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Americans and a World in Crisis

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Title: Americans and a World in Crisis


1
Chapter 25
  • Americans and a World in Crisis
  • 1933-1945

2
Introduction
  • 1.) How did President Roosevelts Good Neighbor
    Policy affect U.S.-Latin American relations?
  • 2.) How did the American people and their govt.
    respond to the international crises of the
    1930s?
  • 3.) How did President Roosevelt and Congress
    mobilize the country for war?

3
Introduction (cont.)
  • 4.) What impact did the war have on the U.S.
    economy?
  • 5.) How did the war change American society and
    affect minorities and women?
  • 6.) What were the different goals of the U.S.A.,
    G.B. and the U.S.S.R. and how did these goals
    affect their combat strategies?
  • 7.) Why did President Truman decide to drop
    atomic bombs on Japan, and was he justified in
    doing so?

4
The United States in a Menacing World, 1933-1939
  • Introduction
  • During FDRs fist 2 terms, he improved relations
    with Latin America
  • Meanwhile, aggressive, militaristic fascist
    regimes came to power in Italy, Germany, and
    Japan
  • The U.S.A. reacted to these developments abroad
    ambivalently
  • Torn between dislike of fascism and even stronger
    desire for peace

5
Nationalism and the Good Neighbor
  • The Good Neighbor policy
  • Agreed that no state has the right to intervene
    in the affairs of another
  • Applied in Latin America
  • Withdrew forces from Haiti and Dominican Republic
  • Ended the Platt Amendment
  • Refrained from using force against left-wing
    govts. in Cuba and Mexico
  • FDR did apply economic pressure to influence
    events
  • FDRs restraint in using military force improved
    U.S.-Latin American relations

6
The Rise of Aggressive States in Europe and Asia
  • Italy
  • Benito Mussolini
  • Took control in 1922
  • 1938--invaded Ethiopia

7
The Rise of Aggressive States in Europe and Asia
(cont.)
  • Germany
  • 1933
  • Adolf Hitler
  • Became chancellor of Germany
  • Absolute dictatorship
  • Preached racism, aggressive nationalism, and
    anti-Semitism

8
The Rise of Aggressive States in Europe and Asia
(cont.)
  • Hitler (cont.)
  • Persecuted the Jews
  • Military buildup
  • Conquest of other countries
  • 1936--Rhineland
  • 1938--Austria
  • 1938--Sudetenland
  • Munich Conference--appeasement by France and
    Great Britain

9
Map of Europe up to 1938
10
The Rise of Aggressive States in Europe and Asia
(cont.)
  • 1931--Japanese imperialists seized Manchuria from
    China
  • 1937--began a war of conquest to take over all of
    China

11
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12
The American Mood No More War
  • Americans disliked these actions in Europe and
    Asia but were determined not to be pulled into
    another war
  • U.S.A. participation in WWI as a mistake
  • Nye Committee
  • Reveled the roles played by bankers and weapons
    suppliers in WWI
  • In the 1930s, novelists and playwrights
    condemned war

13
The American Mood No More War (cont.)
  • Neutrality Acts
  • 1935
  • Prohibited the U.S. from making loans or selling
    arms to belligerent nations
  • Banned Americans from traveling on the ships of
    nations at war
  • U.S. Dept. of State link

14
The Gathering Storm, 1938-1939
  • Hitler seized the remainder of Czechoslovakia
  • Threatened to attack Poland
  • Signed the German-Soviet Non-Agrresion pact
  • Ensured Russian neutrality during the planned
    German invasion of Poland
  • Mussolini took over Albania

15
The Gathering Storm, 1938-1939 (cont.)
  • Many Americans grew alarmed and started to feel
    that the U.S.A. should take a more active role
  • FDR sent messages to Hitler and Mussolini asking
    them to pledge not to invade any other nation
  • They were responded with ridicule
  • Roosevelt asked Congress to appropriate much more
    to build up U.S. defenses

16
America and the Jewish Refugees
  • Throughout the 30s, German persecution of the
    Jews intensified
  • 1935--Nuremberg Laws
  • Stripped German Jews of citizenship and rights
  • 1938--Kristallnacht
  • A wave of Nazi violence against Jews
  • Attacked their homes, synagogues, and businesses

17
America and the Jewish Refugees (cont.)
  • Tens of thousands of European Jews fled and seek
    countries that would admit them
  • Among the refugees were
  • Distinguished musicians
  • Architects
  • Writers
  • Scholars
  • Many would enriched the cultural life of their
    adopted nation
  • Physicists Leo Szilard and Enrico Fermi would
    play key roles in developing the atomic bomb for
    the U.S.

