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The Americas: Pre-Columbian Empires to Colonies

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Title: The Americas: Pre-Columbian Empires to Colonies


1
The Americas Pre-Columbian Empires to Colonies
  • This Power Point presentation goes with the
    Mastering the TEKS in World History book by
    Jarrett, Zimmer, and Killoran.
  • Unit 4, Chapter 12

2
Essential Questions
  • What were the major characteristics of the Maya,
    Inca, and Aztec civilizations?
  • How did the voyages of Christopher Columbus
    forever change the world?

3
Important Ideas
  • Complex American Civilizations
  • Renaissance encouraged European Exploration
  • Christopher Columbus
  • Spanish Conquest
  • Europe got rich from the Americas
  • American farming encouraged African slave trade

4
The Empire of the Americas
The Kellogg Institute
5
Early Americans
How did the Ice Age effect the population of the
Americas? What if it had not occurred?
  • Nomadic Asians followed herd animals into the
    Americas.
  • American Peoples experienced their own Neolithic
    Revolution.
  • Pre-Columbian (before Columbus) Civilizations
  • Grew maize (corn)
  • Did not live in river valleys
  • Developed complex societies

UCLA.edu
6
The Maya (1500 B.C. to 1546 A.D.)
  • Present day Guatemala
  • Each city had a chief who was half man and half
    god
  • Social Structure
  • Hereditary nobility (performed sacred ceremonies
    and assisted ruler)
  • Craftsmen (made goods for nobility)
  • Farmers (most people)
  • Warlike people who
  • practiced human sacrifice

Based on the information above, what type of
religion did the Mayans have?
Harvard.edu
7
Built magnificent cities with palaces, temples,
and pyramids
Developed a system of hieroglyphics or picture
words
Mayan Achievements
What similarities does this civilization have to
the Egyptian civilization?
Complex system of math with use of zero, 365 day
calendar
Created colorful murals and created a popular
ball game
8
The Aztecs (1200-1521)
  • Present day Mexico
  • Grew crops in floating gardens in wet, marshy
    lands
  • Complex Social Structure
  • Emperor who was all powerful
  • Nobility served in government, army officers, and
    priesthood
  • Commoners who worked as
    farmers, fishermen, craftsmen,
    and warriors
  • Slaves
  • Religion Polytheistic
  • Warlike group that conquered
    all surrounding tribes

Wku.edu
9
Built complex temples that were aligned based on
the movements of the sun and moon
Created accurate calendars based on the sun
wikipedia
Aztec Achievements
Compare the Aztecs to the Maya
Calendar SFA.edu
Built a large empire with a complex government
structure and large cities
Sacrificed humans to their main god, the Sun god.
Sacrifice was need to keep the universe in motion
UNM.edu
wikimedia
10
The Inca Empire (122-1535)
  • Present day Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile
  • Terrace farmed and grew potatoes and other root
    crops
  • Raised llamas and alpacas for food, wool, and
    transportation

Uncp.edu
11
Built thousands of miles of roads to connect the
empire
Excellent engineers that built buildings out of
fitted stones
Machu Picchu
How are the Incas different from other Neolithic
Civilizations you have studied?
Inca Achievements
Used a system of knotted and colored ropes
(quipu) for communication instead of writing
Built a large empire that covers present day
Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile
Inca Quipu Larco Museum Collection
12
Pre Columbian Art
La balsa Muisca (The Muisca raft), a
pre-Columbian gold sculpture representing the
Muiscas offerings of gold.
Aztec jade mask depicting the god Xipe Totec
Carved Mayan flint dagger.
Describe Pre- Columbian art based on these works
of art.
The Aztec goddess Coatlicue, mother of earth.
Mayan jade mask
Inca Jar
13
Womens Roles in Mesoamerica
  • Women
  • Harvested grains
  • Prepared food (made maize into flour)
  • Cared for livestock
  • Cared for children and home
  • Some sold goods in markets
  • Some were artisans
  • Some worked as priestesses

14
Lesson Suggestions
  • The Empire of the Americas Activity
  • Nystrom Atlas Activity 40 Olmec and Maya
    Civilizations
  • Nystrom Atlas Activity 42 Aztec Empire
  • Nystrom Atlas Activity 43 Inca Empire

15
The Columbian Exchange
Jarett Publishing
16
Why the Interest in Exploration?
  • Asia
  • Marco Polos writings sparked European interest
    in Asia
  • Asian goods, especially spices and silk, were
    sought after in Europe
  • The Silk Road was cut off by the Ottoman Turks
  • Renaissance
  • A new spirit of inquiry arose
  • Europeans wanted to explore the oceans
  • New technology allowed for better navigation,
    especially the compass and triangular lateen sail

Caravel TAMU.edu
What impact did the Ottoman Empire have on
European Exploration?
17
The Age of Discovery
  • Both Spain and Portugal wanted to establish trade
    with Asia and financed overseas exploration
  • Spains Rulers, Ferdinand and Isabella
  • Captured the Muslim areas of Spain
  • Expelled Spains Jewish Community
  • Reunited all of Spain under Christian Rule
  • Sough to spread Christianity across the world
  • Portugal
  • Prince Henry developed a lighter sailing ship
  • He sponsored expeditions along the coast of Africa

