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Crisis and Absolutism in Europe

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Title: EARLY CIVILIZATIONS Author: Phillip Mitchell Last modified by: USD497 Created Date: 1/6/2008 11:57:53 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Crisis and Absolutism in Europe


1
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
Landscape with Merchants (1630), by Claude Lorrain
2
I. Wars of Religion
  • Reformation created Opposites Conflict
  • Protestants and Catholics battled for territory
    authority
  • No room for compromise
  • only one TRUE faith
  • Compounded by Monarchies
  • One Ruler promoting One Faith
  • Belief of Nobles?

3
I. Wars of Religion
  • French Wars of Religion (1562-1598)
  • Monarchy, vast majority of subjects were Catholic
  • Half of nobility were Huguenots
  • French Protestants influenced by Calvin
  • Peasants side with Huguenots. Why?

Saint Bartholomews Day Massacre(1630), by
Francois Dubois
4
I. Wars of Religion
  • French Wars of Religion (cont.)
  • After many battles, Huguenots win
  • Henry of Navarre
  • Political leader of Huguenots
  • Takes throne as Henry IV
  • Converts to Catholicism, why?
  • Edict of Nantes (1598)
  • Catholicism still official religion
  • But Huguenots free to worship, hold public office

Henry IV
5
I. Wars of Religion
  • Militant Spanish Catholicism
  • Philip II, the Most Catholic King, wanted more
    control over his lands
  • Used religion to do so
  • Resistance in Spanish Netherlands
  • Calvinists destroy Catholic statues
  • William the Silent, prince of Orange
  • 12yrs of war Dutch independence
  • Spain has large empire (where?)
  • But also very large debt

King Philip II of Spain
6
I. Wars of Religion
  • The England of Elizabeth
  • Inherits throne from Bloody Mary
  • Repeals Catholic-Friendly laws
  • Sought to balance power of France and Spain
  • If one seemed to be gaining power, she favored
    the other
  • Led to war with Spain
  • Spain wanted a Catholic England
  • Spanish Armada fails

Queen Elizabeth I of England
7
(No Transcript)
8
I. Wars of Religion
  • The Thirty Years War (1618-1648)
  • Battle over religion, politics, territory
  • Begins in Holy Roman Empire
  • Calvinists nobles (Protestants)
  • Ignored by Peace of Augsburg
  • Hapsburg Emperors (Catholic)
  • France, Spain, others get involved
  • Struggle for European dominance
  • Devastated German people, land
  • Peace of Westphalia (1648)
  • All German states able to choose religion
  • France now dominant, end of H.R.E.

Battle on the Charles Bridge (1648), Petri Krohn
9
II. Rise of Absolutism
  • Religious crisis creates need for stability
  • Requires strong rulers that resist change
  • Absolutism
  • System where ruler has total power
  • Who put this guy in charge?
  • Justification Divine Right of Kings
  • King receives power from God
  • Responsible only to God

10
II. Rise of Absolutism
  • King Louis XIV of France
  • Rise to power
  • 1643Louis takes throne, age 13
  • Cardinal Mazarin rules for him
  • Stops rebellion, strengthens crown
  • Dies when Louis is 23
  • Louis XIV takes complete control
  • Builds myth of Sun King

King Louis XIV, the Sun King
11
II. Rise of Absolutism
  • King Louis XIV of France (cont.)
  • Palace at Versailles (VURH-sigh)
  • Personal household of King
  • Many nobles moved in as well
  • Louis encouraged it. Why?
  • Place where powerful subjects came to find
    favors, offices
  • Center of elite French culture
  • Examples?