18
America and the Jewish Refugees (cont.)
  • Congress would not amend discriminatory laws to
    offer a haven to hundreds of thousands of
    additional Jews needing a safe home
  • FDR did not exert pressure on Congress to do so
    either
  • The majority of Americans opposed letting in more
    Jews
  • Isolationist
  • Anti-immigrant
  • Anti-Semitic attitudes

19
America and the Jewish Refugees (cont.)
  • 1939--the U.S. stopped a ship carrying Jewish
    refugees and forced it to return to Europe
  • There the countryless refugees were soon murdered
    by the Nazis

20
Into the Storm, 1939-1941
  • The European War
  • Sept. 1, 1939
  • WWII began
  • Hitler attacked Poland
  • GB and France declared war on Germany
  • They were committed by a treaty to defend Poland

21
The European War (cont.)
  • The U.S.A. revised the Neutrality Acts
  • Now permitted was the sale of weapons to
    belligerents on a cash-and-carry basis
  • Many saw this as a way to help Britain and France
    without having to fight

22
The European War (cont.)
  • April 1940--German armies turned on Denmark and
    Norway
  • May 1940--they conquered Netherlands and Belgium
  • mid-June 1940--they captured France

23
The European War (cont.)
  • The Battle of Britain
  • July 10 to Oct. 31, 1940
  • German bombing raids over cities in England
  • Prime Minister Winston Churchill appealed to FDR
    for help
  • The majority of Americans favored a stepped-up
    weapons shipments to GB
  • An articulate minority feared that such aid would
    weaken U.S. defenses and needlessly pull the
    U.S.A. into war

24
From Isolation to Intervention
  • In 1940, FDR decided to run for a 3rd term
    because of the situation in Europe
  • Republican opponent was Wendell Willkie
  • During the campaign, Roosevelt continued his
    interventionist position
  • Signed an executive agreement with Churchill
  • Gave Britain 50 overage U.S. destroyers in
    exchange for leases on air and naval bases in
    British possession in the Western Hemisphere

25
From Isolation to Intervention (cont.)
  • America First Committee
  • Organized by isolationists
  • Preached that we must not give any aid to
    belligerents or become involved in the struggle
    against Hitler
  • Roosevelt was elected to an unprecedented 3rd term

26
From Isolation to Intervention (cont.)
  • Lend-Lease Act
  • Passed Congress in March 1941
  • Permitted the president to lend or lease military
    equipment to any country whose defense he thought
    vital to American security
  • June 1941--Hitler attacked U.S.S.R.
  • Roosevelt gave lend-lease aid to the Soviets and
    British

27
From Isolation to Intervention (cont.)
  • Constant sinking by German U-boats sent most of
    the supplies to the bottom of the Atlantic
  • To prevent such losses, the U.S.A.
  • Began to convoy British ships as far as Iceland
  • tracked German submarines
  • Notifying the British of the location of Germany
    submarines

28
From Isolation to Intervention (cont.)
  • By the fall of 1941, the U.S. and Germany were
    engaged in an undeclared naval war
  • Atlantic Charter
  • Summer of 1941
  • Meet off the coast of Newfoundland
  • Moved Roosevelt and Churchill closer to an
    alliance
  • A joint proclamation declaring that they were
    fighting the Axis powers to ensure life,
    liberty, independence and religious freedom and
    to preserve the rights of man and justice."

