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Title: Establishing Response to Intervention in Middle and High Schools: A Step-by-Step Guide Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org


1
Establishing Response to Intervention in Middle
and High Schools A Step-by-Step GuideJim
Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
2
Workshop Goals
3
School Instructional Time The Irreplaceable
Resource
  • In the average school system, there are 330
    minutes in the instructional day, 1,650 minutes
    in the instructional week, and 56,700 minutes in
    the instructional year. Except in unusual
    circumstances, these are the only minutes we have
    to provide effective services for students. The
    number of years we have to apply these minutes is
    fixed. Therefore, each minute counts and schools
    cannot afford to support inefficient models of
    service delivery. p. 177

Source Batsche, G. M., Castillo, J. M., Dixon,
D. N., Forde, S. (2008). Best practices in
problem analysis. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 177-193).
4
RTI Assumption Struggling Students Are Typical
Until Proven Otherwise
  • RTI logic assumes that
  • A student who begins to struggle in general
    education is typical, and that
  • It is general educations responsibility to find
    the instructional strategies that will unlock the
    students learning potential
  • Only when the student shows through
    well-documented interventions that he or she has
    failed to respond to intervention does RTI
    begin to investigate the possibility that the
    student may have a learning disability or other
    special education condition.

5
Secondary Students Unique Challenges
  • Struggling learners in middle and high school
    may
  • Have significant deficits in basic academic
    skills
  • Lack higher-level problem-solving strategies and
    concepts
  • Present with issues of school motivation
  • Show social/emotional concerns that interfere
    with academics
  • Have difficulty with attendance
  • Are often in a process of disengaging from
    learning even as adults in school expect that
    those students will move toward being
    self-managing learners

6
Why Do Students Drop Out of School? Student
Survey
  • Classes were not perceived as interesting (47
    percent)
  • Not motivated by teachers to work hard (69
    percent)
  • Failing in school was a major factor in dropping
    out (35 percent)
  • Had to get a job (32 percent)
  • Became a parent (26 percent)
  • Needed to care for a family member (22 percent)

Source Bridgeland, J. M., DiIulio, J. J.,
Morison, K. B. (2006). The silent epidemic
Perspectives of high school dropouts. Seattle,
WA Gates Foundation. Retrieved on May 4, 2008,
from http//www.gatesfoundation.org/nr/downloads/e
d/TheSilentEpidemic3-06FINAL.pdf
7
Overlap Between Policy Pathways RTI Goals
Recommendations for Schools to Reduce Dropout
Rates
  • A range of high school learning options matched
    to the needs of individual learners different
    schools for different students
  • Strategies to engage parents
  • Individualized graduation plans
  • Early warning systems to identify students at
    risk of school failure
  • A range of supplemental services/intensive
    assistance strategies for struggling students
  • Adult advocates to work individually with at-risk
    students to overcome obstacles to school
    completion

Source Bridgeland, J. M., DiIulio, J. J.,
Morison, K. B. (2006). The silent epidemic
Perspectives of high school dropouts. Seattle,
WA Gates Foundation. Retrieved on May 4, 2008,
from http//www.gatesfoundation.org/nr/downloads/e
d/TheSilentEpidemic3-06FINAL.pdf
8
School Dropout as a Process, Not an Event
  • It is increasingly accepted that dropout is
    best conceptualized as a long-term process, not
    an instantaneous event however, most
    interventions are administered at a middle or
    high school level after problems are severe.

Source Jimerson, S., Reschly, A.L., Hess, R.
(2008). Best practices in increasing the
likelihood of school completion. In A. Thomas
J. Grimes (Eds). Best Practices in School
Psychology - 5th Ed (pp. 1085-1097). Bethesda,
MD National Association of School
Psychologists.. p.1090
9
Five Core Components of RTI Service Delivery
  1. Student services are arranged in a multi-tier
    model
  2. Data are collected to assess student baseline
    levels and to make decisions about student
    progress
  3. Interventions are evidence-based
  4. The procedural integrity of interventions is
    measured
  5. RTI is implemented and developed at the school-
    and district-level to be scalable and sustainable
    over time

Source Glover, T. A., DiPerna, J. C. (2007).
Service delivery for response to intervention
Core components and directions for future
research. School Psychology Review, 36, 526-540.
10
RTI Pyramid of Interventions
11
Tier 1 Core Instruction
  • Tier I core instruction
  • Is universalavailable to all students.
  • Can be delivered within classrooms or throughout
    the school.
  • Is an ongoing process of developing strong
    classroom instructional practices to reach the
    largest number of struggling learners.
  • All children have access to Tier 1
    instruction/interventions. Teachers have the
    capability to use those strategies without
    requiring outside assistance.
  • Tier 1 instruction encompasses
  • The schools core curriculum.
  • Al published or teacher-made materials used to
    deliver that curriculum.
  • Teacher use of whole-group teaching
    management strategies.
  • Tier I instruction addresses this question Are
    strong classroom instructional strategies
    sufficient to help the student to achieve
    academic success?

12
Tier I (Classroom) Intervention
  • Tier 1 intervention
  • Targets red flag students who are not
    successful with core instruction alone.
  • Uses evidence-based strategies to address
    student academic or behavioral concerns.
  • Must be feasible to implement given the resources
    available in the classroom.
  • Tier I intervention addresses the question Does
    the student make adequate progress when the
    instructor uses specific academic or behavioral
    strategies matched to the presenting concern?

13
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14
The Key RTI Role of Classroom Teachers as Tier 1
Interventionists 6 Steps
  1. The teacher defines the student academic or
    behavioral problem clearly.
  2. The teacher decides on the best explanation for
    why the problem is occurring.
  3. The teacher selects evidence-based
    interventions.
  4. The teacher documents the students Tier 1
    intervention plan.
  5. The teacher monitors the students response
    (progress) to the intervention plan.
  6. The teacher knows what the next steps are when a
    student fails to make adequate progress with Tier
    1 interventions alone.

