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EUROPE: AGES OF REVOLUTIONS

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Title: EUROPE: AGES OF REVOLUTIONS


1
EUROPE AGES OF REVOLUTIONS
  • 1750 - 1914

2
COMMERCIAL IDEOLOGIES IN 1750
  • Industry and Commerce dominate the thinking of
    this age
  • Mercantilism
  • Limited amount of wealth in the world
  • If one nation benefited, another suffered
  • Goal is to maximize nations portion of trade
  • Goal is to exclude competition from markets and
    monopolize wealth
  • Governments pass legislation to support domestic
    commerce
  • Trade incentives for local producers
  • Establish economic, legal barriers to outside
    trade
  • Governments support colonization, imperialism
  • Colonization find homes for excess population
  • Imperialism provides markets, resources for
    domestic industry
  • Foreign possessions bring glory, wealth to the
    nation
  • Almost every nation in the world subscribes to
    this theory
  • French, Colbert were major proponents of theory
  • Free Trade
  • Wealth is not finite but can be created
  • To maximize wealth, allow people, industry to
    compete freely
  • Governments exist to protect competition, not
    guarantee success

3
ECONOMIC EXCHANGES IN 1750
  • Domestic Trade
  • Most commerce is internal
  • Most markets sought autarky self-sufficiency
  • Greatest amount of GDP would be internal
  • Workers, farmers do not generate for export
  • International Trade
  • Conditions of Trade
  • Mercantilism predominates
  • International trade tends to be limited to cash
    crops, finished luxuries
  • Western Europe dominates most trade
  • Only Eastern Asia has the ability to rival,
    challenge Western Europe
  • Trade Markets
  • Western European exports and imports
  • Exports finished products, finished luxuries
  • Imports raw materials, minerals, primary crop
    luxuries
  • Eastern Europe, Southern Europe, Northern Europe,
    SW Asia
  • Imports finished products, finished luxuries
  • Exports minerals, primary products, grains
  • Americas including Caribbean, South Asia

4
TRADE IN 1750
5
ECONOMIC EXCHANGES IN 1914
  • Saw the rise of international trade
  • Trade involved all types of products, goods for
    first time
  • Entire world involved all continents, peoples
    effected
  • Some nations traded to exist made their wealth
    off of trade
  • Very few nations produced finished goods for
    international market (core)
  • Most nations supplied world markets with raw
    materials (periphery)
  • Nations had begun to specialize in trade (we
    cannot produce everything)
  • Terms of Trade
  • Most items traded were finished goods, industrial
    products
  • Wealthy nations tended to trade with each other
  • Western Colonies, Latin America, all of Asia
    except Japan
  • Only accounted for a small part of trade
  • Generally exported primary products, imported
    finished products
  • Nations began negotiating trade agreements
  • The US and later UK came to favor open markets
    (markets open to all)
  • Most favored nation status was goal partners
    traded as equals
  • Rise of international capital markets
  • Domestic profit needed to be invested, sometimes
    best opportunities abroad
  • Money invested abroad to reap benefits at home

6
TRADE IN 1914
7
2ND AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION
  • In 1750 the world was largely subsistence
    agriculture
  • Rhythms of regional agricultural societies based
    on seasons, surroundings
  • Small plots, rural villages, no export exception
    were Russia, Baltic
  • Began in England but also occurred in Western
    Europe, US, Asia
  • Outgrowth of Columbian Exchange
  • Outgrowth of the Scientific Revolution
  • Enclosure Act
  • Larger landowners begin to enclose lands
  • Began with enclosure of public lands
  • Done legally to increase yields of large
    landowners
  • Then took smaller farms, plots away from poor
    farmers
  • Done with support of Parliament
  • Results
  • Moved small, inefficient farms into better
    productivity
  • Brought new lands under cultivation
  • Freed labor for factories and swelled population
    in cities
  • The Revolution
  • New Foodstuffs planted new styles of crop
    rotations
  • Selected breeds of cattle, dairy cattle, sheep

8
FROM PEASANTS TO FARMERS
  • The process, while social, began with technology,
    science
  • Agronomy and animal husbandry replaced herding
  • Selective breeding, splicing, experimentation
  • Crop varieties, fertilizers to enrich soil
  • Farming machinery introduced
  • Thrashers, reapers, seed drills, tractors
  • Muscle , animal power replaced by machines
  • Barbed wire was a revolution
  • Transport, preservation made export possible
  • Trains, ships with large holds
  • Grain silos, refrigerator ships, canning, food
    processors
  • Subsistence Agriculture becomes commercial
    farming
  • Western Europe, US, Canada, Argentina, Brazil,
    Uruguay
  • Australia, New Zealand, parts of India, China,
    Japan
  • On the other hand, in some countries
  • Peasants went from masters of their own work
  • To hands for someone elses work, or someone
    elses work hands
  • Russia, Eastern Europe, Africa, parts of Latin
    America, SE Asia

