Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders (Abnormal Psychology) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders (Abnormal Psychology)

Description:

Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders (Abnormal Psychology) Defining Abnormality Defining abnormality is not simple, it appears to be more a matter of degree of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:380
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 28
Provided by: Lind3342
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders (Abnormal Psychology)


1
Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders (Abnormal
Psychology)
2
Defining Abnormality
  • Defining abnormality is not simple, it appears to
    be more a matter of degree of behavioral change
    distress rather than the presence or absence of a
    behavioral change or distress
  • Some criterion seem helpful in defining
    abnormality
  • Behavior is outside of social norms (shouting at
    strangersshows what is normal is culturally
    dependent)
  • Inability to function (being unable to go to
    work due to alcohol abuse)
  • Personal Distress (trouble sleeping, worry all
    the time, thoughts of suicide)
  • Prolonged Suffering (depression that lasts
    months rather than days)

3
Normality-Abnormality Continuum
4
DSM IV
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM IV)
1952- First edition 1994- 4th edition 2000-
4th revised 2013- 5th edition
5
Personality Disorders- a few examples
  • Antisocial Personality Disorder (sociopath)
    marked by impulsive, callous, manipulative,
    aggressive, lacks conscience (often charming)
  • Narcissistic exaggerated feelings of self-worth
    and constant need for affirmation
  • Histrionic OVERLY emotional/seductive
  • Borderline irrational fear of abandonment, self
    injury
  • Schizotypical and schizoaffective

6
Dissociative Disorders
  • Dissociative Amnesia sudden loss of memory for
    personal information that is not due to normal
    forgetfulness
  • Fugue forming a new identity
  • Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) the
    coexistence of more than one personality in an
    individual
  • Depersonalization/Derealization Feelings of
    unreality concerning the self and environment.
    Anxiety producing. Many young adults have felt
    this.

7
Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic
Disorders
  • Group of disorders marked by disturbances in
    thought patterns (distortions in perception and
    abnormal emotional responses).
  • Catatonia marked by motor disturbances ranging
    from immobility to excessive, purposeless
    activity
  • Schizophrenia must have at least one of these
    three positive symptoms (delusions,
    hallucinations, or disorganized speech)
  • 1 of population in every culture
  • 30 resistant to drugs
  • Gradual vs. Sudden onset

8
Potential Causes of Schizophrenia
  • Physiological Explanations
  • Neurochemicals- excess dopamine
  • Enlargement of the ventricles of the brain
    (genetics- there is a 46 concordance rate for
    identical twins with one twin suffering
    schizophrenia
  • Environmental Explanations
  • Stress- can precede the onset of schizophrenia
    and precede subsequent relapses
  • Unhealthy Family Dynamics- high expression of
    emotion and communication difficulties in a
    family
  • Date of birth- maybe flu season during time in
    womb? (see next slide)

9
Risk Month Born
10
Relatives of ppl with schizophrenia
11
Anxiety Disorders
  • Panic Attacks recurrent attacks of anxiety not
    due to a specific event
  • Phobias chronic, irrational fear of a specific
    object or situation
  • agoraphobia (open spaces), social phobia
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder chronic anxiety
    that is not caused by a specific stimulus
  • Selective Mutism child cant speak and
    communicate effectively in select social settings

12
Common Phobias
  • Less Common (but entertaining)phobias list

13
Some Potential Causes of Anxiety Disorders
  • Behavioral explanations Classically conditioned
    phobic responses
  • Neuro-chemical decreases in GABA activity and
    serotonin activity are associated with anxiety
    disorders
  • Cognitive people who suffer from anxiety
    disorders may chronically overestimate the
    severity of a perceived threat

14
Somatoform Disorders
  • significant loss of function in one single organ
    system without a physiological cause
  • Conversion Disorder (Functional Neurological
    Symptom Disorder)

15
Some Potential Causes of Somatoform Disorders
  • Personality Factors people with histrionic and
    neurotic personality traits seem to be more
    susceptible to the somatoform disorders
  • Behavioral Factors people who have previously
    received a lot of attention because of illness
    may begin to find reward in the somatoform
    disorders

16
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • Obsessions persistent obtrusive thoughts
  • Compulsions need to engage in unnecessary
    rituals
  • Body Dysmorphic Disorder
  • Hoarding Disorder
  • Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling Disorder)
  • Excoriation (Skin-Picking) Disorder

17
Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders
  • Acute Stress Disorder immediate reaction to
    trauma
  • Adjustment Disorders adjusting after trauma
  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after
    traumatic life event person has severe anxiety,
    helplessness, fear, flashbacks
  • Reactive Attachment Disorder result of social
    neglect or other situations that limit a childs
    opportunity to form attachments

18
Depressive Disorders
  • Major Depressive Disorder persistent feelings of
    sadness and a loss of interest in finding
    pleasure (more than 2 weeks)
  • Persistent Depressive Disorder (more than two
    years)
  • Post-partum Depression
  • Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
  • Seasonal Affective Disorder (cloudy weather)
  • Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder kids who
    exhibit persistent irritability and frequent
    episodes of extreme behavioral dyscontrol

19
Bipolar Disorder
  • Bipolar Disorder marked by chronic experience of
    manic and depressive episodes
  • Mania increased activity
  • Depression decreased activity

20
Episodic Patterns in Mood Disorders
21
Some Potential Causes of Depression
  • Cognitive and Behavioral Mechanisms
  • Behavioral learned helplessness believe
    outcomes in their life are out of their control
    (external locus of control)
  • Cognitive negative self-talk is associated with
    depressive episodes
  • Physiological Mechanisms
  • Neurotransmitters decreased norepinephrine and
    serotonin is associated with depression
  • Genetics there is a 65 concordance rate between
    identical twins

22
Mood Disorders chart
23
Suicide
  • White gt Black, Men gt Women (China), Woman
    attempts gt Men attempts
  • Spike for men after 65
  • Alcoholics and depression very high rate
  • Few who talk about it do it, but most who do it
    give clues ahead of time
  • Arizona over 1000 suicides last year- Mesa 60,
    Chandler 30

24
Suicide facts
  • Take all threats seriously
  • Most suicidal people are ambivalent and want help
  • Asking a person can minimize anxiety and act as a
    deterrent
  • An attempter is often upset or depressed

25
Clues and Warning Signs
  • Change in interest or mood (including extremely
    happy or peaceful.
  • Change in lifestyle, eating, sleeping
  • Change in perception of the world
  • Change in attitude about personal property-
    giving away prized possessions

26
Insanity Pleas
  • Does not know right from wrong
  • Standard Would the person have committed the
    crime if a cop was in the room?
  • A disorder alone does not absolve responsibility
  • John Hinkley - President Reagan
  • Ted Kaczynski, Jeffrey Dahmer, Andrea Yates, Kip
    Kinkel- all found guilty by juries

27
Problems with DSM/disease model
  • Thomas Szasz- no such thing as mental ill
  • Rosenhan- empty, hollow, thud- 19 days
  • Labeling theory
  • Not easy to classify- crossover
  • Infers more understanding than actual
  • Everyday problems
  • Insurance
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com