15
Complementary RTI Models Standard Treatment
Problem-Solving Protocols
  • The two most commonly used RTI approaches are
    (1) standard treatment and (2) problem-solving
    protocol. While these two approaches to RTI are
    sometimes described as being very different from
    each other, they actually have several common
    elements, and both fit within a problem-solving
    framework. In practice, many schools and
    districts combine or blend aspects of the two
    approaches to fit their needs.

Source Duffy, H. (August 2007). Meeting the
needs of significantly struggling learners in
high school. Washington, DC National High School
Center. Retrieved from http//www.betterhighschool
s.org/pubs/ p. 5
16
RTI Interventions Standard-Treatment vs.
Problem-Solving
There are two different vehicles that schools can
use to deliver RTI interventions Standard-Protoco
l (Standalone Intervention). Programs based on
scientifically valid instructional practices
(standard protocol) are created to address
frequent student referral concerns. These
services are provided outside of the classroom. A
middle school, for example, may set up a
structured math-tutoring program staffed by adult
volunteer tutors to provide assistance to
students with limited math skills. Students
referred for a Tier II math intervention would be
placed in this tutoring program. An advantage of
the standard-protocol approach is that it is
efficient and consistent large numbers of
students can be put into these group
interventions to receive a highly standardized
intervention. However, standard group
intervention protocols often cannot be
individualized easily to accommodate a specific
students unique needs. Problem-solving
(Classroom-Based Intervention). Individualized
research-based interventions match the profile of
a particular students strengths and limitations.
The classroom teacher often has a large role in
carrying out these interventions. A plus of the
problem-solving approach is that the intervention
can be customized to the students needs.
However, developing intervention plans for
individual students can be time-consuming.
17
Tier 2 Supplemental (Group-Based)
Interventions(Standard Treatment Protocol)
  • Tier 2 interventions are typically delivered in
    small-group format. About 15 of students in the
    typical school will require Tier 2/supplemental
    intervention support.
  • Group size for Tier 2 interventions is limited
    to 4-7 students. Students placed in Tier 2
    interventions should have a shared profile of
    intervention need.
  • The reading progress of students in Tier 2
    interventions are monitored at least 1-2 times
    per month.

Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools. Routledge New
York.
18
Tier 3 Intensive Individualized
Interventions(Problem-Solving Protocol)
  • Tier 3 interventions are the most intensive
    offered in a school setting.
  • Students qualify for Tier 3 interventions
    because
  • they are found to have a large skill gap when
    compared to their class or grade peers and/or
  • They did not respond to interventions provided
    previously at Tiers 1 2.
  • Tier 3 interventions are provided daily for
    sessions of 30 minutes. The student-teacher ratio
    is flexible but should allow the student to
    receive intensive, individualized instruction.
  • The reading progress of students in Tier 3
    interventions is monitored at least weekly.

Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools. Routledge New
York.
19
Middle High School Lack of Consensus on an RTI
Model
  • Because RTI has thus far been implemented
    primarily in early elementary grades, it is not
    clear precisely what RTI might look like at the
    high school level.

Source Duffy, H. (August 2007). Meeting the
needs of significantly struggling learners in
high school. Washington, DC National High School
Center. Retrieved from http//www.betterhighschool
s.org/pubs/ p. 3
20
At the Federal Level A Hands-Off Approach to
RTI Implementation
  • There are many RTI models and the regulations
    are written to accommodate the many different
    models that are currently in use. The Department
    does not mandate or endorse any particular model.
    Rather, the regulations provide States with the
    flexibility to adopt criteria that best meet
    local needs. Language that is more specific or
    prescriptive would not be appropriate. For
    example, while we recognize that rate of learning
    is often a key variable in assessing a childs
    response to intervention, it would not be
    appropriate for the regulations to set a standard
    for responsiveness or improvement in the rate of
    learning. p. 46653

Source U.S. Department of Education. (2006).
Assistance to States for the education of
children with disabilities and preschool grants
for children with disabilities final rule. 71
Fed. Reg. (August 14, 2006) 34 CFR Parts 300 and
301.
21
The Purpose of RTI in Secondary Schools What
Students Should It Serve?
22
Student Motivation The Need for Intervention
  • A common response to students who struggle in
    sixth grade is to wait and hope they grow out of
    it or adapt, to attribute early struggles to the
    natural commotion of early adolescence and to
    temporary difficulties in adapting to new
    organizational structures of schooling, more
    challenging curricula and assessment, and less
    personalized attention. Our evidence clearly
    indicates that, at least in high-poverty urban
    schools, sixth graders who are missing 20 or
    more of the days, exhibiting poor behavior, or
    failing math or English do not recover. On the
    contrary, they drop out. This says that early
    intervention is not only productive but
    absolutely essential.

Source Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., MacIver, D. J.
(2007). Preventing student disengagement and
keeping students on the graduation path in urban
middle grades schools Early identification and
effective interventions. Educational
Psychologist,42, 223235. .
23
What Are the Early Warning Flags of Student
Drop-Out?
  • A sample of 13,000 students in Philadelphia were
    tracked for 8 years. These early warning
    indicators were found to predict student drop-out
    in the sixth-grade year
  • Failure in English
  • Failure in math
  • Missing at least 20 of school days
  • Receiving an unsatisfactory behavior rating
    from at least one teacher