Ferdinand and Isabella wedding portrait, unknown
artist
Why would European monarchs spend so much money
on exploration?
18
Christopher Columbus (1451-1506)
  • Sea Captain from Genoa, Italy
  • Sailed west in 3 ships in hopes of finding a
    quicker route to Asia
  • Sponsored by the King and Queen of Spain
  • Found instead the Americas
  • This new land brought riches and raw materials to
    Europe

Why would Columbus risk his life to find a new
trade route?
19
The Columbian Exchange
  • Goods from America to Europe
  • Tomatoes
  • Corn
  • Potatoes
  • Peppers
  • Squash
  • Pineapples
  • Chocolate
  • Tobacco
  • Turkey
  • Goods from Europe to America
  • Wheat
  • Sugar
  • Cattle
  • Horses
  • Pigs
  • Sheep
  • Chickens
  • Grains

20
What other items might have been exchanged
besides food and animals?
Wikipedia.com
21
How is this map different from the previous one?
22
Later Explorers
  • Vasco de Gama (1460-1524)
  • Portuguese
  • Discovered an all water route to India
  • Sailed around the tip of Africa in 1497
  • Ferdinand Megellan (1480-1521)
  • Portuguese
  • 1st to sail around the world (1519)

What dangers might these men have faced in these
voyages?
23
Other Explorers
  • England
  • John Cabot claimed parts of North America
  • France
  • Jacques Cartier explored the St. Lawrence River
  • Samuel Chaplain explored the Great Lakes area
  • Robert de la Salle explored the Mississippi
    River
  • Dutch
  • Henry Hudson explored Hudson Bay and Hudson
    River looking for a Northwest Passage to Asia

24
Lesson Suggestions
  • Explorers Activity
  • Nystrom Atlas Activity 44 Europeans Explore and
    Settle in the Americas

25
The Conquest of the Americas
wikipedia
26
The Conquest of Mexico
  • 1519 Hernando Cortez sailed from Cuba to Mexico.
  • The Aztecs first thought the Spanish were gods
  • 1521 Cortez attacked the Aztecs with the help of
    other Native Americans.
  • The Aztecs were defeated mainly because a
    smallpox epidemic had broke out and killed many
    of them.

The Aztecs surrender to Cortex, The British
Library
Based on what you know about the Aztecs, why
would other tribes help Cortez?
The caption means Now the Mexica (Aztecs) were
finished.
27
The Conquest of Peru
  • 1530 Francisco Pizarro left Panama to conquer the
    Incas.
  • The Incas just had a civil war.
  • The Spanish pretended to be friendly and ambushed
    and killed the emperor. Spain won because of
    their superior technology.
  • In 1533 Pizarro captured the Inca capital.
  • The Spanish forced the Inca to become Christian
    and were used as a labor force.

What advantages in technology did the Spanish
have over the American natives?
Conquistador fighting the Incas
28
Colonial Latin America
  • Latin America blend of European and Native
    American culture
  • Government Viceroys (governor) ruled each
    Spanish province.
  • Spanish born citizens filled most positions in
    the government and military.
  • Gold and silver from the Americas was shipped
    back to Spain. This made Spain the strongest
    European power.

What problems in governing such a large territory
might the Spanish have faced?
ushistory.com
29
Colonial Society
  • Conquistadors (Spanish Nobles) owned the land
  • Native Americans worked the land
  • Priests tried to convert the Indians to
    Christianity and keep them from becoming slaves

30
Colonial Society
  • After a while this social order developed
  • Noble officials and landowners born in Spain
    (peninsulares) head of colonial society
  • Spanish people born in the New World (creoles)
  • Mixed Spanish and Native American people
    (mestizos)
  • Native Americans (did most of the hard work)

What observations do you have about this social
structure?
31
New France
  • Canada and along Great Lakes down the Mississippi
    River
  • French missionaries tried to convert the Indians
  • By end of 17th century the territory covered
    3/4th of North America
  • Sent animal skins and pelts back to France to
    make hats

How might the population of New France create
problems for the ruling government?
32
New Netherlands
  • Around present-day New York
  • Traded with native peoples
  • Colony was controlled by Dutch West India Company
  • New Amsterdam (New York City) had a good harbor
    and became the center for trade.

The coastline claimed by New Netherland and some
settlements shown relative to modern borders.
wikipedia
33
The English Colonies
  • 1607 English established Jamestown in Virginia
  • 1620 Pilgrims establish colony in Massachusetts
  • 1630 The Puritans settle near the Pilgrims
  • Eventually 13 colonies arose along the Atlantic
    coast

34
The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • Disease killed many Native Americans
  • A new labor force was needed in the New World
  • In Africa conquering tribes sold their captives
    to the Europeans

Based on the map, which European power acquired
the most African slaves?
35
The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • 15 million Africans were enslaved
  • 11 million went to Spanish colonies
  • Many died coming across the Atlantic in what has
    become known as the Middle Passage.

36
Legacy of the Transatlantic Slave Trade on Africa
37
Lesson Suggestions
  • Conquering the Americas Activity
  • Nystrom Atlas Activity 45 Three Worlds Meet
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