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PBIS Team Leader and Coach Training Baltimore County Public Schools

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Title: PBIS Team Leader and Coach Training Baltimore County Public Schools


1
PBIS Team Leader and Coach TrainingBaltimore
County Public Schools
  • Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

November 8, 2010 Conference Center at Sheppard
Pratt
2
What We Know
  • Children are eager and capable learners

Research on early learners from Alexa Posny, 2009
3
Research(Hart Risley, 1995)
Words Heard per hour Affirmatives per hour Prohibitions per hour
Professional family child 2153 32 5
4
Research(Hart Risley, 1995)
Words Heard per hour Affirmatives per hour Prohibitions per hour
Professional family child 2153 32 5
Working class child 1251 12 7
5
Research(Hart Risley, 1995)
Words Heard per hour Affirmatives per hour Prohibitions per hour
Professional family child 2153 32 5
Working class child 1251 12 7
Child living in poverty 616 5 11
6
How
  • Early intervening servicesare services for
    children in kindergarten through grade 12 (with a
    particular emphasis on children in kindergarten
    through grade 3)
  • who have not been identified as needing special
    education and related services,
  • but who need additional academic and behavioral
    support to succeed in a general education
    environment.

7
What We Know
  • There is a greater tragedy than being labeled
    as a slow learner
  • --and that is being treated as one.

8
Why
Early learning begets later learning and early
success breeds later successThe later in life we
attempt to repair early deficits, the costlier
remediation becomes James Heckman, Nobel
Prize-Winner, Economics, 2000
9
What We Know
  • A longitudinal study of 407 students found that
    74 of the children whose difficulty in reading
    was first identified at nine years of age or
    older continued to read in the lowest quintile
    throughout their middle and high school years.

10
What We Know
  • The earlier school staff can identify students
    difficulties, the quicker and less expensive the
    task is to help them catch up
  • The longer a student goes without assistance, the
    longer the remediation time and the more intense
    the services must be
  • Academically and behaviorally

11
How
  • Response to Intervention (RTI) is a way of
    screening children, early in their schooling,
    that can help schools and educators identify
    those who may not be responding to instruction
    and thus may be at risk for school failure. The
    technique allows schools, on a schoolwide basis,
    to provide any student more intensive supportand
    monitor their progressthan typically available
    in every classroom.  

12
Systematic Academic Behavior Planning Supports
Classroom Instruction
  • Tier 3
  • Selected Interventions
  • Small groups/individual students
  • Reduce complexity and severity
  • of academic and behavior problems
  • Tier 2
  • Targeted Interventions
  • Groups of students/at risk
  • Reduce academic and behavior problems

Frequency, Intensity, Duration
  • Tier 1
  • Universal Interventions
  • All settings, all students
  • Prevent academic and behavior problems

Academic Behavior Organization of materials Time
management Work Completion
Academic Skills
Behavioral/ Social/Emotional Skills
Instructional Practices and Interventions
13
Food for Thought
  • There are really only three types of people
  • Those who make things happen
  • Those who watch things happen and
  • Those who ask, What happened?
  • --Ann Landers

What type of person are you?
14
What We Know
  • Students must know what is expected of them
  • Behavior is learned
  • Schools must provide safe, learning conducive and
    predictable environments
  • We must teach students what positive behaviors
    look like

15
How
  • By intentionally designing and redesigning
    resources to match student needs
  • Ensuring that every leader is responsible for
    planning, implementing and evaluating
  • Using academic and behavioral data to inform
    instructional/behavioral decisions
  • Including educators, families and community
    members as part of effective problem-solving and
    instructional decision making
  • Creating an empowering culture that maintains
    collective responsibility for every childs
    success

16
Objectives for Today
  • STARS and data reporting
  • BOQ and classroom systems
  • Role of the team leader and coach
  • Sharing strategies for improved outcomes

17
Take Away Message
  • Consider how you are going to use the materials
    and ideas discussed today
  • Plan to take these ideas back to your team
  • Evaluate your schools data in a meaningful way
  • What are your current outcomes?
  • What are your schools goals?
  • How do you plan to get there?
  • With your teamstrategize how you will
    implement some of these ideas

18
Desired Student Outcomes
Supports Decision Making
Supports Staff Behavior
  • Academic achievement
  • Positive social skill development
  • Self-control and self-management