9
COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
  • Commercial agriculture was a revolution 1750
    1914
  • Cash crops crops grown for profitable export
  • Often luxuries or non-necessities with high
    profit margins
  • Two bottlenecks (natural hindrance to profitable
    production)
  • Many are labor intensive solution slavery,
    paid agricultural workers
  • Many require extensive processing, preservation
    to be useful solution technology
  • Commercial agriculture is heavily damaging to the
    environment, soil
  • First arose during 16th century colonialism
  • Caribbean, Brazilian, SE Asian plantations
  • Latin American haciendas, rancheros
  • First export crops sugar, hides, wool, spices
  • Expanded in 18th century
  • British North American colonies
  • Added tobacco, indigo, rice
  • Naval stores (trees, pitch, tar)
  • Asia added tea, coffee, opium, cloves
  • Americas added cocoa, coffee
  • Industrial Revolution made additional possible
    more
  • Cotton (seeds) rubber, oil (synthesizing)

10
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • The first revolution in an era of change,
    revolution
  • 1780s Breakthrough in productivity
  • Mechanization of factory, labor
  • Production of vast quantities of goods
  • Decreasing costs of goods
  • Preceded by other revolutions and changes in
    attitude
  • Scientific, Commercial Enlightenment,
    Agricultural
  • Change in mindset
  • New Ideas
  • Risk takers
  • Massive markets for products
  • Improved organizational skills
  • Upsurge in technology
  • Inventors apply science to life, work
  • Many new inventions
  • Capitalization and Finance
  • Profits from trade, colonies
  • Invested in Europe
  • Institutional changes

11
FOUNDATIONS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION
  • Coal critical to the early industrialization of
    Britain
  • Shift from wood to coal in 18TH century
    deforestation caused wood shortages
  • Abundant, accessible coal reserves in Britain
  • Overseas colonies provided raw materials, capital
  • Plantations in the Americas provided sugar and
    cotton
  • Colonies also became markets for British
    manufactured goods
  • Grain, timber, and beef shipped from United
    States to Britain after 1830
  • Profits from sugar funded banks, provided
    investment capital
  • Demand for cheap cotton spurred mechanization of
    cotton industry
  • John Kay invented the flying shuttle, 1733
  • Samuel Crompton invented the spinning "mule,"
    1779
  • Edmund Cartwright invented a water-driven power
    loom, 1785
  • James Watt's steam engine, 1765
  • Burned coal, which drove a piston, which turned a
    wheel
  • Widespread use by 1800 meant increased
    productivity, cheaper prices
  • Iron and steel also important industries, with
    continual refinement
  • Coke (purified coal) replaced charcoal as
    principal fuel
  • Bessemer converter (1856) made cheaper, stronger
    steel
  • Transportation improved with steam engines and
    improved steel

12
IMAGES OF INVENTION
13
INDUSTRIAL CAUSE EFFECT
SPINNING lt-------------------------------------gt WEAVING
(EX Spinning Jenny) (EX Flying shuttle)
Machines become heavier, thus
Extra power is needed, thus
Watermills, steam engine invented, thus
Emergence of factory system, replacing cottage industry
Because production must be concentrated near the power source, and machines become too expensive to be owned by workers, thus
Profound social transformations, thus
Urban influx, crowding, unprecedented social problems thus
Workers organize, government passes laws and reforms, unions begin to arise
14
FACTORY SYSTEM
  • The factory
  • Gradually replaced the putting-out system
  • Factory system required division of labor
  • Each worker performed a single task
  • Required a high degree of coordination
  • Work discipline, close supervision
  • Working conditions often harsh
  • Workers lost status
  • Not skilled
  • Just wage earners
  • Harsh work discipline
  • Fast pace of work
  • Frequent accidents
  • Industrial protest
  • Saboteurs
  • Flemish workers throw wooden shoes into machines
  • Shoes were called sabots hence saboteur
  • Luddites in England
  • Struck against mills and destroyed machines, 1811
    and 1816

15
SPREAD OF INDUSTRIALIZATION
  • The First Industrial Revolution
  • Largely Atlantic based 1750 1850
  • British industrial monopoly
  • 1750 to 1800
  • Forbade immigration of skilled workers
  • Continental System of Napoleon
  • Abolished internal trade barriers in western
    Europe, sped up process
  • Dismantled guilds
  • Belgium, France
  • Moved toward industrialization by mid-nineteenth
    century
  • Belgium was first as it most resembled England,
    closest ports
  • Germany
  • Bismarck sponsored heavy industry, arms, shipping
  • Built railroads to move German army around,
    benefiting commerce
  • Rails required steel, coal
  • Eventually developed chemicals, electrical
    industries
  • The United States
  • Slow to start few laborers, little capital
  • Cotton and Textiles began revolution

