Facts
  • The Afghan Surge
  • ISAF now numbers 120K up from 70k (90k are
    American)
  • Indirect Counterinsurgency has reduced civilian
    casualties by half
  • Clear, Hold, Buildand Transfer/WHAM
  • Focus remains Helmand Kandahar provinces
  • Afghan Army and police recruiting are up, but
    illiteracy and desertion still present a problem

25
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26
Issues
  • What would represent a successful outcome?
  • What policies would you recommend?
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