Supports Student Behavior
19
Data Needs to be Your Friend
Without data, you are just another person with an
opinion..
20
The Big 5 Generator
  • Excel spreadsheet
  • Record STARS data by Month
  • Label each document by Month
  • Cut and paste graphs into document
  • Average Referrals per Day by Month
  • Problem Behavior
  • Location
  • Time
  • Students

21
Average Referrals per Day by Month
22
Referrals by Problem Behavior
23
Referrals by Problem Location
24
Referrals by Time of Day
25
Referrals by StudentsPercentages
26
Resources
27
www.pbismaryland.org
28
Additional Resourceswww.pbismaryland.org
  • Home Page toolbar on left
  • Forms (IPI and BOQ)
  • School examples
  • ResourcesCoaches and Schools
  • Select coaches and then select button coaches
    resources
  • For all summer presentations (July 2010), click
    Archives and look under 2010-2011 Stories
  • Archives button on the toolbar for all previous
    postings prior to this school year

29
When a hammer is the only tool you have,
everything looks like a nail.
30
BOQBenchmarks of QualityRevised 2010
  • Benchmarks of Quality
  • Assesses ten areas of implementation
  • See www.pbismaryland.org forms
  • Scoring form and rubric
  • Critical area addedClassroom Systems

31
BOQ Rubric
  • Standards for scoring
  • Review to assess your schools progress
  • BOQ completed in the spring of each year

32
Classroom SystemsBOQ Items
42. Classroom rules are defined for each of the schoolwide expectations and are posted in the classroom
43. Classroom routines and procedures are explicitly identified for activities where problems often occur (e.g., entering class, asking questions, sharpening pencil, using restroom, dismissal
44. Expected behavior routines in classroom are taught
45. Classroom teachers use immediate and specific praise
46. Acknowledgement of students demonstrating adherence to classroom rules and routines occurs more frequently than acknowledgement of inappropriate behavior
47. Procedures exists for tracking classroom behavior problems
48. Classrooms have a range of consequences/interventions for problem behavior that are documented and consistently delivered.
33
Classroom-wide Positive Behavior Support Systems
Positive Expectations for All Students
Strong Classroom Management Techniques
Lessons Designed for Student Mastery
Classroom Systems
Slides for Classroom Systems created by Joan
Ledvina Parr, Patti Hershfeldt, and Susan Barrett
34
Student Achievement
Instructional Management
Behavior Management
  • Expected behavior routines taught and practiced
  • High rates of acknowledgements for rule following
    behavior
  • High rates of positive active supervision
  • Good instructional teaching
  • Outcome-based
  • Evidence-based curriculum
  • Well designed lessons
  • Well presented lessons
  • On-going progress monitoring
  • Good behavior management

35
Training Outcomes Related to Training Components Training Outcomes Related to Training Components Training Outcomes Related to Training Components Training Outcomes Related to Training Components
Training Outcomes Training Outcomes Training Outcomes
Training Components Knowledge of Content Skill Implementation Classroom Application
Presentation/ Lecture
Plus Demonstration
Plus Practice
Plus Coaching/ Admin Support Data Feedback
10 5 0
30 20 0
60 60 5
95 95 95
Joyce Showers, 2002
36
Moving from Research to Practice
  • Teachers typically receive little training in
    classroom management
  • Training by itself does not result in positive
    implementation or intervention outcomes
  • Multi-component training packages result in
    desired behavior change (didactic training
    coaching performance feedback)
  • Teachers demonstrated behavior change only once
    they received performance feedback
  • Self-monitoring may result in increased skill use

37
Self-Assessment
  • STARS data by location
  • Results from EBS Survey (classroom)
  • Classroom Self-Assessment
  • Results from Observations and/or Walk Throughs

38
(No Transcript)
39
Classroom Supports
  • Data Collection and Progress
  • Monitoring at T3
  • Working with Families
  • Role on the Individual Support Team
  • Building Behavior Pathways and
  • Hypothesis Statements

FEW
  • SW Expectations linked to class rules and
    routines
  • Behavior Basics
  • Evidence Based Practices
  • Feedback Ratio
  • Wait time
  • Opportunities to Respond
  • Self Management
  • Academic Match
  • Working with Families
  • Transitions
  • Using Pre-corrections
  • Active Supervision
  • Data Collection and Using Data to
  • Guide Decisions
  • ODR, MIR
  • Self Assessment
  • Peer Coaching
  • Good Behavior Game

