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Age of Early European Explorations

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Title: Age of Early European Explorations & Conquests Author: Susan M. Pojer Last modified by: katie.anselmo Created Date: 6/6/2003 12:18:24 AM Document presentation ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Age of Early European Explorations


1
The Age of Early European Explorations Conquests
By Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS
Chappaqua, NY
2
Earlier Explorations
  • Islam the Spice Trade ? Malacca
  • A New Player ? Europe
  • Nicolo, Maffeo, Marco Polo, 1271
  • Expansion becomes a state enterprise ? monarchs
    had the authority the resources.
  • Better seaworthy ships.
  • Chinese Admiral Zheng He the Ming Treasure
    Fleet

3
Admiral Zheng He
  • Each ship was 400 long and 160 wide!

1371-1435
4
A Map of the Known World, pre- 1492
5
Motives for European Exploration
  1. Crusades ? by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia.
  2. Renaissance ? curiosity about other lands and
    peoples.
  3. Reformation ? refugees missionaries.
  4. Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue.
  5. Technological advances.
  6. Fame and fortune.

6
New Maritime Technologies
Better Maps Portulan
Hartman Astrolabe(1532)
Mariners Compass
Sextant
7
New Weapons Technology
8
Prince Henry, the Navigator
  • School for Navigation, 1419

9
Museum of Navigationin Lisbon
10
Portuguese Maritime Empire
  • Exploring the west coast of Africa.
  • Bartolomeo Dias, 1487.
  • Vasco da Gama, 1498.
  • Calicut.
  • Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque (Goa, 1510
    Malacca, 1511).

11
Zheng Hes Voyages
  • In 1498, Da Gama reached Calcutta, Chinas
    favorite port!

12
Christofo Colombo, Cristobal Colon, Christopher
Columbus 1451-1506
13
Columbus Four Voyages
14
Other Voyages of Exploration
15
Ferdinand Magellan the First Circumnavigation
of the WorldEarly 16c
16
Atlantic Explorations
Looking for El Dorado
17
The First Spanish ConquestsThe Aztecs
vs.
Fernando Cortez
Montezuma II
18
The Death of Montezuma II
19
Mexico Surrenders to Cortez
20
The First Spanish Conquests
The Incas
vs.
Francisco Pizarro
Atahualpa
21
Slaves Working in a Brazilian Sugar Mill
22
Why would the 'Columbian Exchange' be considered
the tsunami of unintentional "bio-terrorism"??
23
The Columbian Exchange
Squash Avocado Peppers Sweet Potatoes
Turkey Pumpkin Tobacco Quinine
Cocoa Pineapple Cassava POTATO
Peanut TOMATO Vanilla MAIZE
Syphilis
Trinkets
Liquor
GUNS
Olive COFFEE BEAN Banana Rice
Onion Turnip Honeybee Barley
Grape Peach SUGAR CANE Oats
Citrus Fruits Pear Wheat HORSE
Cattle Sheep Pigs Smallpox
Flu Typhus Measles Malaria
Diptheria Whooping Cough
24
Cycle of Conquest Colonization
Explorers
Conquistadores
OfficialEuropeanColony!
Missionaries
PermanentSettlers
25
Treasuresfrom the Americas!
26
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
27
The Slave Trade
  • Existed in Africa before the coming of the
    Europeans.
  • Portuguese replaced European slaves with
    Africans.
  • Sugar cane sugar plantations.
  • First boatload of African slaves brought by the
    Spanish in 1518.
  • 275,000 enslaved Africans exportedto other
    countries.
  • Between 16c 19c, about 10 million Africans
    shipped to the Americas.

28
Slave Ship
Middle Passage
29
Coffin Position Below Deck
30
African CaptivesThrown Overboard
Sharks followed the slave ships!
31
European Empires in the Americas
32
The Colonial Class System
Peninsulares
Creoles
Mestizos
Mulattos
Native Indians
Black Slaves
33
Administration of the Spanish Empire in the New
World
  • Encomienda or forced labor.
  • Council of the Indies.
  • Viceroy.
  • New Spain and Peru.
  • Papal agreement.

34
The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church
Our Lady of Guadalupe
Guadalajara Cathedral
Spanish Mission
35
The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 The Popes
Line of Demarcation
36
Father Bartolome de Las Casas
  • New Laws ? 1542

37
New Colonial Rivals
  • Portugal lacked the numbers and wealth to
    dominate trade in the Indian Ocean.
  • Spain in Asia ? consolidated its holdings in the
    Philippines.
  • First English expedition to the Indies in 1591.
  • Surat in NW India in 1608.
  • Dutch arrive in India in 1595.

38
New Colonial Rivals
39
Impact of European Expansion
  1. Native populations ravaged by disease.
  2. Influx of gold, and especially silver, into
    Europe created an inflationary economic
    climate.Price Revolution
  3. New products introduced across the continents
    Columbian Exchange.
  4. Deepened colonial rivalries.

40
5. New Patterns of World Trade
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