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Psychological Disorders

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Title: Psychological Disorders


1
Chapter 18
2
Chapter 18
  • Psychological Disorders
  • Section 1
  • Dont try and diagnose someone yourself, certain
    behaviors do not make for a psychological disorder

3
Psychological Disorders
  • How does normal thoughts and behavior differ from
    abnormal thoughts and behaviors?

4
Cultural differences
  • What difference does culture make in abnormal and
    normal behavior?
  • How close can you stand to someone and have it be
    normal?
  • Experiment- Find out what is the distance for how
    close someone can be to not invade your space
  • Japan- 40 Inches Middle east 32 inches
    Ogallala?

5
Psychological disorder
  • Behavior patterns or mental processes that cause
    serious personal suffering or interfere with a
    persons ability to to cope with every day life.

6
Numbers
  • How much of the population have a disorder
  • Up to 1/3
  • Any given month 13 of the population is showing
    signs of a disorder.

7
What is abnormal or normal behavior?
  • Usually differences are in the exaggeration of
    certain behaviors that leads to being classified
    as abnormal
  • Example- Laughing and laughing at funerals- others

8
Symptoms of disorders
  • diagnoses are not always simple or straightforward

9
What a Psychologist would look for when
diagnosing disorders
10
1. Typicality
  • to what degree is it typical or average.
  • Just because it is not typical does not mean its
    abnormal
  • Examples

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What would be other examples?
  • Plastic Surgery
  • What you wear or dont wear
  • What you eat or dont eat
  • What is your past time
  • Addictions

19
2. Maladaptivity
  • Behavior impairs a persons ability to function
    adequately in everyday life
  • Examples

20
3.Emotional discomfort
  • If it is severe enough or last long enough then
    treatment will be needed.
  • Examples

21
4. Socially Unacceptable behavior
  • Must take into culture beliefs
  • what is unacceptable to some may not be to
    others.
  • Examples

22
Classifying Disorders
  • DSM
  • Diagnostic and statistical Manual of Mental
    Disorders
  • DSM IV 18 Categories
  • Page 414-book

23
Section 2
  • Anxiety Disorders

24
When have you been anxious?
  • Big game
  • Test
  • Meeting someone
  • Anxiety is among the most common of the disorders
    in the United States.

25
Anxiety
  • general state of dread or uneasiness that occurs
    in response to a danger or a threat.

26
Characteristics
  • Nervousness, inability to relax, concern about
    losing control

27
Physical symptoms
  • trembling, sweating, rapid pulse, flushed face,
    feelings of faintness or light-headedness

28
Types of Disorders
  • 1. Phobic Disorder
  • Phobia Greek word for fear
  • Irrational fear of a particular object or
    situation
  • must lead to behavior that interferes with a
    persons normal life

29
http//www.phobialist.com/reverse.htmlList of
phobias
  • What type would be phobias that could lead to
    disrupting a persons life
  • What is the difference between a phobia and a
    fear?

30
  • Ablutophobia- Fear of washing or
    bathing.Acarophobia- Fear of itching or of the
    insects that cause itching.Acerophobia- Fear of
    sourness.Achluophobia- Fear of
    darkness.Acousticophobia- Fear of
    noise.Acrophobia- Fear of heights.Aerophobia-
    Fear of drafts, air swallowing, or airbourne
    noxious substances.Aeroacrophobia- Fear of open
    high places.Aeronausiphobia- Fear of vomiting
    secondary to airsickness.Agateophobia- Fear of
    insanity.Agliophobia- Fear of pain.Agoraphobia-
    Fear of open spaces or of being in crowded,
    public places like markets. Fear of leaving a
    safe place

31
Social Phobia
  • Fear of social situations

32
2. Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia
33
Panic attack
  • relative short period of intense fear of
    discomfort
  • shortness of breath, shaking, dizziness, rapid
    heart rate, sweating nausea or other physical
    symptoms.
  • Lasts from a few minutes to a few hours

34
Agoraphobia
  • fear of being in a place or situation
  • makes up 50 -80 of all phobias

35
3. General Anxiety Disorder
  • GAD
  • unrealistic worry about life circumstances that
    last for at least 6 months
  • very hard to distinguishes between other anxiety
    disorders.

36
4. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
37
obsessions
  • unwanted thoughts, ideas, or mental images that
    occur over and over again
  • often senseless or repulsive

38
Compulsions-
  • repetitive rituals behaviors, often involving
    checking or cleaning
  • number of times he chews his food
  • touching a toilet seat
  • washing hands
  • Arranging things

39
  • How far will you go in touching dirty things?
  • Do you know how dirty money really is?
  • Everyone touch an object?
  • Everyone lick an object?