SOME
  • Working with Families
  • Deciding to increase Support
  • Progress Monitoring
  • Using the Daily Progress Report
  • Working with Students using CICO
  • Working with Students using CICO
  • Plus Academic or Social Instructional Groups
  • Using Data to Guide Decisions
  • Working with T2 Teams

ALL
40
Five Areas of Evidenced Based Practices for the
Classroom
  • Define classroom expectations and rules
  • Develop procedures and routines
  • Identify strategies to acknowledge appropriate
    behavior
  • Identify strategies to respond to problem
    behavior
  • Maximize student engagement

41
Evidence Based Practice 1Expectations and Rules
  • Expectations are the outcomes
  • Rules are the specific criteria for meeting the
    expectation outcomes
  • Rules identify and define the concepts of
    acceptable behavior

42
Guidelines for Writing Classroom Rules
  • Classroom rules need to be consistent with the
    schoolwide expectations and
  • Observable
  • Measureable
  • Positively stated
  • Understandable
  • Always applicablesomething the teacher will
    consistently enforce

43
Schoolwide Classroom
I am respectful Listen politely Raise hand to speak Use kind words
I am responsible Follow directions Accept consequences without upset
I am safe Keep hands and feet to self Stay in assigned areas Sit in chair safely Use furniture and supplies appropriately
I am prepared Come prepared with homework and supplies Complete your work
44
Teaching Matrix Classroom Arrival Centers
Be Respectful Raise your hand before speaking when you need help Listen when others are talking Use inside voice Use inside voice when talking before the bell Be quiet when the bell rings Wait your turn 10 minutes per station when someone is waiting
Be Responsible Have materials ready before activities begin Follow directions the first time Bring your homework, pencil, and paper Leave center in a neat fashion Take all materials with you
Be Safe Keep hands, feet, and objects to yourself Be in your seat when the bell rings One person per station Follow safety rules of center
45
Three Step Approach to Teaching Classroom Rules
  • Explain
  • State, explain, model, and demonstrate the
    procedure.
  • Rehearse
  • Rehearse and practice the procedure under your
    supervision.
  • Reinforce
  • Reteach, rehearse, practice, and reinforce the
    classroom procedure until it becomes a student
    habit or routine

46
Follow Up Ideas Re 1 Classroom Rules
Align the classroom rules with the schoolwide
expectations Post in all classrooms Develop a
schedule for teaching and booster sessions Gather
data (buddy system, walk throughs, etc.
47
Five Areas of Evidenced Based Practices for the
Classroom
  • Define classroom expectations and rules
  • Develop procedures and routines
  • Identify strategies to acknowledge appropriate
    behavior
  • Identify strategies to respond to problem
    behavior
  • Maximize student engagement

48
Evidence Based Practice 2Procedures and
Routines
  • Effective teaching includes teaching functional
    procedures to students at the beginning of the
    year and using these routines to efficiently move
    throughout the day
  • Procedures explain the accepted process for
    carrying out a specific activity
  • Procedures form the routines that help students
    meet expectations stated in the rules
  • Establish a signal to obtain class attention
  • Teach effective transitions

49
Procedures are a part of life Classroom
Procedures
  • Entering the classroom
  • Asking a question
  • Listening to and responding to questions
  • Sharpening a pencil
  • Indicating whether you understand
  • Responding to a request for attention
  • Turning in papers
  • Working cooperatively
  • Changing groups
  • Maintaining student notebooks
  • Leaving the classroom
  • When students are tardy
  • When students need a pencil or paper
  • When students are absent
  • When someone knocks on the door
  • When a student needs help or a conference
  • Requesting a bathroom break
  • If the phone should ring
  • An emergency alert
  • End of class dismissal

50
Have a Set of Procedures and Routines that
Structure the Classroom
  • Procedures what the teacher wants done
  • Routines what the students do automatically
  • Directly teach those routines
  • Explainstate, explain, model, and demonstrate
  • Rehearserehearse and practice the procedure
    under your supervision
  • Reinforcereteach, rehearse, practice, and
    reinforce
  • Use precorrections

51
Elementary Example
  • Lining Up
  • Sit quietly when you hear the signal
  • Neatly place books and materials in your desk
  • Quietly stand when your name (or row) is called
  • Push your chair under your desk
  • Quietly walk to the line
  • Stand with your hands at your sides, facing
    forward, no talking