16
MAPPING THE REVOLUTION
17
INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM
  • Mass production
  • Provided cheaper goods for all classes of society
  • Eli Whitney
  • Mass production of interchangeable parts for
    firearms
  • Cotton Gin made cotton harvesting, production
    cheaper
  • Henry Ford
  • Introduced assembly line
  • Applied to automobile production
  • Industrialization
  • Expensive
  • Required large capital investment
  • Structural Changes of Industry
  • Large-scale corporations with investors
  • New laws protected investors from liability
  • Monopolies, trusts, and cartels
  • Competitive associations
  • Vertical organization (Monopoly)
  • One company controls all aspects of production
    within a single industry
  • One company dominates whole market

18
GENERALIZED EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • Increased Population
  • Increased Urbanization
  • Increased migration, immigration
  • Increased wealth
  • Spread of wealth to middle class
  • New consumerism
  • New roles for women, poor, minorities
  • Change in child rearing, childhood
  • Rise of a technical, managerial class
  • Invention of leisure time, common culture
  • Increasing demand for social reform, worker
    rights
  • Increased life span, living standard decreased
    death rate
  • Emancipation of slaves, serfs

19
WESTERN INDUSTRY FAMILIES
  • New social classes created by industrialization
  • Captains of industry a new aristocracy of wealth
  • Middle class managers, accountants, new
    professionals
  • Working class unskilled, poorly paid, vulnerable
  • Dramatic changes to the industrial family
  • Sharp distinction between work and family life
  • Worked long hours outside home
  • Family members led increasingly separate lives
  • Fathers and Sons
  • Gained increased stature, responsibility in
    industrial age
  • Middle- and upper-class men were sole providers
  • Valued self-improvement, discipline, and work
    ethic
  • Imposed these values on working-class men
  • Workers often resisted work discipline
  • Working-class culture bars, sports, gambling,
    outlets away from work
  • Mothers and daughters
  • Opportunities narrowed by industrialization
  • Working women could not bring children to work in
    mines or factories
  • Middle-class women expected to care for home and
    children

20
POPULATION GROWTH
  • The Fruits of Industry
  • Industrialization raised material standards of
    living
  • Mass production made luxuries into common goods
  • Workers received pay and able to buy goods, foods
  • Better diets and improved sanitation
  • Reduced death rate of adults and children
  • Reduced deaths due to childbirth
  • Increased life span
  • Decreased infant mortality
  • Declining birthrate in response to declining
    mortality
  • Voluntary birth control through contraception
  • Impact on Population
  • Populations of Europe, America, 1700 to 1900
  • Asia populations rose due to food supplies
  • Increasing urbanization especially of
  • Port cities
  • Industrial cities
  • World Effects
  • Change typical of industrialized countries

21
DOMESTIC MIGRATION
  • Industrialization
  • Drew migrants from countryside to urban centers
  • By 1900, In Europe and Anglo-North America
  • 50 percent of population of industrialized
    nations lived in towns
  • More than 150 cities with over 100,000 people
  • Urban problems
  • Shoddy houses, fouled air, inadequate water
  • By late 19th century
  • Governments passed legislation to clean up cities
  • Passed building codes, built sewer systems
  • Internal Migration
  • Settlement of Frontiers by population centers
  • Existing populations expand into plains, prairies
  • Facilitated by railroads, technology
  • Examples
  • Westward Movement in USA, Canada, Australia
  • Settlement of Siberia by Russia
  • Great Trek by Afrikaaners
  • Chinese settlement of Yangtze, west, Manchuria

22
ENVIRONMENTAL DEGREDATION
  • First era in history when environment seriously
    threatened by humans
  • Causes of Environmental Stress
  • Industrialization
  • Pollution increased significantly especially in
    cities, water
  • Ability to destroy land for resources increased
    due to technology
  • Examples Industrial areas of Western Europe,
    Eastern USA
  • Technology
  • Iincreased production on land, from resources
  • Marginal lands could be settled, exploited
  • Demographic Stress
  • Urbanization, expanding cities destroyed habitats
  • High Population Densities supported by food
  • Many acres moved to unproductive status
  • Examples Western Europe, Asian/Indian port
    cities
  • Environmental Shift
  • Farming, ranching changed face of landscape
  • Ranch animals introduced new fauna, diseases,
    threats
  • Farming horticulture introduced new flora
  • Examples Americas, Australia, New Zealand,
    Africa, Hawaii