29
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30
Pearl Harbor and the Coming of War
  • Japan expanded its aggression from China to the
    resource-rich British, Dutch, and French colonies
    in Southeast Asia
  • Japan wanted to dominate all of Asia
  • This clashed with the Open Door policy
  • Roosevelt applied economic pressure on Japan

31
Pearl Harbor and the Coming of War (cont.)
  • By 1940, Washington prohibited the sale of
    aviation gasoline to Japan
  • Tokyo occupied northern Indochina and signed the
    Tripartite Pact with Germany and ItalyRoosevelt
    placed an embargo on all items Japan needed
  • July 1941--Japan seized the rest of
    IndochinaU.S. froze Japanese assets in the
    U.S.ended all trade

32
Pearl Harbor and the Coming of War (cont.)
  • Japan made a last-ditch effort to persuade
    Washington to reopen trade and recognize Japans
    conquests
  • If that failed, Japan would attempt to destroy
    the U.S. Pacific fleet with a surprise attack on
    Pearl Harbor
  • Washington knew its refusal would provoke an
    attack somewhere in the Pacific
  • Roosevelt would not yield
  • He sent warnings to all base commanders

33
Pearl Harbor and the Coming of War (cont.)
  • Dec. 7, 1941
  • Japan struck Pearl Harbor
  • History Channel video
  • Dec. 8
  • Congress recognized that a state of war existed
    with Japan
  • Roosevelt speech
  • Dec. 11
  • Japans 2 allies (Germany and Italy) declared war
    on U.S. and the U.S reciprocated

34
Pearl Harbor and the Coming of War (cont.)
  • In the months after Pearl Harbor, the United
    States faced a bleak situation
  • Nazi submarines prowled off the east coast and
    took a heavy toll on Allied ships
  • Hitlers armies had pushed to the outskirts of
    Leningrad and Moscow
  • Germany was launching new offensives in the
    Crimea, Caucasus, and North Africa

35
Pearl Harbor and the Coming of War (cont.)
  • Japan took over
  • Philippines, Malaya, Thailand, Hong Kong, Guam,
    Wake, Singapore, Dutch East Indies, and most of
    the island chains in the Western Pacific

36
America Mobilizes for War
  • Organizing for Victory
  • To plan the military effort FDR created
  • the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Office of
    Strategic Services (would later become the CIA)
  • To mobilize the economy Roosevelt
  • Established hundreds of special wartime agencies
  • War Production Board
  • Allocated scarce materials, limited manufacture
    of civilian goods, and awarded military
    production contracts

37
Organizing for Victory (cont.)
  • The U.S. produced more armaments than Germany,
    Italy, and Japan combined
  • Govt. contracts guaranteed handsome profits to
    the giant corporations that received most of the
    defense contracts
  • Federal authority and the federal budget grew
    rapidly
  • The influence of the military and big corporation
    on American life grew also

38
The War Economy
  • Between 1941 and 1945, the U.S. govt. spent
    nearly twice as much as it did from 1789 to 1940
  • Fueled by this expenditure, the economy boomed
  • During the war
  • Purchasing power of industrial workers went up
    50
  • Corporate profits climbed by 70
  • Unemployment vanished as 17 million new jobs were
    created

39
The War Economy (cont.)
  • Many of the poor moved into the middle class
  • Most labor leaders gave no-strike pledges
  • John L. Lewis led his miners on repeated work
    stoppages
  • An increasingly conservative Congress retaliated
    with the antilabor Smith-Connally Act
  • Office of Price Administration imposed price
    controls and rationing
  • Done to curb inflation
  • As a result, the cost of living only rose by 8
    during the last 2 years of the war

40
The War Economy (cont.)
  • The govt. raised the huge sums needed to fight
    the war with
  • the sale of bonds
  • Provided half the money
  • Steeply increased federal taxes
  • Provided the rest of the

41
A Wizard War
  • The govt. also employed thousands of scientists
  • Manhattan Project
  • A secret project
  • Designed to beat the Germans in the race to
    develop nuclear weapons
  • Led by physicist Robert Oppenheimer
  • Spent about 2 billion
  • July 16, 1945--tested the first nuclear bomb

42
Propaganda and Politics
  • Office of War Information and the Office of
    Censorship
  • Jobs were to unify Americans and prevent
    dangerous security leaks