52
Elementary Example
  • Learning Position
  • Sit with your bottom on your chair
  • Sit with your legs under your desk
  • Keep both feet on the floor
  • Look at the teacher when he or she talks to the
    class
  • Keep your materials on top of your desk

53
Elementary Example
  • During Lessons
  • Sit in a learning position
  • Raise your hand for a turn to talk, if you have a
    question or if you need help
  • Wait for the teacher to come to you
  • Finish all of your work
  • Read your book if you finish your work early
  • Take restroom or water breaks during independent
    time

54
Secondary Example
  • Class Discussion
  • Prepare for discussion by reading the required
    assignment in advance
  • Wait until the other person is finished speaking
    before you talk
  • Stay on topic
  • Respect others opinions and contributions
  • Use appropriate expressions of disagreement

55
Secondary Example
  • Entering the Classroom
  • Enter the classroom before the bell rings
  • Take your seat and get out the materials you need
    for class
  • Talk quietly until the bell rings
  • Stop talking and be ready to listen when the bell
    rings

56
Secondary Example
  • Turning in Assignments
  • The last person in each row pass their paper to
    the person in front of them
  • The next person does the same until the papers
    reach the first person in each row
  • The first person in each row passes papers to the
    right
  • The first person in the last row places all
    papers in the basket on the teachers desk

57
Every Time a Procedure Needs to be Corrected
  • REMIND the class of the procedure
  • Have the class EXPERIENCE the procedure
  • Remind yourself to use more PRECORRECTIONS

58
Teach Students to Self-Monitor
  • Once students know the routines, teacher can fade
    prompts
  • Encourage the students to recognize the routines,
    schedules, and pacing and their roles and
    responsibilities
  • Teach the students to self-monitor
  • Reinforce, reinforce, reinforce

59
Follow Up Ideas Re 2 Procedures and
Routines
Identify procedures and teach directly to the
students Review, practice, reteach Consider
surprise quizzes for extra credit, teams awarded
points, etc. Buddy system, walk throughs, assess
data, etc.
60
Five Areas of Evidenced Based Practices for the
Classroom
  • Define classroom expectations and rules
  • Develop procedures and routines
  • Identify strategies to acknowledge appropriate
    behavior
  • Identify strategies to respond to problem
    behavior
  • Maximize student engagement

61
Evidence Based Practice 3Strategies to
Acknowledge Appropriate Behavior
  • Effective acknowledgment
  • Can increase
  • on-task behavior
  • correct responses, work productivity and accuracy
  • attention and compliance
  • appropriate social behavior
  • Foster intrinsic motivation to learn which comes
    from mastering tasks

62
Discipline Works When .
  • It is advisable to have a minimum ratio of 51
    positive specific feedback responses vs.
    corrective comments

5 1
63
Acknowledging Appropriate Behavior
  • Effective strategies are .
  • Clear and specific
  • Contingent on desired behavior
  • Applied immediately
  • Teacher initiated
  • Focus on improvement and effort
  • ..Avoid threats and response costs

64
Establish an on-going system of rewards
  • Acknowledge expected behavior
  • Use tangible rewards and acknowledgements
  • Verbal praise, thumbs up, gotchas, notes home or
    positive note to the office, student of the
    day/week, special privileges, group
    contingencies, etc.
  • Use social recognition (developmental
    considerations)
  • Know your students
  • Use guidelines
  • Fade tangibles
  • Schedule strategically
  • Maintain 51 positive to correction ratio

65
Effective Reinforcers
  • Pair tangibles with praise
  • Reinforcers can be tangible or intangible
  • Consider frequency of reinforcers
  • Maintain 5 positives 1 corrective statement
  • Immediate reinforcement for new skills
  • Delayed or intermittent reinforcement for
    established skills
  • Vary the type, frequency, and intensity of
    reinforcement
  • Fade and encourage learner self-management

66
Acknowledging Appropriate Behavior
  • Classroom Continuum of Strategies
  • Level 1 Free and Frequent
  • Use everyday in the classroom
  • Level 2 Intermittent
  • Awarded occasionally
  • Level 3 Strong and Long Term
  • Quarterly or year long types of recognition