23
DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION
  • Malthusian Economics
  • Predicted human population always outpaced food,
    supplies
  • Only natural disasters, wars, famine keep
    population low
  • Did not figure in technology, inventions, science
  • Key Characteristics
  • Population
  • Increased from 900 million (1800) to 1.6 billion
    (1900)
  • In Europe, Asia, North America
  • Scientific, medical advances
  • Increase life span, infant survival rate
  • Decrease death rate, death of mother during
    childbirth
  • New hygiene
  • Food supply increases
  • Lightly, uninhabited areas brought under
    cultivation
  • World trade allows for foods to reach areas
    quicker
  • Staples in world trade due to refrigeration,
    canning, ships
  • Agronomy, animal husbandry increase yields,
    variety, quality
  • Fruits of the Columbian Exchange
  • Many nations begin to export quantities of wheat,
    meat

24
GRAPHING MALTHUS DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION
25
LIMITS TO REVOLUTIONARY IDEAS
  • Testing the limits of revolutionary ideals
    women's rights
  • Enlightenment call for equality not generally
    extended to women
  • Women used logic of Locke to argue for women's
    rights
  • Mary Astell attacked male dominance in the family
  • Mary Wollstonecraft women possessed same natural
    rights as men
  • Women crucial to revolutionary activities
  • French revolution granted women rights of
    education, property, no vote
  • Olympe de Gouges's declaration of full
    citizenship for women too radical
  • Women made no significant gains in other
    revolutions
  • Gained ground in the nineteenth century in United
    States and Europe
  • Seneca Falls Declaration of Womens Rights
  • Women involved in abolitionist, temperance,
    reform movements
  • Testing the limits of revolutionary ideals
    slavery
  • Movements to end slave trade
  • Began in 1700s, gained momentum during
    revolutions
  • In 1807 British Parliament outlawed slave trade
  • US ended it in 1807 other states followed
  • Illegal slave trade to Brazil, in Africa,
    internal within US continued
  • Movements to abolish slavery difficult because
    of property rights

26
CHANGES IN WESTERN SOCIETY AFTER 1850
  • Changes for workers
  • Better wages
  • Decrease of working hours
  • Rise of leisure time
  • Increased health, physical risks
  • Growth of white collar work force
  • Managerial
  • Entrepreneurial
  • Bureaucratic workers of government
  • Secretarial, office workers
  • Growth of blue collar work force
  • Industrial
  • Technical
  • Miners
  • Decrease in ratio of farmers to whole society
  • Technology increased productivity
  • Increased productivity lower prices, reduced need
    for farmers
  • Farmers began to migrate to cities, industry
    immigrate abroad
  • Increased roles for women due to
    industrialization, education

27
WOMEN IN SOCIETY
  • Active in Revolutions, Change but limited results
    1750-1914
  • Women served as auxiliaries to men
  • Would not press changes
  • Women tended to lack mass support
  • From legislators
  • From other women
  • Female revolutionaries
  • Tended to put class interests above gender issues
  • Favored social reform, economic relief
  • Initially very influential in French Revolution
  • Women belief that their place was at home, with
    children
  • Restoration of Conservative elite often limited
    any gains by women
  • Post-Revolutionary Era Womens Rights
  • Industrialization radically altered working
    womens roles publicly and privately
  • Women moved into the work force in great numbers
  • Women began to earn some money, independence,
    began to organize
  • Women often still held responsible for home,
    children, family too
  • Political activism, issues resurrected by middle
    class, upper class women
  • Learned to publish and to organize promoted
    education

28
CULT OF DOMESTICITY
  • Gender and Social Changes produced Industrial,
    Agriculture Revolutions
  • Decreased death rate from child birth
  • Women tend to have fewer children as more survive
  • Death of women in child birth falls
  • Raises live span of women over that of men
  • First time women began to live longer than men
  • 19TH Century Social Ideal
  • Women were expected to take care of family
  • Children, home were more important
  • Women expected to have children, look after the
    family
  • Public roles of women limited
  • Industrial Revolution changes, threatens ideal
  • Women acquire a public role
  • Women admitted to work force in great numbers
  • Acquired purchasing power, influence
  • Acquired increased independence from husbands
  • Extra income helped family, increased family
    health
  • Reality Was
  • Female workers not treated same as males

29
THE FIRST WORLD WARS
  • 1750 - 1765
  • War of Austrian Succession and Rise of Prussia
  • France, Spain, England, Portugal, Dutch, Russia,
    Sweden in wars
  • Rise of Prussia as a great power, England as a
    super power
  • Showed balance of power doctrine at its fullest
  • Colonial Wars
  • Battles fought around the world
  • Colonies changed hands, colonials effected
  • English, French contest for North America
  • France lost influence in North America,
    Caribbean, India
  • England emerges as worlds super power
  • British navy rules seas unopposed
  • Acquires former French North American colonies
  • Acquires preeminent influence in India
  • Acquires right to supply slaves to Spanish
    Americas
  • Spain, Portugal, Dutch no longer great powers
  • American Revolution 1776 1783 and the Wider
    World Impact
  • British colonists revolt, inspired by
    Enlightenment
  • American ships ranged seas attacking English