Source Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., MacIver, D. J.
(2007). Preventing student disengagement and
keeping students on the graduation path in urban
middle grades schools Early identification and
effective interventions. Educational
Psychologist,42, 223235. .
24
What is the Predictive Power of These Early
Warning Flags?
Number of Early Warning Flags in Student Record Probability That Student Would Graduate
None 56
1 36
2 21
3 13
4 7
Source Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., MacIver, D. J.
(2007). Preventing student disengagement and
keeping students on the graduation path in urban
middle grades schools Early identification and
effective interventions. Educational
Psychologist,42, 223235. .
25
School Intervention Targets Focus on What
Schools Can Change
  • Rather than considering a student problem to
    be the result of inalterable student
    characteristics, school intervention teams are
    compelled to focus on change that can be made to
    the intervention, curriculum or environment that
    would result in positive student outcome. The
    hypothesis and intervention should focus on those
    variables that are alterable within the school
    setting. These alterable variables include
    learning goals and objectives (what is to be
    learned), materials, time, student-to-teacher
    ratio, activities, and motivational strategies.
    p. 95

Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools. Routledge New
York.
26
Focus on School Factors That We Can Control
  • Some factors in students lives (such as family
    divorce, moving frequently, drug use, and poor
    teaching) lower the probability that these
    students will learn and/or get along with others.
    These are often referred to as risk factorsRisk
    factors do not assure student failure. Risk
    factors simply make the odds of failure greater.
    Aligning assessment and instruction allows
    teachersto introduce new factors into the
    students life that raise the probability of
    learning. These are often called protective
    factors since they protect against the risks
    associated with risk factorsThe use of
    protective factors to raise the probability of
    learning is often referred to as resilience.

Source Hosp, J. L. (2008). Best practices in
aligning academic assessment with instruction. In
A. Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in
school psychology V (pp.363-376). Bethesda, MD
National Association of School Psychologists.
27
Target Student
Dual-Discrepancy RTI Model of Learning
Disability (Fuchs 2003)
28
RTI Pyramid of Interventions
29
Improving the Integrity of Academic Interventions
Through a Critical-Components Pre-Flight
CheckJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
30
Academic Interventions Critical Components
Checklist
31
Academic Interventions Critical Components
Checklist
  • This checklist summarizes the essential
    components of academic interventions. When
    preparing a students Tier 1, 2, or 3 academic
    intervention plan, use this document as a
    pre-flight checklist to ensure that the
    academic intervention is of high quality, is
    sufficiently strong to address the identified
    student problem, is fully understood and
    supported by the teacher, and can be implemented
    with integrity. NOTE While the checklist refers
    to the teacher as the interventionist, it can
    also be used as a guide to ensure the quality of
    interventions implemented by non-instructional
    personnel, adult volunteers, parents, and peer
    (student) tutors.

