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Pre-Columbian Civilizations

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Pre-Columbian Civilizations Today s Announcements: Vocabulary due NOW Take out Exploration Packet Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico (600 AD) Tikal: Temple of the Masks ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Pre-Columbian Civilizations


1
Pre-Columbian Civilizations
2
Todays Announcements
  • Vocabulary due NOW
  • Take out Exploration Packet

3
Mayan 300-900 Aztec 1200-1521 Incan 1400-1535
4
Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico (600 AD)
Mayan Achievements
5
Tikal Temple of the Masks
6
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7
Tenochtitlan Wall of Skulls
8
Aztec Chinampas Floating Gardens
9
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10
Machu Picchu
11
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12
Voyages of Marco Polo
13
Background
  • Asian goods flow to Europe
  • Crusades/Mongol Empire
  • Polos tales of Asian wealth fascinate Europeans
    (breakup of Mongol Empire disrupt trade)
  • As European population increases, demand
    increases
  • Recovery from Black Death
  • Spices DESIRED (flavor, preserve, medicine,
    perfume) from East

14
Age of ExplorationGlobal History
15
Do Now Why would nations want to explore other
nations?
16
Motives for Exploration
  • Demand (new goods)
  • Easy/Cheaper Access
  • Power/Status
  • Wealth (profit/take over lands)
  • Renaissance Spirit of Inquiry
  • Desire to learn about lands outside of Europe
    New goods (spices!)
  • Missionary work (Catholic Reformation)
  • Desire to win converts to Christianity

17
  • Portugal/Spain desire new route to Asia that
    bypasses Mediterranean Sea
  • Muslim/Italian merchants control trade b/w Europe
    Asia (1400s)
  • Europeans want to cut out the middle man
  • Direct access to riches of Asia cheaper goods

18
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19
1492
  • Columbus convinces King Ferdinand Queen
    Isabella (Spain) to finance his enterprise of the
    Indies

20
  • (1492) Spanish finance voyage because
  • anxious to spread Christianity (Counter-Reformatio
    n)
  • Muslims/Jews driven out of Spain
  • new sources of wealth
  • Columbus plan ? sail west
  • No idea that North/South America lay in his path!!

21
  • Convinced he reached islands off coast of East
    Asia
  • Called people Indians (Caribbean Islands
    West Indies)

22
  • Europeans realize Columbus found route to unknown
    continent
  • Interest in Americas sparked throughout Europe

SPAIN PORTUGAL DIVIDE NON-EUROPEAN WORLD INTO
TWO ZONES FOR THEIR ACCESS (1494)
23
The First Spanish Conquests The Aztecs What
happened during this exchange?
vs.
Cortés
Montezuma
24
  • Your Highnesses, as Catholic Christians, who
    love and promote the holy Christian faith, and
    are enemies of the doctrine of Mahomet, and of
    all heresy, determined to send me, Christopher
    Columbus, to the above-mentioned countries of
    India, to see the said princes, people, and
    territories, and to learn their disposition and
    the proper method of converting them to our holy
    faith and furthermore directed that I should not
    proceed by land to the East, as is customary, but
    by a Westerly route, in which direction we have
    no certain evidence that any one has gone.
  • Questions
  • Why was Columbus writing?
  • How does he try to persuade the King to fulfill
    his request?

25
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26
Why were the conquistadores so victorious?
  • 1

27
2
28
3
29
JUST A SIDENOTE
30
4
31
5
32
Remaking the Americas
  • Hernan Cortes attacks Aztecs Francisco Pizzaro
    attacks Incas
  • Question What other countries colonized the
    Americas?