30
REVOLUTIONARY IDEAS
  • Revolution
  • A popular idea, means to an end
  • A way to restructure society
  • Popular sovereignty
  • Relocating sovereignty in the people
  • Traditional monarchs
  • Claimed a "divine right" to rule
  • Derived from God, unquestionable
  • Monarch unanswerable to people
  • Constitutional Limitations
  • Aristocracy, Enlightenment challenged king
  • Glorious Revolution of 1688
  • Made the monarch responsible to the people
  • John Locke's theory of contractual government
  • Authority comes from the consent of the governed
  • Freedom and equality
  • Demands for freedom of worship
  • Freedom of expression, assembly
  • Demands for political and legal equality

31
TYPES OF REVOLUTIONS
  • Aristocratic Revolution
  • Aristocracy fights to preserve privileges
  • Often against royal absolutism
  • Rarely for other classes rights
  • Usually ends with constitution, limits on
    monarchy
  • English Glorious Revolution (1688) is an example
  • Bourgeois (liberal) Revolution
  • Middle class seeks rights equal to nobility
  • Extension of franchise, ability to hold office
  • Issues of taxation often involved
  • Reforms limited and rarely radical, franchise
    limited
  • American (1776), French (1789)
  • French Revolutions 1830, 1848
  • Mass revolutions
  • Most of society effected and involved
  • Often goals are quite radical
  • Methods to achieve are often quite violent
  • Nationalist Revolutions
  • Polish Revolutions of 1830, 1863

32
REFORM
  • Often system allowed change without radical
    means, violence
  • Reform was a theme of 1750 1914
  • Reform movements
  • Increased, responsive democratic representation,
    institutions
  • Expansion of male suffrage was the key issue
  • One of the hallmarks of a democratic society
  • Very successful in US, Western Europe, British
    settler colonies, Japan
  • Less so in Latin America, Russia, Eastern Europe,
    Africa, Asia
  • Abolition of slavery, serfdom
  • Abolition movement was very successful
  • Other forms of coercive labor replaced them
  • Racial, social equality did not follow
  • Women Rights
  • One goal was full female franchise
  • Not achieved until after 1914 but progress
  • Reform Movements
  • Spanish Bourbon Reforms (1780s)
  • Pombals Reforms Portugal (1780s)
  • Chartist Movement (1820s)

33
FRENCH REVOLUTION NAPOLEON
  • Summoning the Estates General
  • Financial crisis half of government revenue went
    to national debt
  • King Louis XVI forced to summon Estates General
    to raise new taxes
  • Many representatives wanted sweeping political
    and social reform
  • First and Second Estates (nobles, clergy) tried
    to limit Third Estate (commoners)
  • National Assembly
  • Formed by representatives of Third Estate, 17
    June 1789
  • Demanded a written constitution and popular
    sovereignty
  • Angry mob seized the Bastille on 14 July, sparked
    insurrections in many cities
  • National Assembly wrote the "Declaration of the
    Rights of Man and the Citizen"
  • "Liberty, equality, and fraternity slogan and
    values of the National Assembly
  • The Assembly abolished the feudal system, altered
    the role of church
  • France became a constitutional monarchy, 1791
  • The Convention and the Reign of Terror
  • Replaced National Assembly under new
    constitution, 1791
  • Austrian and Prussian armies invaded France to
    restore ancien régime
  • Convention abolished the monarchy and proclaimed
    France a republic
  • King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette
    executed, 1793
  • Radical Jacobins dominated Convention in 1793-94
    in "reign of terror"

34
THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM
35
THE FRENCH NAPOLEON
  • An Era of Global Conflict from 1792 to 1814
  • French Revolution as Interaction
  • French revolutionary success sparked interest
    throughout Europe, Americas
  • Many revolutionary regimes set up by French
    armies in Italy, Germany
  • Haiti rebels during French Revolution
  • Spanish American colonies achieve independence
  • Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)
  • Brilliant military leader upset the Balance of
    Power
  • Became general in royal army at 24
  • Supported the revolution defended the Directory
  • His invasion of Egypt was defeated by British
    army
  • Overthrew Directory named himself consul for
    life
  • Napoleon's empire
  • 1804, proclaimed himself emperor
  • Dominated the European continent
  • Annexed lands in Italy, Netherlands, Germany,
    Spain controlled other thrones
  • Defeated Austria and Prussia, Occupied Spain and
    Portugal, allied with Scandinavia
  • Perennial Enemy Great Britain who controlled the
    high seas
  • Disastrous invasions of Spain, Russia in 1812
    destroyed Grand Army