40
5. Stress Disorders
41
Post-traumatic stress disorder
  • PTSD- video
  • feelings of anxiety that are caused by experience
    so traumatic that it produces stress in almost
    everyone

42
Physical
  • flashbacks, nightmares
  • numbness of feelings
  • avoidance of stimuli that caused the trauma
  • increased tension
  • may last for months or decades

43
Acute Stress disorder
  • Same as PTSD but for a much shorter more intense
    period of time.

44
How to explain disorders?
45
Psychological views
46
Psychoanalytic theory
  • hidden or repressed urges that have been
    repressed from childhood.

47
Learning Theory
  • phobias are conditioned or learned during
    childhood.
  • People learn to reduce their anxiety by avoiding
    the situation that causes the problem

48
Biological Views
  • heredity may play a role
  • Twin studies

49
Interaction of factors
  • Both probably play a role in anxiety disorders

50
Section 3
51
Dissociate Disorders
  • Separation of certain personality components or
    mental processes from conscious thought.

52
Normal activities
  • Daydreaming
  • get involved in something you lose track of
    things.
  • Miss a road sign because of concentration on
    other things.

53
Dissociative Amnesia
  • sudden loss of memory following a stressful or
    traumatic event
  • Does not result from a head injury but is from
    the mind

54
Dissociative Fugue
  • forgetting past events but also characterized by
    sudden relocation and taking on a new identity.
  • New location as well

55
Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • Multiple personalities.-video
  • Personalities may not be aware of each other
  • Vid 1 vid 2 vid 3
  • may change physical as well as personality
    traits.
  • Roles as an individual

56
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57
Depersonalization Disorder
  • Detachment from ones mental processes or body.

58
Section 4
59
Somatoform disorders
60
somatization
  • refers to the expression of psychological
    distress through physical symptoms.
  • Pain or paralysis

61
Many are mistreated as really physical not mental
problems
62
Conversion Disorder
  • loss of a physical function for which there is no
    medical reason

63
Hypochondriasis
  • Hypochondria
  • an unhealthy fear of having or belief that one
    has a serious disease

64
Section 5
  • Mood disorders

65
Major depression
  • most common disorder

66
Must have 5 of the 9 characteristics to be
classified major depression.
  • Depressed mood for most of the day
  • loss of interest or pleasure in most activities
  • loss or gain of weight
  • sleeping more of less then usual

67
  • speeding up or slowing down of physical or
    emotional reactions
  • fatigue or loss of energy
  • feeling of worthlessness of guilt
  • reduced ability or concentrate or make decisions
  • recurrent thoughts of suicide

68
Bipolar Disorder
  • (manic Depression)
  • Video-

69
mania
  • extreme periods of hyperactivity and happy
    behavior
  • inflated self esteem
  • inability to sleep
  • pressure to keep talking and changing subjects
    often
  • racing thoughts
  • difficulty concentrating
  • Accompanied by extreme times of depression

70
  • Bipolar- Frontline 1

71
Section 6
  • Schizophrenia

72
Schizophrenia
  • considered the most serious of the disorders
  • loss of contact with reality
  • appears in early adulthood
  • difficult to treat-overview
  • Video-Heather
  • Gerald-

73
symptoms
  • hallucination, delusions and thought
    disordersauditory voices

74
Delusions of grandeur
  • They are someone famous, or important

75
Delusions of persecution
  • someone is always after them

76
Organization problems
  • Skip from topic to topic

77
Catatonic stupor
  • immobile, expressionless, comalike state

78
Types of
  • Paranoid Schizophrenia
  • Disorganized Schizophrenia
  • Catatonic schizophrenia

79
Section 7
80
Personality Disorders
  • Personality- Page 430

81
Inflexible traits that disrupt social life or
work and or stress the affected individual
82
These tend to be a part of the persons
personality not something separate like a phobia
or schizophrenia
83
Paranoid Personality Disorder
  • Paranoid personality disorder is characterized by
    a distrust of others and a constant suspicion
    that people around you have sinister motives.
    People with this disorder tend to have excessive
    trust in their own knowledge and abilities and
    usually avoid close relationships. They search
    for hidden meanings in everything and read
    hostile intentions into the actions of others.
    They are quick to challenge the loyalties of
    friends and loved ones and often appear cold and
    distant. They usually shift blame to other people
    and tend to carry long grudges.