32
Allocating Sufficient Contact Time Assuring Appropriate Student-Teacher Ratio Allocating Sufficient Contact Time Assuring Appropriate Student-Teacher Ratio Allocating Sufficient Contact Time Assuring Appropriate Student-Teacher Ratio
The cumulative time set aside for an intervention and the amount of direct teacher contact are two factors that help to determine that interventions strength (Yeaton Sechrest, 1981). The cumulative time set aside for an intervention and the amount of direct teacher contact are two factors that help to determine that interventions strength (Yeaton Sechrest, 1981). The cumulative time set aside for an intervention and the amount of direct teacher contact are two factors that help to determine that interventions strength (Yeaton Sechrest, 1981).
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Time Allocated. The time set aside for the intervention is appropriate for the type and level of student problem (Burns Gibbons, 2008 Kratochwill, Clements Kalymon, 2007). When evaluating whether the amount of time allocated is adequate, consider Length of each intervention session. Frequency of sessions (e.g.., daily, 3 times per week) Duration of intervention period (e.g., 6 instructional weeks)
? Student-Teacher Ratio. The student receives sufficient contact from the teacher or other person delivering the intervention to make that intervention effective. NOTE Generally, supplemental intervention groups should be limited to 6-7 students (Burns Gibbons, 2008).
33
Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem
Academic interventions are not selected at random. First, the student academic problem(s) is defined clearly and in detail. Then, the likely explanations for the academic problem(s) are identified to understand which intervention(s) are likely to helpand which should be avoided. Academic interventions are not selected at random. First, the student academic problem(s) is defined clearly and in detail. Then, the likely explanations for the academic problem(s) are identified to understand which intervention(s) are likely to helpand which should be avoided. Academic interventions are not selected at random. First, the student academic problem(s) is defined clearly and in detail. Then, the likely explanations for the academic problem(s) are identified to understand which intervention(s) are likely to helpand which should be avoided.
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Problem Definition. The student academic problem(s) to be addressed in the intervention are defined in clear, specific, measureable terms (Bergan, 1995 Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004). The full problem definition describes Conditions. Describe the environmental conditions or task demands in place when the academic problem is observed. Problem Description. Describe the actual observable academic behavior in which the student is engaged. Include rate, accuracy, or other quantitative information of student performance. Typical or Expected Level of Performance. Provide a typical or expected performance criterion for this skill or behavior. Typical or expected academic performance can be calculated using a variety of sources,
34
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35
Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.)
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Appropriate Target. Selected intervention(s) are appropriate for the identified student problem(s) (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008). TIP Use the Instructional Hierarchy (Haring et al., 1978) to select academic interventions according to the four stages of learning Acquisition. The student has begun to learn how to complete the target skill correctly but is not yet accurate in the skill. Interventions should improve accuracy. Fluency. The student is able to complete the target skill accurately but works slowly. Interventions should increase the students speed of responding (fluency) as well as to maintain accuracy. Generalization. The student may have acquired the target skill but does not typically use it in the full range of appropriate situations or settings. Or the student may confuse the target skill with similar skills. Interventions should get the student to use the skill in the widest possible range of settings and situations, or to accurately discriminate between the target skill and similar skills. Adaptation. The student is not yet able to modify or adapt an existing skill to fit novel task-demands or situations. Interventions should help the student to identify key concepts or elements from previously learned skills that can be adapted to the new demands or situations.
36
Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.)
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Cant Do/Wont Do Check. The teacher has determined whether the student problem is primarily a skill or knowledge deficit (cant do) or whether student motivation plays a main or supporting role in academic underperformance (wont do). If motivation appears to be a significant factor contributing to the problem, the intervention plan includes strategies to engage the student (e.g., high interest learning activities rewards/incentives increased student choice in academic assignments, etc.) (Skinner, Pappas Davis, 2005 Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004).
37
Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements
These effective building blocks of instruction are well-known and well-supported by the research. They should be considered when selecting or creating any academic intervention. These effective building blocks of instruction are well-known and well-supported by the research. They should be considered when selecting or creating any academic intervention. These effective building blocks of instruction are well-known and well-supported by the research. They should be considered when selecting or creating any academic intervention.
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Explicit Instruction. Student skills have been broken down into manageable and deliberately sequenced steps and the teacher provided overt strategies for students to learn and practice new skills (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008, p.1153).
? Appropriate Level of Challenge. The student experienced sufficient success in the academic task(s) to shape learning in the desired direction as well as to maintain student motivation (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008).
? Active Engagement. The intervention ensures that the student is engaged in active accurate responding (Skinner, Pappas Davis, 2005).at a rate frequent enough to capture student attention and to optimize effective learning.
? Performance Feedback. The student receives prompt performance feedback about the work completed (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008).
? Maintenance of Academic Standards. If the intervention includes any accommodations to better support the struggling learner (e.g., preferential seating, breaking a longer assignment into smaller chunks), those accommodations do not substantially lower the academic standards against which the student is to be evaluated and are not likely to reduce the students rate of learning (Skinner, Pappas Davis, 2005).
38
Verifying Teacher Understanding Providing Teacher Support Verifying Teacher Understanding Providing Teacher Support Verifying Teacher Understanding Providing Teacher Support
The teacher is an active agent in the intervention, with primary responsibility for putting it into practice in a busy classroom. It is important, then, that the teacher fully understands how to do the intervention, believes that he or she can do it, and knows whom to seek out if there are problems with the intervention. The teacher is an active agent in the intervention, with primary responsibility for putting it into practice in a busy classroom. It is important, then, that the teacher fully understands how to do the intervention, believes that he or she can do it, and knows whom to seek out if there are problems with the intervention. The teacher is an active agent in the intervention, with primary responsibility for putting it into practice in a busy classroom. It is important, then, that the teacher fully understands how to do the intervention, believes that he or she can do it, and knows whom to seek out if there are problems with the intervention.
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Teacher Responsibility. The teacher understands his or her responsibility to implement the academic intervention(s) with integrity.
? Teacher Acceptability. The teacher states that he or she finds the academic intervention feasible and acceptable for the identified student problem.
? Step-by-Step Intervention Script. The essential steps of the intervention are written as an intervention script--a series of clearly described stepsto ensure teacher understanding and make implementation easier (Hawkins, Morrison, Musti-Rao Hawkins, 2008).
? Intervention Training. If the teacher requires training to carry out the intervention, that training has been arranged.
? Intervention Elements Negotiable vs. Non-Negotiable. The teacher knows all of the steps of the intervention. Additionally, the teacher knows which of the intervention steps are non-negotiable (they must be completed exactly as designed) and which are negotiable (the teacher has some latitude in how to carry out those steps) (Hawkins, Morrison, Musti-Rao Hawkins, 2008).
? Assistance With the Intervention. If the intervention cannot be implemented as designed for any reason (e.g., student absence, lack of materials, etc.), the teacher knows how to get assistance quickly to either fix the problem(s) to the current intervention or to change the intervention.
39
Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data
Interventions only have meaning if they are done within a larger data-based context. For example, interventions that lack baseline data, goal(s) for improvement, and a progress-monitoring plan are fatally flawed (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004). Interventions only have meaning if they are done within a larger data-based context. For example, interventions that lack baseline data, goal(s) for improvement, and a progress-monitoring plan are fatally flawed (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004). Interventions only have meaning if they are done within a larger data-based context. For example, interventions that lack baseline data, goal(s) for improvement, and a progress-monitoring plan are fatally flawed (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004).
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Intervention Documentation. The teacher understands and can manage all documentation required for this intervention (e.g., maintaining a log of intervention sessions, etc.).
? Checkup Date. Before the intervention begins, a future checkup date is selected to review the intervention to determine if it is successful. Time elapsing between the start of the intervention and the checkup date should be short enough to allow a timely review of the intervention but long enough to give the school sufficient time to judge with confidence whether the intervention worked.
? Baseline. Before the intervention begins, the teacher has collected information about the students baseline level of performance in the identified area(s) of academic concern (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004).
? Goal. Before the intervention begins, the teacher has set a specific goal for predicted student improvement to use as a minimum standard for success (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004). The goal is the expected student outcome by the checkup date if the intervention is successful.
? Progress-Monitoring. During the intervention, the teacher collects progress-monitoring data of sufficient quality and at a sufficient frequency to determine at the checkup date whether that intervention is successful (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004).
40
References
  • Bergan, J. R. (1995). Evolution of a
    problem-solving model of consultation. Journal of
    Educational and Psychological Consultation, 6(2),
    111-123.
  • Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
    Implementing response-to-intervention in
    elementary and secondary schools. Routledge New
    York.
  • Burns, M. K., VanDerHeyden, A. M., Boice, C. H.
    (2008). Best practices in intensive academic
    interventions. In A. Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.),
    Best practices in school psychology V
    (pp.1151-1162). Bethesda, MD National
    Association of School Psychologists.
  • Haring, N.G., Lovitt, T.C., Eaton, M.D.,
    Hansen, C.L. (1978). The fourth R Research in
    the classroom. Columbus, OH Charles E. Merrill
    Publishing Co.
  • Hawkins, R. O., Morrison, J. Q., Musti-Rao, S.,
    Hawkins, J. A. (2008). Treatment integrity for
    academic interventions in real- world settings.
    School Psychology Forum, 2(3), 1-15.
  • Kratochwill, T. R., Clements, M. A., Kalymon,
    K. M. (2007). Response to intervention
    Conceptual and methodological issues in
    implementation. In Jimerson, S. R., Burns, M. K.,
    VanDerHeyden, A. M. (Eds.), Handbook of
    response to intervention The science and
    practice of assessment and intervention. New
    York Springer.
  • Skinner, C. H., Pappas, D. N., Davis, K. A.
    (2005). Enhancing academic engagement Providing
    opportunities for responding and influencing
    students to choose to respond. Psychology in the
    Schools, 42, 389-403.
  • Witt, J. C., VanDerHeyden, A. M., Gilbertson,
    D. (2004). Troubleshooting behavioral
    interventions. A systematic process for finding
    and eliminating problems. School Psychology
    Review, 33, 363-383. 
  • Yeaton, W. M. Sechrest, L. (1981). Critical
    dimensions in the choice and maintenance of
    successful treatments Strength, integrity, and
    effectiveness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical
    Psychology, 49, 156-167.