36
EUROPE 1812 1815
37
EMERGENCE OF IDEOLOGIES
  • Congress of Vienna was a Conservative restoration
  • Restored Balance of Power ruled through great
    powers
  • Monarchy was at heart of conservatism
  • Conservatism
  • Called the Ancien Regime
  • Resisted change, opposed revolutions
  • Importance of continuity, tradition, aristocracy
  • Edmund Burke
  • Viewed society as organism that changed slowly
    over time
  • American Revolution natural, logical outcome of
    history
  • French Revolution violent and irresponsible
  • Liberalism
  • Welcomed controlled change as an agent of
    progress
  • Strongly middle class, support economic reform,
    education to help industrialization
  • Wanted to reform political structure, increase
    electorate slightly
  • Championed freedom, equality, democracy, written
    constitutions
  • Limits on state power, interference in individual
    freedoms
  • John Stuart Mill championed individual freedom
    and minority rights
  • Radicalism

38
NATIONALISM
  • Born in France (Joan of Arc), spread abroad
    during French Revolution
  • Idea began as radical, adopted by liberals, used
    by conservatives
  • An idea which could unify society across social
    classes
  • Many aspects similar to religion, faith
  • Loyalty to state often replaces loyalty to
    church, monarch
  • Dominated 19th century
  • Cultural nationalism
  • An expression of national identity
  • Emphasized common historical experience
  • Used folk culture, literature, music
  • Illustrated national spirit, distinctiveness
  • Political nationalism more intense in the
    nineteenth century
  • Demanded loyalty, solidarity from national group
  • Minorities sought independence as national
    community
  • European Examples
  • Belgian independence movement
  • German, Italian unification movements
  • Slavic, Greek, Rumanian nationalisms in Central
    Europe, Balkans
  • World-wide spread

39
IMAGINED COMMUNITIES
  • Concert of Europe 1815 - 1860
  • Congress of Vienna, 1814-15
  • Conservative victory restore old order after
    defeat of Napoleon
  • Maintained balance of power in Europe for a
    century
  • Failed in repressing nationalist and
    revolutionary ideas
  • Concert of European great powers called Holy
    Alliance
  • UK, Russia, Prussia, Austria, France working in
    concert
  • Attempted to prevent revolutions, change
  • Intervened militarily to oppose change
  • Often forced to limit, control changes
  • Nationalist rebellions
  • Against old order throughout nineteenth century
  • 1800s Haiti, Latin America
  • 1820s
  • Greek Revolution rebels overcame Ottoman rule in
    1827
  • Mehmet Ali in Egypt, defeated by French, English,
    Russians
  • 1830/1848
  • Italy, Belgium, France, Spain, Portugal, Poland,
    Austria, Germany
  • Conservatism usually restored but revolutionary
    ideals persisted

40
THE SOCIALIST CHALLENGE
  • Socialism
  • Arose as an outgrowth of the Industrial
    Revolution
  • Accelerated by the horrible conditions of the
    workers in the cities
  • Utopian socialists
  • Charles Fourier, Robert Owen, and their followers
  • Established model communities based on principle
    of equality
  • Stressed cooperative control of industry,
    education for all children
  • Marxian Socialists (Communists)
  • Marx (1818-1883), Engels (1820-1895), leading
    socialists
  • Scorned the utopian socialists as unrealistic,
    unproductive
  • Critique of industrial capitalism
  • Unrestrained competition led to ruthless
    exploitation of working class
  • State, courts, police all tools of the
    capitalist ruling class
  • The Communist Manifesto, 1848
  • Claimed excesses of capitalism would lead to a
    communist revolution
  • Revolution would wipe away capitalism and
    establish a socialist society
  • Dictatorship of the proletariat" would destroy
    capitalism
  • Socialism would follow a fair, just, and
    egalitarian society
  • Ideas dominated European, international socialism
    throughout 19th century

41
UNIFICATION OF ITALY, GERMANY
  • Italy
  • After Congress of Vienna
  • Italy divided into small states all states
    except Sardinia, Papacy ruled by foreign
    dynasties
  • Austria was the preeminent power in Italy
  • Mazzini, Nationalist, formed Young Italy inspired
    uprisings against foreign rule
  • 1848 Nationalist revolution destroyed by Austrian
    troops
  • Sardinia and Cavour
  • Italian Sardinia only ethnic Italian state
  • Prime Minister of Sardinia becomes leader of
    nationalists
  • Expelled Austrian authorities in northern Italy,
    1859 with French aide
  • Garibaldi
  • Revolutionary nationalist, democrat
  • Staged revolutions, later seized control of
    Southern Italy
  • 1860-1870 Italian states united under Sardinia
  • Germany
  • After Congress of Vienna Dominated by Austrian
    von Metternich
  • German Confederacy a collection of independent
    states dominated by Austria
  • Prussia the largest German state but limited in
    action by Austria
  • Metternichs System preserved conservatism,
    persecuted liberalism, hated nationalism