67
Classroom Continuum of Strategies
Free Frequent Intermittent Strong Long Term
Verbal Praise Smile Stickers Rubber Stamps Thumbs up Home Notes Token Economy Phone Calls Special Privileges Computer Time Social/Free Time Special Seat Group Contingency Field Trip Special Project Recognition Ceremonies Honor Roll
68
Strategies Include
  • Specific and Contingent Praise
  • Set the Tone with a Celebration Statement
  • Group Contingencies
  • e.g., Good Behavior Game (evidence based)
  • Behavior Contracts
  • Token Economy System (menu of reinforcers)
  • Reinforcements for
  • Individuals
  • Groups
  • Entire class

69
Importance of Feedback
  • Consider a buddy to observe and tally the number
    of positive vs. corrective comments
  • Structure your own expectations
  • Tally marks on a post it note
  • Moving marbles, paper clips, or other items
  • Clicker

70
Follow Up Ideas Re 3 Encouraging
Appropriate Behavior
Share or develop a list of reinforcers teachers
can use for individual and group
incentives Develop free and frequent,
intermittent, and strong and long term
incentives Brainstorm about reinforcement
systems Develop buddy systems or other ways to
complete observations for feedback
71
Five Areas of Evidenced Based Practices for the
Classroom
  • Define classroom expectations and rules
  • Develop procedures and routines
  • Identify strategies to acknowledge appropriate
    behavior
  • Identify strategies to respond to problem
    behavior
  • Maximize student engagement

72
Evidence Based Practice 4Strategies to Respond
to Inappropriate Behavior
  • Use corrective feedback
  • Tell student what is wrong and what to do instead
  • Use only if it changes behavior
  • Present feedback calmly and consistently
  • Match the severity of the consequences with the
    severity of the behavior / infractions
  • Problem overuse may increase problem behavior
  • Develop consequences for rule violations
  • Consider a hierarchy of consequences
  • Establish predictable consequences

73
Unacceptable Classroom BehaviorsLevel 1Teacher
Managed
  • Strategies
  • Redirection/nonverbal cues
  • Ignore inappropriate behavior
  • Reinforce desired behaviors in student or in
    others
  • Verbal warning (in private if possible)
  • Give choices
  • Proximity change (student or teacher)
  • Student conference
  • Behaviors
  • Not prepared
  • Out of seat
  • Not following directions
  • Sleeping in class
  • Food/drink/gum
  • Inappropriate noises
  • Inappropriate talking/language
  • Whining
  • Homework not completed

74
Unacceptable Classroom BehaviorsLevel 2Teacher
Managed
  • Behaviors
  • Constant talking
  • Significantly interfering with others learning
  • Consistently not following directions
  • Disrespect to adults
  • Throwing things
  • Teasing
  • Lying/cheating
  • Inappropriate language
  • Tardy/dress code
  • Strategies
  • Level 1 strategies
  • Classroom based intervention
  • Loss of privilege
  • Parent contact
  • Consult with grade level team
  • Behavior contract
  • Referral to counselor
  • Minor Incident Report (MIR)
  • Office referral after 4th MIR

75
(No Transcript)
76
Handle Student Errors Effectively
  • Signal when an error has occurred
    (refer to rules, We respect others in this room
    and that means not using put downs.)
  • Ask for an alternative appropriate response (How
    can you show respect and still get your point
    across?)
  • Provide an opportunity to practice the skill and
    provide verbal feedback
    (Thats much better, thank you for showing
    respect toward others.)

77
Response Strategies and Error Correction
  • Classroom Continuum of Response Strategies
  • Prompt ? visual or verbal cue
  • Redirect ? restate matrix behavior
  • Re-teach ? tell, show, practice, acknowledge
  • Provide Choice ? range of alternates
  • Conference with Student
  • Use a positive, private, and quiet voice
  • Describe the problem
  • Describe the alternative (what the student should
    do instead)
  • Tell why alternative is better
  • Practice (student should tell and/or show)
  • Provide feedback

78
Classroom Continuum of Response1. Calm 2.
Consistent 3. Brief 4. Immediate 5.
Respectful
Words/actions an adult can use
Prompt Provide verbal and/or visual cue.
Redirect Restate the matrix behavior.
Reteach State and demonstrate the matrix behavior. Have student demonstrate. Provide immediate feedback.
Provide Choice Give choice to accomplish task in another location, about the order of task completion, using alternate supplies to complete the task or for a different type of activity that accomplishes the same instructional objective.
Conference Describe the problem. Describe the alternative behavior. Tell why the alternative is better. Practice. Provide feedback.
79
Response Strategies and Error Correction
  • Consider The single most commonly used but
    least effective method for addressing undesirable
    behavior is to verbally scold and berate a
    student (Albetro Troutman, 2006).
  • Error correction should be.
  • Calm
  • Consistent
  • Brief
  • Immediate
  • Respectful