41
Activity Academic Critical Components Checklist
  • At your table
  • Review the Academic Interventions Critical
    Components Checklist.
  • Discuss how your school might use this checklist
    to improve the quality of academic interventions
    across the Tiers.

42
Engaging the Reluctant Teacher 7 Reasons Why
Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI
Interventions Jim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.
org
43
Teacher Tolerance as an Indicator of RTI
Intervention Capacity
  • I call the range of students whom teachers
    come to view as adequately responsive i.e.,
    teachable as the tolerance those who are
    perceived to be outside the tolerance are those
    for whom teachers seek additional resources. The
    term tolerance is used to indicate that
    teachers form a permissible boundary on their
    measurement (judgments) in the same sense as a
    confidence interval. In this case, the teacher
    actively measures the distribution of
    responsiveness in her class by processing
    information from a series of teaching trials and
    perceives some range of students as within the
    tolerance. (Gerber, 2002)

Source Gerber, M. M. (2003). Teachers are still
the test Limitations of response to instruction
strategies for identifying children with learning
disabilities. Paper presented at the National
Research Center on Learning Disabilities
Responsiveness-to-Intervention Symposium, Kansas
City, MO.
44
RTI Teacher Reluctance
  • The willingness of teachers to implement
    interventions is essential in any school to the
    success of the RTI model. Yet general-education
    teachers may not always see themselves as
    interventionists and indeed may even resist the
    expectation that they will provide individualized
    interventions as a routine part of their
    classroom practice (Walker, 2004).
  • It should be remembered, however, that teachers
    reluctance to accept elements of RTI may be based
    on very good reasons. Here are some common
    reasons that teachers might be reluctant to
    accept their role as RTI intervention first
    responders

45
Engaging the Reluctant Teacher 7 Reasons Why
Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI
Interventions
  • Lack of Skills. Teachers lack the skills
    necessary to successfully implement academic or
    behavioral interventions in their content-area
    classrooms (Fisher, 2007 Kamil et al., 2008).
  • Not My Job. Teachers define their job as
    providing content-area instruction. They do not
    believe that providing classwide or individual
    academic and behavioral interventions falls
    within their job description (Kamil et al., 2008).

46
Engaging the Reluctant Teacher 7 Reasons Why
Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI
Interventions(Cont.)
  • No Time. Teachers do not believe that they have
    sufficient time available in classroom
    instruction to implement academic or behavioral
    interventions (Kamil et al., 2008 Walker,
    2004).
  • No Payoff. Teachers lack confidence that there
    will be an adequate instructional pay-off if they
    put classwide or individual academic or
    behavioral interventions into place in their
    content-area classroom (Kamil et al., 2008).

47
Engaging the Reluctant Teacher 7 Reasons Why
Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI
Interventions (Cont.)
  • Loss of Classroom Control. Teachers worry that if
    they depart from their standard instructional
    practices to adopt new classwide or individual
    academic or behavior intervention strategies,
    they may lose behavioral control of the classroom
    (Kamil et al., 2008).
  • Undeserving Students. Teachers are unwilling to
    invest the required effort to provide academic or
    behavioral interventions for unmotivated students
    (Walker, 2004) because they would rather put that
    time into providing additional attention to
    well-behaved, motivated students who are more
    deserving.

48
Engaging the Reluctant Teacher 7 Reasons Why
Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI
Interventions (Cont.)
  • The Magic of Special Education. Content-area
    teachers regard special education services as
    magic (Martens, 1993). According to this view,
    interventions provided to struggling students in
    the general-education classroom alone will be
    inadequate, and only special education services
    have the power to truly benefit those students.

49
Team Activity Engaging the Reluctant Teacher
50
Methods of Classroom Data CollectionJim
Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
51
  • Classroom Data Sources
  • Existing records
  • Global skills checklist
  • Rating scales
  • Behavioral frequency count
  • Behavioral log
  • Student work samples
  • Work performance logs
  • Timed tasks (e.g., CBM)

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53
Existing Records
  • Description The teacher uses information already
    being collected in the classroom that is relevant
    to the identified student problem.
  • Examples of existing records that can be used to
    track student problems include
  • Grades
  • Absences and incidents of tardiness
  • Homework turned in

54
Global Skills Checklists
  • Description The teacher selects a global skill.
    The teacher then breaks that global skill down
    into specific, observable subskills. Each
    subskill can be verified as done or not done.

55
Global Skills Checklists Example
  • The teacher selects the global skill
    organizational skills.
  • That global skill is defined as having the
    following components, each of which can be
    observed
  • arriving to class on time
  • bringing work materials to class
  • following teacher directions in a timely manner
  • knowing how to request teacher assistance when
    needed
  • having an uncluttered desk with only essential
    work materials.

56
Behavioral Frequency Count
  • Description The teacher observes a student
    behavior and keeps a cumulative tally of the
    number of times that the behavior is observed
    during a given period.
  • Behaviors that are best measured using frequency
    counts have clearly observable beginning and end
    pointsand are of relatively short duration.
    Examples include
  • Student call-outs.
  • Requests for teacher help during independent
    seatwork.
  • Raising ones hand to make a contribution to
    large-group discussion.