The Palace at Versailles
12
II. Rise of Absolutism
  • King Louis XIV of France (cont.)
  • Religious Policy
  • Goal maintain religious harmony
  • Anti-Protestant policies
  • Hoped to Convert Huguenots
  • Destruction of churches, schools
  • Huguenots flee
  • Economy War
  • Adhered to mercantilistic policies
  • Waged four wars for fame, land
  • On deathbed Regretted war, overspending

Reception of Le Grand Condé at Versailles, by
Jean-Léon Gérôme (1878)
13
III. Changes in England
  • English Revolution
  • Tudor Dynasty ends, enter James I
  • King of Scotland
  • Believed in Divine Right of Kings
  • Role of British Parliament?
  • Roots from Magna Carta
  • Assumed King shares ruling power
  • Puritans (English Calvinists)
  • Wanted less moderate Church of England
  • Gentry, landowners, Parliament

King James I of England and Scotland
14
III. Changes in England
  • English Revolution (cont.)
  • Charles I
  • Supports Divine Right of Kings
  • Refuses power to Parliament
  • Imposes more religious ritual
  • Many Puritans head to America
  • 1642 Civil War
  • Cavaliers support King Charles
  • Roundheads back Parliament
  • Led by Oliver Cromwell

Charles I
Oliver Cromwell
15
III. Changes in England
  • English Revolution (cont.)
  • Oliver Cromwell
  • Defeats, executes Charles I
  • Cleans house in Parliament
  • Abolished monarchy, declared England a
    commonwealth
  • Frustrated by Parliament, set up military
    dictatorship
  • Restoration
  • Cromwell dies, monarchy returns
  • Charles II Catholic sympathizer
  • James II Devout Catholic. conflict?

Charles II
James II
16
III. Changes in England
  • Glorious Revolution
  • James II had 2 Protestant daughters
  • His successor would be Protestant
  • had son with 2nd wife, a Catholic
  • William of Orange (Dutch)
  • Son-in-law of James II (Mary)
  • Invited by English nobles to invade
  • bloodless Glorious Revolution
  • William and Mary are monarchs
  • Accepted a Bill of Rights from Parliament
  • Legitimized role of Parliament
  • Granted individual rights
  • No Catholic could be monarch
  • Solidified Constitutional Monarchy

William and Mary
17
IV. Eastern Absolutism
  • 2 powerful German states emerge
  • Prussia
  • Fredrick William the Great Elector
  • Small, open land, no natural defense
  • Builds 4th largest army in Europe
  • Creates General War Commissariat
  • Levy taxes, oversees army
  • Runs civil services
  • Bureaucracy chief tool for rule
  • Son becomes King Frederick I

The Prussian State Frederick William, the Great
Elector
18
IV. Eastern Absolutism
  • Austria
  • Hapsburg clan
  • No longer Emperors (H.R.E)
  • Expand south east (defeat Turks)
  • Gain large territory, but never becomes
    absolutist state
  • Many different national groups
  • Lack of common identity, culture

Seal of the Hapsburgs
19
IV. Eastern Absolutism
  • Absolutist Russia
  • Continual expansion (p. 446)
  • Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible)
  • First czar, Russian for Caesar
  • Crushed power of Boyars (nobles)
  • Time of Troubles anarchy
  • Peter the Great, 1689
  • Claims Divine Right of Kings
  • Determined to Westernize
  • Updates Army, founds Navy
  • St. Petersburg window to West

Russian Expansion, St. Petersburg, and Peter the
Great
20
IV. Eastern Absolutism
  • Effects of Enlightenment in Eastern Europe
  • Prussia
  • Frederick I
  • Strong bureaucracy to serve King
  • Strong state through strong army
  • Frederick II (Frederick the Great)
  • Big army to watch over bureaucrats
  • Abolished torture
  • Limited free speech religion
  • Kept rigid class system, serfdom

William I and William the Great of Prussia
21
IV. Eastern Absolutism
  • Enlightenment in E.Europe (cont)
  • Austria
  • Maria Theresa (Empress in 1740)
  • Tried to centralize Austrian Empire
  • Give more power to state
  • ease conditions of serfs
  • Joseph II, Marias son
  • Abolished serfdom, death penalty
  • Absolute religious toleration
  • Failure, alienates those he tried to help (too
    much too soon)

Maria Theresa and Joseph II of Austria
22
IV. Eastern Absolutism
  • Enlightenment in E.Europe (cont)
  • Russia
  • Catherine the Great (1762-1796)
  • Open to Enlightenment ideas of reform
  • But does nothing, favors nobility over peasants
  • Absolutist ideals help gain territory to the
    south and east

Catherine the Great of Russia
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