80
Strategies for Responding to Problem Behavior
  • Align the consequences with the classroom
    expectations
  • Link the consequence with the context
  • Teach the replacement behaviors or desired
    behaviors
  • Always consider the importance of immediate
    feedback

81
Strategies for Interventions
  • Indirect Refocusing
  • Planned ignoring
  • Proximity control
  • Breaks
  • Support through humor
  • Change routines
  • Allow student face saving opportunity to be
    removed from the situation
  • Direct Refocusing
  • Nonverbal reminder
  • Appeal to values
  • Provide assistance
  • Seating change
  • Friendly reminder
  • Chill Card
  • Direct Warning
  • Voluntary Time-out
  • Differential Reinforcement
  • Error Correction

82
Activity Reasonable and Logical Strategies
Student Behavior Common response PBIS response
Chews Gum Teacher sends student to the office ???
Turns in a sloppy paper Teacher refuses the paper ???
Walks in noisily Teacher ignores behavior ???
83
Activity Reasonable and Logical Strategies
Student Behavior Common response PBIS response
Chews Gum Teacher sends student to the office Dispose of gum, writes paper on the issue
Turns in a sloppy paper Teacher refuses the paper Redoes the paper
Walks in noisily Teacher ignores behavior Walks in again quietly
84
Follow Up Ideas Re 4 Discouraging
Inappropriate Behavior
Develop an agreement about classroom managed and
office managed behaviors Develop a continuum of
consequences for classroom behaviors (individual
teacher, chart system, buddy room, etc.) Share
the chart with teachers. Develop opportunities
for error correction and re-teaching
85
Five Areas of Evidenced Based Practices for the
Classroom
  • Define classroom expectations and rules
  • Develop procedures and routines
  • Identify strategies to acknowledge appropriate
    behavior
  • Identify strategies to respond to problem
    behavior
  • Maximize student engagement

86
Evidence Based Practice 5Maximize Student
Engagement
  • Provide high rates of opportunities to respond
  • Actively engage students in observable ways
  • Provide adequate supervision and interaction

87
Why Provide Multiple Opportunities to Respond
  • Increases student engagement with instruction
  • Allows for high rates of positive, specific
    feedback
  • Limits student time for engaging in inappropriate
    behavior
  • Is an efficient use of instructional time
  • (Heward, 1994)

88
Evidence Based Practices that Promote Active
Engagement
  • Direct Instruction
  • Computer Assisted Instruction
  • Class-wide Peer Tutoring
  • Guided Notes
  • Response Cards

89
Multiple Opportunities to Respond
  • Remember to vary the response type
  • Individual vs. Group
  • Hand raising
  • Choral response
  • Thumbs up, thumbs down
  • White board, show responses, at the board
  • Response cards
  • Track students called on
  • Seating chart
  • Random names on paper

90
Rate of Opportunities to Respond
  • New Material
  • 4 6 student responses per minute with
  • 80 accuracy
  • Practice Work
  • 9 12 student responses per minute with
  • 90 accuracy
  • (CEC, 1987 Gunter, Hummel Venn, 1998)

91
Teacher Given Prompts
  • Prompt when the teacher has given the class or
    a specific student a directive or strategic
    question regarding academic or general behavior
  • Teacher instructional talk should be balanced
    with frequent opportunities to check for student
    understanding
  • Teachers should prompt for participatory learning
    and behavior
  • Goal should be 3.63 prompts per minute

92
Observing Opportunities to Respond
  • Classroom Frequency
  • Observer tallies the number of instructional
    questions, statements or gestures made by the
    teacher seeking an academic response.
  • Students Rate of Academic Engagement
  • Observer Records symbol for on-task/engaged
    behavior and - indicates off-task behavior.

93
Observing Opportunities to Respond
Students Rate of Academic Engagement
Classroom Frequency
tallies the number of instructional questions, statements or gestures made by the teacher seeking an academic response llll llll lllll lll
Tallies the number of precorrects, statements, or gestures to provide behavioral support llll llll ll
- -
-
- -
-
- -
94
Teacher Wait Time
  • Wait Time amount of time a teacher waits for a
    student response after providing a prompt
  • The average teacher waits only 1 second for a
    student to respond before calling on another.
    This is insufficient for most students.
  • Research has demonstrated that when teachers
    increase their wait time to gt 3 seconds higher
    cognitive achievement occurred at all grade
    levels.
  • Goal is to have wait time remain above 3 seconds
    of wait time, optimally around 5 seconds.