57
Behavioral Frequency Count How to Record
  • Teachers can collect data on the frequency of
    student behaviors in several ways
  • Keeping a mental tally of the frequency of target
    behaviors occurring during a class period.
  • Recording behaviors on paper (e.g., simple tally
    marks) as they occur.
  • Using a golf counter, stitch counter, or other
    mechanical counter device to keep an accurate
    tally of behaviors.

58
Behavioral Frequency Count How to Compute
  • If student behaviors are being tallied during a
    class period, frequency-count data can be
    reported as X number of behaviors per class
    period.
  • If frequency-count data is collected in different
    spans of time on different days, however, schools
    can use the following method to standardize
    frequency count data
  • Record the total number of behaviors observed.
  • Record the number of minutes in the observation
    period.
  • Divide the total number of behaviors observed by
    total minutes in the observation period.
  • Example 5 callouts observed during a 10 minute
    period 0.5 callouts per minute.

59
Behavior Log
  • Description The teacher makes a log entry each
    time that a behavior is observed. An advantage of
    behavior logs is that they can provide
    information about the context within which a
    behavior occurs.(Disciplinary office referrals
    are a specialized example of a behavior log.)
  • Behavior logs are useful for tracking
    low-incidence problem behaviors.

60
Behavior Log Sample Form
61
Rating Scales
  • Description A scale is developed that a rater
    can use to complete a global rating of a
    behavior. Often the rating scale is completed at
    the conclusion of a fixed observation period
    (e.g., after each class period).
  • Daily / Direct Behavior Report Cards are one
    example of rating scales.

62
Jim Blalock
May 5
Mrs. Williams
Rm 108
Daily Behavior Report Card Daily Version
63
Student Work Samples
  • Description Work samples are collected for
    information about the students basic academic
    skills, mastery of course content, etc.
  • Recommendation When collecting work samples
  • Record the date that the sample was collected
  • If the work sample was produced in class, note
    the amount of time needed to complete the sample
    (students can calculate and record this
    information).
  • If possible, collect 1-2 work samples from
    typical students as well to provide a standard of
    peer comparison.

64
Work Performance Logs
  • Description Information about student academic
    performance is collected to provide insight into
    growth in student skills or use of skills in
    appropriate situations.Example A teacher
    implementing a vocabulary-building intervention
    keeps a cumulative log noting date and vocabulary
    words mastered.
  • Example A student keeps a journal with dated
    entries logging books read or the amount of seat
    time that she spends on math homework.

65
Timed Tasks (e.g., Curriculum-Based Measurement)
  • Description The teacher administers structured,
    timed tasks to assess student accuracy and
    fluency.
  • Example The student completes a 2-minute CBM
    single-skill math computation probe.
  • Example The student completes a 3-minute CBM
    writing probe that is scored for total words
    written.

66
Combining Classroom Monitoring Methods
  • Often, methods of classroom data collection and
    progress-monitoring can be combined to track a
    single student problem.
  • Example A teacher can use a rubric (checklist)
    to rate the quality of student work samples.
  • Example A teacher may keep a running tally
    (behavioral frequency count) of student callouts.
    At the same time, the student may be
    self-monitoring his rate of callouts on a Daily
    Behavior Report Card (rating scale).

67
Activity Classroom Methods of Data Collection
  • In your teams
  • Review the potential sources of classroom data
    that can be used to monitor Tier 1 interventions.
  • What questions do you have about any of these
    data sources?
  • How can your school make full use of these data
    sources to ensure that every Tier 1 intervention
    is monitored?
  • Classroom Data Sources
  • Existing records
  • Global skills checklist
  • Rating scales
  • Behavioral frequency count
  • Behavioral log
  • Student work samples
  • Work performance logs
  • Timed tasks (e.g., CBM)

68
Defining Student Problem Behaviors A Key to
Identifying Effective Interventions Jim
Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
69
Defining Problem Student Behaviors
  • Define the problem behavior in clear, observable,
    measurable terms (Batsche et al., 2008 Upah,
    2008). Write a clear description of the problem
    behavior. Avoid vague problem identification
    statements such as The student is disruptive.
  • A well-written problem definition should include
    three parts
  • Conditions. The condition(s) under which the
    problem is likely to occur
  • Problem Description. A specific description of
    the problem behavior
  • Contextual information. Information about the
    frequency, intensity, duration, or other
    dimension(s) of the behavior that provide a
    context for estimating the degree to which the
    behavior presents a problem in the setting(s) in
    which it occurs.

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71
Defining Problem Student Behaviors
  1. Develop examples and non-examples of the problem
    behavior (Upah, 2008). Writing both examples and
    non-examples of the problem behavior helps to
    resolve uncertainty about when the students
    conduct should be classified as a problem
    behavior. Examples should include the most
    frequent or typical instances of the student
    problem behavior. Non-examples should include any
    behaviors that are acceptable conduct but might
    possibly be confused with the problem behavior.

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73
Defining Problem Student Behaviors
  1. Write a behavior hypothesis statement (Batsche et
    al., 2008 Upah, 2008). The next step in
    problem-solving is to develop a hypothesis about
    why the student is engaging in an undesirable
    behavior or not engaging in a desired behavior.
    Teachers can gain information to develop a
    hypothesis through direct observation, student
    interview, review of student work products, and
    other sources. The behavior hypothesis statement
    is important because (a) it can be tested, and
    (b) it provides guidance on the type(s) of
    interventions that might benefit the student.

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75
Defining Problem Student Behaviors
  1. Select a replacement behavior (Batsche et al.,
    2008). Behavioral interventions should be focused
    on increasing student skills and capacities, not
    simply on suppressing problem behaviors. By
    selecting a positive behavioral goal that is an
    appropriate replacement for the students
    original problem behavior, the teacher reframes
    the student concern in a manner that allows for
    more effective intervention planning.