33
Remaking the AmericasDo Now How were natives
affected by colonization?
  • Politically
  • a. Council of the Indies
  • b. Viceroys
  • Socially
  • Forced to accept Christianity
  • Encomienda System Enslavement
  • New social structure
  • Disease decline of Native population (Caribbean,
    90)
  • Spanish language
  • Economically
  • Stripped of natural resources
  • Forced to export resources to colony forced to
    import only from colony mercantilism

34
  • Mercantilist Policies
  • Colonists export raw materials ONLY to mother
    country
  • Colonies may ONLY buy goods from mother country
  • Colonies exist ONLY to benefit mother country

35
If you were living in a colony of the Spanish
Empire, what might your ethnic make-up be?
36
  1. What is a colony?
  2. What is the purpose of a colony?
  3. What benefits, if any, do colonists receive?
  4. How would a king maintain control of his
    colonies? Why?

37
Making ...
  • Sugar profitable resource in West Indies
  • grown on plantations (large estates)
  • Finding large of laborers problem
  • Monarchs grant conquistadors encomiendas (grant
    of indigenous labor)
  • Right to demand labor/tribute from Natives
  • System used to enslave Natives
  • Starvation/cruel treatment if you resist

38
Bartolome de las CasasWhat were his ideas?
  • Priest
  • Condemns encomienda system
  • Urges colonists to import workers from Africa to
    fill labor shortage
  • Settlers import millions of Africans (1502)
  • New social class system emerges based on descent

39
Atlantic Slave Trade
40
Triangular Trade
41
Do Now List 3 effects of the Columbian Exchange!
What else can we add to this diagram?
42
Impact of Colombian Exchange
  • Migration (people/ideas) From Old World to New
    World
  • a. Cultural Exchange
  • 2. Population Increase
  • a. varied diet new food crops
  • 3. Decline of Native population
  • 4. The Commercial Revolution Beginning of
    capitalism
  • a. economic system where people enter business
    to make a profit (market economy) Entrepreneurs
    people that enter into new business ventures (and
    take on the risks!)
  • demand for new goods
  • prices increase (scarcity)
  • increased in circulation INFLATION

43
Coffin Position Below Deck
44
Do Now What would cause colonial people of
Latin America to revolt?
  • Refer back to colonial life pre-1700s
    post-1700s!

45
Cycle of Conquest Colonization
Explorers
Conquistadores
OfficialEuropeanColony!
Missionaries
PermanentSettlers
46

Yo soy un hombre sinceroDe donde crece la palmaY antes de morirme quieroEchar mis versos del almaGuantanamera, guajira, Guantanamera
Mi verso es de un verde claroY de un carmín encendidoMi verso es de un ciervo heridoQue busca en el monte amparoGuantanamera, guajira, Guantanamera
This third verse was never part of the song, Guantanamera, but was written in "Versos Sencillos" Cultivo una rosa blancaEn julio como en eneroPara el amigo sinceroQue me da su mano francaGuantanamera, guajira Guantanamera
I am a sincere manFrom where the palm tree growsAnd before dying I wantTo share the verses of my soul.
My verse is light greenAnd it is flaming crimsonMy verse is a wounded deerWho seeks refuge on the mountain (or in the woods).
I cultivate a white roseIn July as in JanuaryFor the sincere friendWho gives me his honest hand.
And for the cruel onewho would tear out this heart with which I liveI do not cultivate nettles nor thistlesI cultivate a white rose
With the poor people of the earthI want to share my fateThe brook of the mountainsGives me more pleasure than the sea
47
I will never allow my hands to be idle or my
soul to rest, until I have broken the chains laid
upon us by Spain!Americans today, and
perhaps to a greater extent than ever before, who
live within the Spanish system, occupy a position
in society no better than the serfs destined for
labor, or at best they have no more status than
that of mere consumers
  • Simon Bolivar, 1815

48
Do Now What problems/issues would the newly
freed nations of Latin America face? Why?
  • Latin America Post-Independence
  • PROBLEMS
  • History of democracy?
  • Who is going to rule?
  • Caudillos local men w/power (strongmen)
    created armies - dictatorships
  • Influence of Catholic Church landowners
  • Civil War/Revolts
  • POLITICAL INSTABILITY

49
European Colonization
Increased power in Church Military
Unequal distribution of wealth
Latin American Independence
Political Instability
Lack of INVESTMENT
POVERTY
Lack of CAPITAL for development!
Inability to pay foreign debt
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