84
Paranoid Personality Disorder
  • Unwillingness to forgive perceived insults
  • Excessive sensitivity to setbacks
  • Distrustfulness and excessive self-reliance
  • Projection of blame onto others
  • Consumed by anticipation of betrayal
  • Combative and tenacious adherence to personal
    rights
  • Relentlessly suspicious

85
Schizoid Personality Disorder
  • People with schizoid personality disorder avoid
    relationships and do not show much emotion.
    Unlike avoidants, schizoids genuinely prefer to
    be alone and do not secretly wish for popularity.
    They tend to seek jobs that require little social
    contact. Their social skills are often weak and
    they do not show a need for attention or
    acceptance. They are perceived by others as
    humorless and distant and often are termed
    "loners."

86
Schizoid Personality Disorder
  • Weak interpersonal skills
  • Difficulty expressing anger, even when provoked
  • "Loner" mentality avoidance of social situations
  • Appear to others as remote, aloof, and unengaged
  • Unresponsive to praise or criticism

87
Antisocial
  • A common misconception is that antisocial
    personality disorder refers to people who have
    poor social skills. The opposite is often the
    case. Instead, antisocial personality disorder is
    characterized by a lack of conscience. People
    with this disorder are prone to criminal
    behavior, believing that their victims are weak
    and deserving of being taken advantage of.
    Antisocials tend to lie and steal. Often, they
    are careless with money and take action without
    thinking about consequences. They are often
    agressive and are much more concerned with their
    own needs than the needs of others.

88
Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • Disregard for the feelings of others
  • Impulsive and irresponsible decision-making
  • Lack of remorse for harm done to others
  • Lying, stealing, other criminal behaviors
  • Disregard for the safety of self and others

89
Avoidant Personality Disorder
  • Avoidant personality disorder is characterized by
    extreme social anxiety. People with this disorder
    often feel inadequate, avoid social situations,
    and seek out jobs with little contact with
    others. Avoidants are fearful of being rejected
    and worry about embarassing themselves in front
    of others. They exaggerate the potential
    difficulties of new situations to rationalize
    avoiding them. Often, they will create fantasy
    worlds to substitute for the real one. Unlike
    schizoid personality disorder, avoidants yearn
    for social relations yet feel they are unable to
    obtain them. They are frequently depressed and
    have low self-confidence

90
Avoidant Personality Disorder
  • Social inhibition retreating from others in
    anticipation of rejection
  • Preoccupation with being rejected or criticized
    in social situations
  • Fear of embarrassment results in avoidance of new
    activities
  • Poor self-image feelings of social ineptitude
  • Desire for improved social relations
  • Appear to others as self-involved and unfriendly
  • Creation of elaborate fantasy lives

91
Narcissistic
  • Narcissistic personality disorder is
    characterized by self-centeredness. Like
    histrionic disorder, people with this disorder
    seek attention and praise. They exaggerate their
    achievements, expecting others to recongize them
    as being superior. They tend to be choosy about
    picking friends, since they believe that not just
    anyone is worthy of being their friend.
    Narcissists tend to make good first impressions,
    yet have difficulty maintaining long-lasting
    relationships. They are generally uninterested in
    the feelings of others and may take advantage of
    them.

92
Narcissistic
  • Requires excessive praise and admiration
  • Takes advantage of others
  • Grandiose sense of self-importance
  • Lack of empathy
  • Lying, to self and others
  • Obsessed with fantasies of fame, power, or beauty

93
Dependent
  • Difficulty making decisions
  • Feelings of helplessness when alone
  • Suicidal thoughts upon rejection
  • Submissiveness
  • Deeply hurt by mild criticism or disapproval
  • Unable to meet ordinary demands of life

94
Dependent
  • Dependent personality disorder is characterized
    by a need to be taken care of. People with this
    disorder tend to cling to people and fear losing
    them. They may become suicidal when a break-up is
    imminent. They tend to let others make important
    decisions for them and often jump from
    relationship to relationship. Dependents often
    remain in abusive relationships. Over-sensitivity
    to disapproval is common. Dependents often feel
    helpless and depressed.

95
Histrionic Personality Disorder
  • People with histrionic personality disorder are
    constant attention seekers. They need to be the
    center of attention all the time, often
    interrupting others in order to dominate the
    conversation. They use grandiose language to
    discribe everyday events and seek constant
    praise. They may dress provacatively or
    exaggerate illnesses in order to gain attention.
    Histrionics also tend to exaggerate friendships
    and relationships, believing that everyone loves
    them. They are often manipulative.