43
Propaganda and Politics (cont.)
  • Full employment and prosperity led to a
    politically conservative trend
  • In 1942--more Republicans and conservative
    Democrats were elected to Congress
  • Cut welfare programs
  • Abolished New Deal agencies
  • Halted any further reforms
  • The role of the federal govt. in peoples lives
    grew larger
  • Supervised the economy
  • Funded research
  • Molded public opinion

44
The Battlefront, 1942-1944
  • Liberating Europe
  • The British and Americans concentrated on beating
    Hitler first, then Japan
  • Stalin pressed his 2 allies to launch an invasion
    of Europe as quickly as possible
  • Churchill convinced Roosevelt that they should
    land in North Africa first
  • By May 1943--they had defeated German and Italian
    armies
  • Soviets turned the tide of the war in the east
  • Won at Stalingrad
  • Held out at Leningrad
  • Attacked the German invaders along a
    thousand-mile front

45
Liberating Europe (cont.)
  • The British and Americans then captured Sicily
    and started a slow march up the Italian peninsula
  • Mussolini was deposed in July 1943
  • The new Italian govt. surrendered
  • Allies encountered stiff opposition from Germany
    troops

46
Liberating Europe (cont.)
  • 1944-1945--the Soviets cleared the Germans out of
    the U.S.S.R.
  • The Soviets continued to pursue them across
    eastern Europe
  • June 1944--British and Americans landed on the
    beaches of Normandy
  • Battle of the Bulge
  • Dec. 1944-Jan. 1945
  • Nazis temporarily stopped the Allied drive
  • By early 1945, the Americans and British reached
    the Rhine

47
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48
War in the Pacific
  • The Japanese advances in the Pacific were first
    halted in the spring and summer of 1942
  • Battle of Coral Sea and Battle of Midway
  • U.S.A. Navy and Army assaulted Japanese
    strongholds in
  • Solomon Islands
  • Gilbert Islands
  • Marshall Island
  • Mariana Island

49
War in the Pacific (cont.)
  • The U.S. Navy largely destroyed what was left of
    the Japanese fleet at the Battles of the
    Philippine Sea and Leyte Gulf

50
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51
The Grand Alliance
  • Great Britain, Soviet Union, and the U.S.A.
  • Created out of military necessity
  • All 3 had different goals for the postwar period
  • Roosevelt wanted to
  • defeat fascism
  • Establish a new world order strong enough to keep
    the peace
  • Open trade
  • Protect national self-determination

52
The Grand Alliance (cont.)
  • Churchill hoped to
  • Keep the British colonial empire
  • Maintain a balance of power in Europe against the
    Soviets
  • Stalin hoped to
  • Weaken Germany permanently
  • To protect his country against any future attack
    from the west
  • Impose Soviet domination over eastern Europe

53
The Grand Alliance (cont.)
  • FDR attempted to reconcile these differences with
    personal diplomacy
  • He held top-level wartime conferences with the
    Allied leaders at
  • Casablanca
  • Cairo
  • Tehran
  • The first meeting between the Allied leaders
    concerned the details of the Normandy invasion
    and other military and political problems were
    discussed

54
The Grand Alliance (cont.)
  • Roosevelt was reelected to a 4th term in 1944
  • Harry S Truman was his VP
  • Republicans nominated Thomas E. Dewey
  • FDR won by the smallest margin of his career

55
War and American Society
  • Introduction
  • About 15 million Americans served in the armed
    forces
  • Another 15 million moved from one place to
    another
  • More women than ever before entered the paid
    labor force

56
The GIs War
  • GIs saw death and brutality all around them
  • Some troops in all of the armies committed
    atrocities
  • Some suffered lasting psychological damage
  • Others became hardened and cynical

57
The GIs War (cont.)
  • For many their war service opened new vistas
  • They experienced foreign cities and countries
  • Learned to be more tolerant of other Americans
  • Different religions, classes, ethnicity, regions,
    etc.
  • About 1 million of them married women they met
    overseas