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77
Defining Problem Student Behaviors
  1. Write a prediction statement (Batsche et al.,
    2008 Upah, 2008). The prediction statement
    proposes a strategy (intervention) that is
    predicted to improve the problem behavior. The
    importance of the prediction statement is that it
    spells out specifically the expected outcome if
    the strategy is successful. The formula for
    writing a prediction statement is to state that
    if the proposed strategy (Specific Action) is
    adopted, then the rate of problem behavior is
    expected to decrease or increase in the desired
    direction.

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80
Defining Student Motivation/Behavior Problems
Activity
  • At your table
  • Review the 5-step process described in the
    workshop for identifying and analyzing student
    behavior problems.
  • Discuss how your school can share this framework
    with teachers.

81
Motivation Intervention Case ExampleJim
Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
82
Case Example Non-Compliance
  • The Problem
  • Justin showed a pattern from the start of the
    school year of not complying with teacher
    requests in his English class. His teacher, Mr.
    Steubin, noted that when given a teacher
    directiveJustin would sometimes fail to comply.
    Justin would show no obvious signs of opposition
    but would sit passively or remain engaged in his
    current activity, as if ignoring the instructor.
    When no task demands were made on him, Justin
    was typically a quiet and somewhat distant
    student but otherwise appeared to fit into the
    class and show appropriate behavior.

83
Case Example Non-Compliance
  • The Evidence
  • Student Interview. Mr. Steubin felt that he did
    not have a strong relationship with the student,
    so he asked the counselor to talk with Justin
    about why he might be non-compliant in English
    class. Justin told the counselor that he was
    bored in the class and just didnt like to write.
    When pressed by the counselor, Justin admitted
    that he could do the work in the class but chose
    not to.
  • Direct Observation. Mr. Steubin noted that Justin
    was less likely to comply with writing
    assignments than other in-class tasks. The
    likelihood that Justin would be non-compliant
    tended to go up if Mr. Steubin pushed him to
    comply in the presence of Justins peers. The
    odds that Justin would comply also appeared to
    increase when Mr. Steubin stated his request and
    walked away, rather than continuing to nag
    Justin to comply.

84
Case Example Non-Compliance
  • The Evidence (Cont.)
  • Work Products. Mr. Steubin knew from the
    assignments that he did receive from Justin that
    the student had adequate writing skills. However,
    Justins compositions tended to be short, and
    ideas were not always as fully developed as they
    could beas Justin was doing the minimum to get
    by.
  • Input from Other Teachers. Mr. Steubin checked
    with other teachers who had Justin in their
    classes. The Spanish teacher had similar problems
    in getting Justin to comply but the science
    teacher generally found Justin to be a compliant
    and pleasant student. She noted that Justin
    seemed to really like hands-on activities and
    that, when potentially non-compliant, he
    responded well to gentle humor.

85
Case Example Non-Compliance
  • The Intervention
  • Mr. Steubin realized that he tended to focus most
    of his attention on Justins non-compliance. So
    the students non compliance might be supported
    by teacher attention. OR the students compliant
    behaviors might be extinguished because Mr.
    Steubin did not pay attention to them.
  • The teacher decided instead that Justin needed to
    have appropriate consequences for non-compliance,
    balanced with incentives to engage in learning
    tasks. Additionally, Mr. Steubin elected to give
    the student attention at times that were NOT
    linked to non-compliance.

86
Case Example Non-Compliance
  • The Intervention (Cont.)
  • Appropriate Consequences for Non-Compliance. Mr.
    Steubin adopted a new strategy to deal with
    Justins episodes of non-compliance. Mr. Steubin
    got agreement from Justins parents that the
    student could get access to privileges at home
    each day only if he had a good report from the
    teacher about complying with classroom requests.
    Whenever the student failed to comply within a
    reasonable time (1 minute) to a teacher request,
    Mr. Steubin would approach Justins desk and
    quietly restate the request as a two-part
    choice statement. He kept his verbal
    interactions brief and neutral in tone. As part
    of the choice statement, the teacher told
    Justin that if he did not comply, his parents
    would be emailed a negative report. If Justin
    still did not comply, Mr. Steubin would follow
    through later that day in sending the report of
    non-compliance to the parents.

87
Teacher Command Sequence Two-Part Choice
Statement
  • Make the request. Use simple, clear language
    that the student understands. If possible,
    phrase the request as a positive (do) statement,
    rather than a negative (dont) statement. (E.g.,
    Justin, please start your writing assignment
    now.) Wait a reasonable time for the student to
    comply (e.g., 1 minute)

88
Teacher Command Sequence Two-Part Choice
Statement
  • If the student fails to comply Repeat the
    request as a 2-part choice. Give the student
    two clear choices with clear consequences. Order
    the choices so that the student hears negative
    consequence as the first choice and the teacher
    request as the second choice. (E.g., Justin, I
    can email your parents to say that you wont do
    the class assignment or you can start the
    assignment now and not have a negative report go
    home. Its your choice.) Give the student a
    reasonable time to comply (e.g., 1 minute).

89
Teacher Command Sequence Two-Part Choice
Statement
  1. If the student fails to comply Impose the
    pre-selected negative consequence. As you impose
    the consequence, ignore student questions or
    complaints that appear intended to entangle you
    in a power struggle.

90
Case Example Non-Compliance
  • The Intervention (Cont.)
  • Active Student Engagement. Mr. Steubin reasoned
    that he could probably better motivate the entire
    class by making sure that lessons were engaging.
    He made an extra effort to build lessons around
    topics of high interest to students, built in
    cooperative learning opportunities to engage
    students, and moved the lesson along at a brisk
    pace. The teacher also made real-world
    connections whenever he could between what was
    being taught in a lesson and ways that students
    could apply that knowledge or skill outside of
    school or in future situations.