96
Histrionic Personality Disorder
  • Needs to be the center of attention
  • Dresses or acts provocatively
  • Rapidly-shifting and shallow emotions
  • Exaggerates friendships
  • Overly-dramatic, occasionally theatrical speech
  • easily influenced highly suggestible

97
Borderline Personality Disorder
  • Borderline personality disorder is characterized
    by mood instability and poor self-image. People
    with this disorder are prone to constant mood
    swings and bouts of anger. Often, they will take
    their anger out on themselves, causing injury to
    their own body. Suicidal threats and actions are
    not uncommon. Borderlines think in very black and
    white terms and often form intense,
    conflict-ridden relationships. They are quick to
    anger when their expectations are not met.

98
Borderline Personality Disorder
  • Self-injury or attempted suicide
  • Strong feelings of anger, anxiety, or depression
    that last for several hours
  • Impulsive behavior
  • Drug or alcohol abuse
  • Feelings of low self-worth
  • Unstable relationships with friends, family, and
    boyfriends/girlfriends

99
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
  • While Obsessive-Compulsive personality disorder
    (OCDP) sounds similar in name to
    obsessive-compulsive anxiety disorder, the two
    are markedly different disorders. People with
    obsessive-compulsive personality disorder are
    overly focused on orderliness and perfection.
    Their need to do everything "right" often
    interferes with their productivity. They tend to
    get caught up in the details and miss the bigger
    picture. They set unreasonably high standards for
    themselves and others, and tend to be very
    critical of others when they do not live up to
    these high standards. They avoid working in
    teams, believing others to be too careless or
    incompetent. They avoid making decisions because
    they fear making mistakes and are rarely generous
    with their time or money. They often have
    difficulty expressing emotion.

100
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
  • Need for perfection and excessive discipline
  • Preoccupation with orderliness
  • Inflexibility
  • Lack of generosity
  • Hyper-focus on details and rules
  • Excessive devotion to work

101
Addictions
  • The difference between substance abuse and
    addiction is very slight. Substance abuse means
    using an illegal substance or using a legal
    substance in the wrong way. Addiction begins as
    abuse, or using a substance like marijuana or
    cocaine. You can abuse a drug (or alcohol)
    without having an addiction. For example, just
    because Sara smoked weed a few times doesn't mean
    that she has an addiction, but it does mean that
    she's abusing a drug and that could lead to an
    addiction

102
  • Addiction means a person has no control over
    whether he or she uses a drug or drinks. Someone
    who's addicted to cocaine has grown so used to
    the drug that he or she has to have it. Addiction
    can be physical, psychological, or both

103
  • Physical addiction is when a person's body
    actually becomes dependent on a particular
    substance (even smoking is physically addictive).
    It also means building tolerance to that
    substance, so that a person needs a larger dose
    than ever before to get the same effects. Someone
    who is physically addicted and stops using a
    substance like drugs, alcohol, or cigarettes may
    experience withdrawal symptoms. Common symptoms
    of withdrawal are diarrhea, shaking, and
    generally feeling awful

104
  • Psychological addiction happens when the cravings
    for a drug are psychological or emotional.
  • People who are psychologically addicted feel
    overcome by the desire to have a drug. They may
    lie or steal to get it.

105
  • Signs of Addiction
  • The most obvious sign of an addiction is the need
    to have a particular drug or substance. However,
    many other signs can suggest a possible
    addiction, such as changes in mood or weight loss
    or gain. (These also are signs of other
    conditions, too, though, such as depression or
    eating disorders.)

106
  • Psychological signals
  • use of drugs or alcohol as a way to forget
    problems or to relax
  • withdrawal or keeping secrets from family and
    friends
  • loss of interest in activities that used to be
    important
  • problems with schoolwork, such as slipping grades
    or absences
  • changes in friendships, such as hanging out only
    with friends who use drugs
  • spending a lot of time figuring out how to get
    drugs
  • stealing or selling belongings to be able to
    afford drugs
  • failed attempts to stop taking drugs or drinking
  • anxiety, anger, or depression
  • mood swings

107
Physical signals
  • changes in sleeping habits
  • feeling shaky or sick when trying to stop
  • needing to take more of the substance to get the
    same effect
  • changes in eating habits, including weight loss
    or gain

108
Other Addictions
  • What are things that people can become addicted
    to?
  • 1. 7.
  • 2. 8.
  • 3. 9.
  • 4. 10.
  • 5. 11.
  • 6. 12.

109
Addictions treatment
110
Other disorders
  • Gender Identity Disorder
  • Sleep Disorders
  • Impulsive- control Disorder-
  • Kleptomania, Pyromania
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