58
The Home Front
  • 15 million Americans moved from one location to
    another for family and economic reasons
  • People left rural areas to seek jobs in
    war-production centers
  • Terrible shortages of housing and other
    facilities developed
  • Urban blight and many social problems
  • The West grew in population

59
The Home Front (cont.)
  • High school enrollment dropped
  • More teenagers took full-time jobs
  • The armed forces sent nearly a million people to
    college campuses for special training
  • Americans went to the movies to watch films that
    entertained them
  • The public received war news from periodicals and
    the radio

60
The Home Front (cont.)
  • Millions of women went to work in defense plants
  • High wages
  • Patriotism
  • Govt. encouragement

61
The Home Front (cont.)
  • By 1945--women constituted over 1/3 of the labor
    force
  • Took on formerly male-dominated work
  • Welding
  • Riveting
  • Operating cranes
  • Running lathes
  • They only earned about 65 of what men received
    for the the jobs

62
The Home Front (cont.)
  • More than 1/3 of the women had children under 14
  • There were few day-care centers
  • Children were often left on their own
  • Juvenile delinquency increased alarmingly
  • Marriage, birth, and divorce rates soared
  • About 300,000 women joined the armed forces

63
The Home Front (cont.)
  • After 1945, most women left their wartime
    occupations
  • Women gained a new sense of their own
    capabilities

64
Racism and New Opportunities
  • During WWII, African-Americans demanded that the
    nation fight racism at home as well as abroad
  • NAACP and CORE led the struggle for civil rights
  • 1941--A. Philip Randolph planned a massive march
    on Washington
  • FDR signed an executive order prohibiting racial
    discrimination in hiring and promotion by govt.
    agencies and defense contractors

65
Racism and New Opportunities (cont.)
  • The Fair Employment Practices Commission
  • Created by FDR
  • Actually had very little power
  • Wartime labor shortages opened many new jobs for
    African-Americans
  • About 1 million African-Americans served in the
    armed forces
  • Generally in segregated units commanded by white
    officers

66
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67
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68
Racism and New Opportunities (cont.)
  • In civilian life, tensions developed between
    African-Americans demanding equality and
    resistant whites
  • Race riots erupted in dozens of cities
  • More than 700,000 African-Americans left the
    South to settle in cities of the North and West
  • The move opened up greater opportunities and
    potential political power

69
War and Diversity
  • 25,000 Native Americans served in the armed
    forces
  • Another 50,000 left reservations to work in
    defense industries
  • Many returned to the reservations after the war
  • Conditions on reservations had deteriorated badly
    because Congress had slashed appropriations for
    Indian programs

70
War and Diversity (cont.)
  • Hundreds of thousands of Mexicans entered the
    United States during WWII
  • Some legally, some illegally
  • Worked on the big farms in the western states
  • Mexican-Americans left migratory farm labor to
    seek better jobs in cities

71
War and Diversity (cont.)
  • Zoot-suit riots
  • During WWII
  • In LA
  • Between sailors and soldiers and Hispanic youth

72
War and Diversity (cont.)
  • About 350,000 Mexican-Americans served in the
    armed forces
  • Emerged from the War with a heightened
    consciousness and demands for equality

73
The Interment of Japanese-Americans
  • The govt.s treatment of Japanese-Americans
    during WWII was one of the worst violations of
    civil liberties in U.S. history
  • The govt. uprooted 112,000 Japanese-Americans
    living on the West Coast and placed them in
    internment camps in remote interior regions
  • Atmosphere of hysteria over Pearl Harbor
  • Fear of Japanese invasion of the mainland
  • Traditional prejudice against Asian-Americans

74
The Interment of Japanese-Americans (cont.)
  • Korematsu v. United States
  • 1944
  • Supreme Court case
  • Upheld the constitutionality of evacuation
  • Korematsu decision

75
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76
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77
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78
The Interment of Japanese-Americans (cont.)
  • In the 1980s, the govt. finally admitted that
    its actions had been unjustified
  • The govt. apologized to Japanese-Americans
  • The govt. agreed to pay compensation to them for
    property losses they suffered when they were
    detained