42
MAPS OF UNIFICATION
43
RUSSIA EMPIRE UNDER PRESSURE
  • Post-1812
  • Great concern with defense, liberal ideas as
    threat to old order
  • Government introduced reforms to improve
    bureaucracy
  • Made an alliance with the conservative powers of
    Europe to maintain order
  • December Uprising 1825
  • Death of Alexander I prompted some
    western-oriented officers to rebel
  • Suppressed mercilessly by new tsar
  • Nicholas I
  • Orthodoxy, autocracy and nationality
  • State became very repressive, secret police
  • Policeman of Europe used army to suppress
    revolutions
  • Suppressed rebellion in Poland
  • Policy of foreign wars to divert domestic
    problems
  • Serfdom Issue
  • Russia needed work force in order to industrial
  • Serfdom not efficient
  • Lack of workers in cities an obstacle to economic
    development
  • Gap between western, eastern Europe economic
    systems

44
RUSSIAN EXPANSION
  • Nineteenth-century Russia
  • Collapse of Napoleon left Russia as great power
  • Russia dominates Eastern Europe (saved both
    Prussia, Austria)
  • Russia increased presence in Central Europe,
    Northern Europe
  • Russia wants to push into Ottoman SE Europe, SW
    Asia
  • Expands into Central Asia, Pacific
  • Autocracy, Orthodoxy, Conservatism
  • Official government policy to uphold conservatism
  • Pre-destined Russia to oppose revolution, change
    everywhere
  • Rise of Pan-Slavic Nationalism
  • Sought to control all Orthodox, Slavs
  • Brought Russia into conflict with Ottoman Empire,
    Austria in Balkans
  • Also wanted access to Mediterranean Sea
  • Hoped to seize control of Constantinople
  • War against the Ottoman Empire
  • Numerous wars to acquire Turkish lands in SE
    Europe, Caucasus
  • Supported rise of Christian Balkan states under
    Russian influence
  • Crimean War 1853 - 1856
  • France, Great Britain, Sardinia supported
    Ottomans

45
RUSSIAN EMPIRE
46
RUSSIAN REPRESSION MARXISM
  • Cycles of protest and repression
  • Peasants
  • Often landless, no political power
  • Frustrated by lack of meaningful reform
  • Peasant uprisings become more common than serf as
    frustration heightened
  • Population increased as potato introduced,
    increasing pressures on society
  • Social Protest
  • Antigovernment protest and revolutionary activity
    increased in 1870s
  • Middle Class, some aristocrats advocated rights,
    political representation
  • Radical Intelligentsia advocated socialism and
    anarchism, recruited in countryside
  • Repression by tsarist authorities secret police,
    censorship
  • Russification sparked ethnic nationalism,
    attacks on Jews tolerated
  • Terrorism emerges as a tool of opposition
  • Radicals wanted solution to social issue from a
    Russian perspective
  • Young intellectuals went directly to the peasants
  • Most opposed westernization, autocracy,
    capitalism
  • Many became peasant anarchists
  • Alexander II, the reforming tsar, assassinated by
    a bomb in 1881
  • Nicholas II (1894-1917), more oppressive,
    conservative ruler

47
MARXISMWorkerswill stage arevolution and
overthrowcapitalism, stateLENINISMWill only
succeed withthe leadership of an elitegroup
ofrevolutionaries
48
RUSSIAN INDUSTRIALIZATION
  • Russia experienced the 2nd Industrial Revolution
  • Financed by exportation of minerals, oil, gas,
    grains
  • Development of rail system spurred other
    industries, exports
  • Strongest development in coal, steel areas of
    Ukraine
  • Rise of industrial cities St. Petersburg.
    Moscow, Poland, Ukraine
  • Promoted by tsarist government, French government
  • France needed Russia as a military ally against
    Germany
  • Russia needed a modern economy to compete on
    world stage
  • Formula French loans/investment, sale of Russian
    grain
  • Sergei Witte, Minister of finance, 1892-1903
  • Top-down Management Style
  • Supported railway construction
  • Military rationale to move troops to border if
    attacked
  • But stimulated other industries including exports
  • Remodeled the state bank
  • Protected infant industries with tariffs,
    subsidies
  • Secured foreign loans especially from France
  • Industrial discontent intensified
  • Rapid growth of factories, urban working class