91
Case Example Non-Compliance
  • The Intervention (Cont.)
  • Teacher Attention (Non-Contingent). Mr. Steubin
    adopted the two-by-ten intervention (A. Mendler,
    2000) as a way to jumpstart a connection with
    Justin. The total time required for this strategy
    was 20 minutes across ten school days.

92
Sample Ideas to Improve Relationships With
Students The Two-By-Ten Intervention (Mendler,
2000)
  • Make a commitment to spend 2 minutes per day for
    10 consecutive days in building a relationship
    with the studentby talking about topics of
    interest to the student. Avoid discussing
    problems with the students behaviors or
    schoolwork during these times.

Source Mendler, A. N. (2000). Motivating
students who dont care. Bloomington, IN
National Educational Service.
93
Sample Ideas to Improve Relationships With
Students The Three-to-One Intervention (Sprick,
Borgmeier, Nolet, 2002)
  • Give positive attention or praise to problem
    students at least three times more frequently
    than you reprimand them. Give the student the
    attention or praise during moments when that
    student is acting appropriately. Keep track of
    how frequently you give positive attention and
    reprimands to the student.

Source Sprick, R. S., Borgmeier, C., Nolet, V.
(2002). Prevention and management of behavior
problems in secondary schools. In M. A. Shinn, H.
M. Walker G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for
academic and behavior problems II Preventive and
remedial approaches (pp.373-401). Bethesda, MD
National Association of School Psychologists.
94
Case Example Non-Compliance
  • The Outcome
  • The strategies adopted by Mr. Steubin did not
    improve Justins level of compliance right away.
    Once the teacher had gone through the full ten
    days of the two by ten intervention, however,
    Mr. Steubin noticed that Justin made more eye
    contact with him and even joked occasionally. And
    the students rate of compliance then noticeably
    improvedbut still had a way to go.
  • Mr. Steubin kept in regular contact with Justins
    parents, who admitted about 8 days into the
    intervention that they were not as rigorous as
    they should be in preventing him from accessing
    privileges at home when he was non-compliant at
    school. When the teacher urged them to hold the
    line at home, they said that they would and did.
    Justins behavior improved as a result, to the
    point where his level of compliance was typical
    for the range of students in Mr. Steubins class.

95
Secondary-Level Academic Tier 1 Intervention
Case ExampleJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.or
g
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97
Tier 1 Case Example Patricia Reading
Comprehension
98
Case Example Reading Comprehension
  • The Problem
  • A student, Patricia, struggled in her social
    studies class, particularly in understanding the
    course readings. Her teacher, Ms. Cardamone,
    decided that the problem was significant enough
    that the student required some individualized
    support.

99
Case Example Reading Comprehension
  • The Evidence
  • Student Interview. Ms. Cardamone met with
    Patricia to ask her questions about her
    difficulties with social studies content and
    assignments. Patricia said that when she reads
    the course text and other assigned readings, she
    doesnt have difficulty with the vocabulary but
    often realizes after reading half a page that she
    hasnt really understood what she has read.
    Sometimes she has to reread a page several times
    and that can be frustrating.

100
Case Example Reading Comprehension
  • The Evidence (Cont.)
  • Review of Records. Past teacher report card
    comments suggest that Patricia has had difficulty
    with reading comprehension tasks in earlier
    grades. She had received help in middle school in
    the reading lab, although there was no record of
    what specific interventions were tried in that
    setting.
  • Input from Other Teachers. Ms. Cardamone checked
    with other teachers who have Patricia in their
    classes. All expressed concern about Patricias
    reading comprehension skills. The English
    teacher noted that Patricia appears to have
    difficulty pulling the main idea from a passage,
    which limits her ability to extract key
    information from texts and to review that
    information for tests.
  •  

101
Case Example Reading Comprehension
  • The Intervention
  • Ms. Cardamone decided, based on the evidence
    collected, that Patricia would benefit from
    training in identifying the main idea from a
    passage, rather than trying to retain all the
    information presented in the text. She selected
    two simple interventions Question Generation and
    Text Lookback. She arranged to have Patricia meet
    with her during an open period to review these
    two strategies. During that meeting, Ms.
    Cardamone demonstrated how to use these
    strategies effectively with the social studies
    course text and other assigned readings.

102
  • Students are taught to boost their comprehension
    of expository passages by (1) locating the main
    idea or key ideas in the passage and (2)
    generating questions based on that information.

QuestionGeneration
http//www.interventioncentral.org/htmdocs/interve
ntions/rdngcompr/qgen.php
103
  • Text lookback is a simple strategy that students
    can use to boost their recall of expository prose
    by identifying questions that require information
    from the text and then looking back in the text
    in a methodical manner to locate that
    information.

Text Lookback
http//www.interventioncentral.org/htmdocs/interve
ntions/rdngcompr/txtlkbk.php
104
Case Example Reading Comprehension
  • Documentation and Goal-Setting
  • Ms Cardamone filled out a Tier 1 intervention
    plan for the student. On the plan, she listed
    interventions to be used, a checkup date (4
    instructional weeks), and data to be used to
    assess student progress.
  • Data Ms. Cardamone decided that she would rate
    the students grasp of text content in two ways
  • Student self-rating (1-3 scale 1dont
    understand 3 understand well)
  • Quiz grades.
  • She collected baseline on both and set a goal for
    improvement.

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Case Example Reading Comprehension
  • The Outcome
  • When the intervention had been in place for 4
    weeks, Ms. Cardamone noted that Patricia appeared
    to have a somewhat better grasp of course content
    and expressed a greater grasp of material from
    the text.
  • She shared her intervention ideas with other
    teachers working with Patricia. Because
    Patricias self-ratings of reading comprehension
    and quiz grades met the goals after 4 weeks, Ms.
    Cardamone decided to continue the intervention
    plan with the student without changes.
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