79
Triumph and Tragedy, 1945
  • The Yalta Conference
  • Feb. 1945
  • The Big Three all meet
  • Roosevelt and Churchill had to make concessions
    to Stalin
  • Stalin promised to declare war on Japan shortly
    after Germanys surrender
  • Western leaders agreed to the Soviets regaining
    the territory Japan had taken from them in 1905

80
The Yalta Conference (cont.)
  • Roosevelt and Churchill settled for Stalins
    vague promise to allow free election in Eastern
    Europe
  • He never allowed them
  • Stalin agreed to the formation of the United
    Nations in April 1945
  • History Channel video--Yalta Conference

81
Victory in Europe
  • April 1945--American and Soviet troops met at the
    Elbe River
  • History Channel audio--Elbe River report
  • April 12--FDR died
  • History Channel speech--Truman on FDR's death
  • April 30--Hitler committed suicide
  • May 2--Berlin fell to the Soviet
  • May 8--Germany unconditionally surrendered
  • V-E Day

82
Victory in Europe (cont.)
  • Harry S Truman became the new president
  • Truman distrusted the Soviets
  • He accused them of breaking their Yalta promise
    to allow free elections in Eastern Europe

83
Victory in Europe (cont.)
  • Stalin responded angrily and tightened his hold
    on eastern Europe
  • April to June 1945--San Francisco conference
  • Framed the United Nations Charter
  • History Channel speech--United Nations formed
  • High tensions between Big Three
  • July 1945--meeting at Potsdam
  • The Big Three agreed on very little at the meeting

84
The Holocaust
  • Nazi genocide of Jews during WWII
  • Extermination camps
  • Mass murders and torture
  • Roosevelt administration was more concerned with
    winning the War as quickly as possible rather
    than destroying the camps
  • Very little attempts to rescue European Jews
  • Congress and the public did not want to admit
    large s of Jewish refugees to the U.S.A.

85
The Holocaust (cont.)
  • By 1945--Nazis murdered
  • 6 million Jews
  • About 3 million gypsies, communists, homosexuals,
    etc.
  • Allies liberated the death camps in the last
    months of the War
  • Took pictures of the horror they saw

86
The Atomic Bomb
  • The fighting in the Pacific continued in 1945
  • U.S. captured Iwo Jima and Okinawa
  • U.S. suffered heavy causalities at both battles

87
The Atomic Bomb (cont.)
  • July 1945--U.S. successfully tested an atomic
    bomb
  • History Channel video--atomic bomb tested
  • Truman issued the Potsdam Declaration
  • Called on Japan to surrender unconditionally or
    face prompt and utter destruction
  • Japan rejected the warning
  • Truman ordered the use of nuclear bombs

88
The Atomic Bomb (cont.)
  • Aug. 6--Hiroshima
  • History Channel video--Hiroshima
  • Aug. 9--Nagasaki
  • Japan then surrendered
  • Many historians have debated if the U.S.A. needed
    to use the atomic bombs
  • Was it justified?
  • Motives?

89
The Atomic Bomb (cont.)
  • Fifty million people died in WWII
  • More than 1/2 were civilians
  • Soviet Union lost 20 million
  • About 400,000 U.S. servicemen died
  • Much of Europe and Asia was ruined
  • U.S. was physically undamaged
  • There were profound changes had occurred in
    American life

90
Conclusion
  • The U.S. used isolationism in the the 1930s as a
    response to the aggressions of Germany, Italy,
    and Japan
  • After Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, Congress voted
    for war on Japan
  • Hitler and Mussolini then declared war on the
    U.S.A.

91
Conclusion (cont.)
  • Once in the War, the country engaged in total war
  • The powers of the federal govt. (especially the
    president) expanded mightily to mobilize the
    American economy fully
  • U.S. became more productive and prosperous than
    ever before
  • The Depression ended
  • Fully employment returned
  • The majority of people earned good

92
Conclusion (cont.)
  • Allied armies defeated the enemy
  • Americans faith in capitalism and democratic
    institutions rebounded
  • Confidence and optimism about our future and
    national strength grew
  • America then locked horns with its former ally
    the Soviet Union in a Cold War
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