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Colonization of the New World

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Colonization of the New World Spain, France, and the Netherlands – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Colonization of the New World


1
Colonization of the New World
  • Spain, France, and the Netherlands

2
Pre-Columbian Americas
  • South
  • New World Empires
  • Incas in Peru
  • Mayans in Yucatan
  • Aztecs in Mexico
  • North
  • Complex but varied societies
  • Hunting, gathering, fishing, small farming or
    some combination

3
North American Natives
  • Civilizations divided by geographical region
  • Loose connection between tribes (Iroquois
    nation)
  • Culture
  • Religion tied to natural world
  • Women play import role in most cultures
  • Matriarchal societies

4
Reason for European Exploration
  • Prior to _at_1500
  • No knowledge about New World
  • Plague stricken Europe controlled by Catholic
    Church
  • Exotic goods from Asia begin to arrive in Europe
  • _at_ 1500
  • Economic Reasons
  • Farming revolution/population increase
  • New merchant class develops
  • Nationalistic Reasons
  • Strong monarchs begin formation of nation-states
  • Need to expand national economic interests

5
Early European Exploration
  • Vikings (985 1000 A.D.)
  • Portuguese
  • Prince Henry the Navigator creates a maritime
    power
  • Exploration of coast of Africa
  • 1486 Dias reaches Cape of Good Hope
  • 1497-1498 Da Gama reaches India

6
Christopher Columbus
  • Italian born, trained by Portuguese
  • Spanish leaders Isabella and Ferdinand agree to
    finance endeavor
  • 1492 set sail for Japan
  • First landed on San Salvador in the Bahamas
  • Explored Caribbean and parts of Central and South
    America over 3 voyages

7
Spanish Explorers and Conquistadores
  • Ponce de Leon Florida
  • Balboa Pacific Ocean
  • Magellan sailed around the World
  • Cortes Aztecs
  • Pizarro Incas
  • De Vaca and Estevanico Cities of Gold
  • De Coronado Southwest
  • De Soto Mississippi River

8
The Spanish Empire
  • Exploration and colonization was a private
    enterprise
  • Encominda system
  • First colonizers looked for wealth in the gold
    and silver mines (very successful economically
    but brutal to the natives)
  • Second wave looked for agricultural profits
  • Religious reasons missions

9
Spanish Empire
  • Interaction with natives
  • Spanish treat natives as subjugated labor
  • Pueblo revolt of 1680
  • Spanish begin mixing with native population
    (mestizos)
  • Empire at its height
  • By 1600 Spain has used Americas to create a great
    empire
  • Empire controlled by Spanish government
  • Relatively small colonization (mostly small
    numbers ruling large numbers of natives)

10
Columbian Exchange
  • From Europe to the Americas
  • Disease influenza, measles, chicken pox,
    smallpox, mumps, etc.
  • Devastated native population
  • Sugar, wheat, bananas
  • Cattle, pigs, sheep, horses (changed life)
  • From the Americas to Europe
  • Maize (corn), squash, pumpkins, beans, sweet
    potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, potatoes

11
African Slavery in the Americas
  • Native population could not supply labor
    colonists needed
  • 1502 first African slaves brought to the Americas
  • African slave trade began as early as 8th century
    (Mediterranean)
  • Demand for slaves increased greatly with demand
    for sugar cane

12
The French in America
  • Mercantilist reasons for colonization
  • 1608 Quebec founded as first French colony
  • Population grew slowly
  • French create close ties to natives
  • Alliances with Algonquians and Huron
  • Fur trade (coureurs de bois) natives dominated
    trade
  • Tensions begin between French and English over
    fur trade

13
The Dutch in the Americas
  • Dutch Netherlands Holland
  • One of leading trading nations in the world
  • Larger merchant fleet than England
  • Henry Hudson sails up Hudson River
  • Later sails for England
  • Began fur trade in Americas
  • 1624 Dutch West India Company set up permanent
    settlements
  • Encouraged settlement (Dutch, German, Swede, Fin)
  • New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island (loose
    leadership)
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