49
TRANS-SIBERIAN RAILROAD
Cities, industry grew up along railroad
mines farms, opened in area
50
RUSSIAN REVOLUTION OF 1905
  • Russian Revolution of 1905
  • Military defeat, humiliation in Russo-Japanese
    War was cause
  • Russia always diverted domestic tension by short,
    successful wars
  • In 1870s, 1880s had expanded against Ottoman
    Empire
  • Massive protests followed news of defeat
  • Workers mounted general strikes in St.
    Petersburg, Moscow
  • Peasant insurrections in countryside against
    landlords
  • Police repressions ineffective, just upset people
  • Bloody Sunday massacre
  • Poor workers of St. Petersburg march to palace to
    ask tsar for help
  • Unarmed workers shot down by government troops
  • Peasants seized landlords' property, killed
    landlords
  • Workers formed soviets (worker councils) in
    cities, factories
  • Workers tended towards non-Marxist socialists
    Marxists marginalized
  • Sought to achieve ends without full scale
    revolution
  • A Fizzled Revolution
  • Tsar forced to accept elected legislature, the
    Duma
  • Many parties elected with conflicting interests
  • Unable, unwilling to cooperate

51
THE SICK OLD MAN OF EUROPE
  • The issue of Ottoman State called the Eastern
    Question
  • A central concern of European diplomacy from 1800
    to 1914
  • At issue was whether to preserve or partition
    Ottoman Empire
  • By 1800s, Ottoman Empire a dying state
  • Central government
  • Horribly corrupt, unable to reform, unviable
  • Central authority breaks down and provinces begin
    to rebel, break off
  • Multinational state
  • Greeks, Slavs, Albanians, Rumanians, Jews, Arabs,
    Kurds, Armenians
  • Conflicting traditions demanding autonomy
  • Nationalism affects some subject peoples
  • Mehmet Ali of Albania seeks independence
  • Muhammad Ali of Egypt seeks independence
  • Greek Rebellion in 1820 achieves independence
  • Serbs, Bulgars, Rumanians, Albanians follow in
    late 19th century
  • Russians, Austrians prey on Ottoman Territory
  • Russians constantly looking to take over
    territory
  • Austrians, Germans, French, English oppose
    Russian designs
  • French, English interested in markets, protecting
    Suez Canal

52
THE DECLINEANDPARTITIONOF THEOTTOMAN EMPIRE
53
A MULTINATIONAL EMPIRE
  • Austria 1750 1814
  • A collection of states ruled by the Hapsburg
    family who were also the Holy Roman Emperors
  • The Holy Roman Empire was neither holy, nor Roman
    nor an empire
  • No common government, few common institutions
    (save Catholicism)
  • Austria in 1815 1860
  • One of the victors against Napoleon extremely
    conservative and reactionary
  • The weakest, most threatened of Europes great
    powers
  • Prime Minister Metternich dominated German
    Confederation, Italy
  • Used force, coercion to prevent German, Italian
    nationalism
  • Opposed nationalism, liberalism, democracy
  • 1848 Revolution nearly destroyed state
  • Russia intervened to suppress revolutions
  • Austria then intervened in Germany, Italy to
    suppress revolutions
  • Prussia fights to isolate Austria, unify Germany
    w/o Austria
  • Austria in 1866 1870
  • Defeated in 1858 by French-Sardinian Alliance
    1866 by Prussia
  • Driven from German Confederation, Italy
  • Sees nationalism, German unification triumph
    under rival Prussia
  • Sees Italy united under Sardinia Papal states
    erased

54
MAP OF CONFUSION
55
DIPLOMACY BALANCE OF POWER HEGEMONY
  • Century Era of Western hegemony in all areas
  • Balance of Power dominates century
  • After Napoleon, great powers kept peace
  • Intervened in European affairs to maintain
    balance
  • Goals and Policies
  • No one power should dominate
  • No nation should be eliminated
  • No permanent ideologies threaten peace
  • Brokered conferences to decide touchy issues
  • International Organizations
  • Non-governmental Organizations new in history
  • Try to promote international accord
  • Establish cooperation
  • Red Cross
  • Established at end of Crimean War
  • Provide health care, relief following
    catastrophes
  • Olympics
  • Resurrected in 1896
  • Healthy competition

56
PRE-WAR ALLIANCES
  • Rival systems of alliance
  • Germany forms alliances
  • Bismarck attempts to isolate France
  • Until 1890, Germany had alliances with all except
    France
  • Obligated allies to come to one another's defense
  • France and Russia
  • Found themselves isolated, fearful of Germany
  • Formed Double Entente to end their isolation
  • The Triple Alliance
  • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
  • Germany, Austria allied 1879
  • Italy joined in 1882 (Triple Alliance)
  • Others Allied States
  • Ottoman Empire German railroads, reforms of
    military
  • Bulgaria and Rumania fearful of Russia and Serbia
  • The Double and Later Triple Entente
  • France, Russia
  • Common enemy Germany, common war plans
  • Worked together diplomatically

57
ALLIANCESc. 1914
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