95
Employ Effective Teacher Commands
  • Use Alpha Commands
  • brief, clear, and easy to understand, in a
    neutral tone of voice-- hard to misinterpret
  • Commands are directives, not questions
  • Be clear and avoid long explanations or
    justifications
  • State a command, then give the student reasonable
    amount of time to comply
  • Avoid Beta Commands
  • wordy, vague, may give long explanations, and may
    be misinterpreted
  • often convey a feeling of frustration

96
Climate Killers
  • Sharp or excessive criticism
  • Sarcasm or humor at students expense
  • Reinforcers that are not meaningful to students
  • Lecturing students about behavior
  • Being inconsistent in rule enforcement and
    reinforcement
  • Having no social interaction with students
  • Showing little interest in students lives
  • Teaching lessons with no attention to student
    affect or stress levels during instruction
  • Warning an angry student to calm down without
    providing supports to achieve that goal.

97
Climate Enhancers
  • Always model respectful and polite behavior
  • Praise genuinely and frequently
  • Set high, but reasonable and attainable
    expectations
  • Know your students
  • Spend time interacting with students
  • Use effective listening skills
  • Design classroom to be appealing to students
  • Celebrate student success and achievement
  • Use humor

98
Follow Up Ideas Re 5 Maximize Student
Engagement
  • Set up buddy system or other observer to record
  • Opportunities for students to respond
  • Student engagement percentage
  • Teacher prompts, wait time, etc.
  • Positive to corrective response ratio

99
Building Systems to Support Best Practices in the
Classroom
  • How will staff get the skills?
  • Mini-lessons, weekly, monthly, etc.
  • How will staff get feedback?
  • Build an ongoing system, buddy system, master
    teachers, etc.
  • Develop a Training Calendar of Professional
    Development
  • orientation week, staff development days, faculty
    meetings
  • Develop a means for teachers to access support
    (request for assistance)
  • Consider BCPS Support (PBIS Coaches and
    Facilitator)

100
Role of the Team Leader
  • Meet monthlyset a schedule
  • Share data with PBIS committee as well as school
    staff (e.g., faculty meeting)
  • Develop an agenda
  • Designate a recorder to take minutes (see
    samples)
  • Discuss data and interventions
  • Evaluate your progress relative to your Action
    Plan
  • Follow up with administrator

101
Leading vs. Facilitating
Team Leader Coach
Sets the dates for meetings Ensures the team meets regularly
Checks accuracy of records, directs team in evaluation Offers tools to assist in record keeping, team evaluations, etc.
Assumes the role of leader, delegates, assigns tasks Ensures equal distribution of roles and responsibilities
Refers the team to the data during team meetings Ensures the team is using data for decision making
102
Ideas for Improving Schoolwide and Classroom
Systems
103
Hierarchy of Interventions
Gentle Reminder
Warning
Time Out in Class
Buddy Room
Loss of Privileges
104
Triangle of Choices
Take deep breaths
Count to 10
Ignore
Use muscle relaxation techniques
Imagine a happy place
Squeeze a ball
Talk to an adult
Use a chill card
Take a self time out
Teacher directed time out
Loss of privileges
Referral to Support Room
105
Class Meetings
  • Beginning of the day
  • Structured lesson or class discussion
  • Focus is on positives

106
Greeting Students at the Beginning of the Day
  • Teachers report that when students are greeted by
    an adult in morning, it takes less time to
    complete morning routines get first lesson
    started.
  • Greetings improved amount of time on task
  • Student greeters

107
Hallway Structure
  • Providing clear visuals for hallway
    patterns

108
Principals Wall of Fame
  • Students are given a Positive Office Referral
  • Students autograph the Principals Wall of Fame

109
Positive Office Referral
  • Student and administrator may call home and leave
    a special message for the parent
  • School sends a postcard home to acknowledge the
    positive behavior

110
Specialty Homerooms
  • Students identified at risk for academic or
    behavioral reasons are assigned to specific
    homerooms
  • These homerooms have fewer students
  • The homeroom teacher focuses on the identified
    issues (academic and/or behavioral) to provide
    extra support for these students

111
Time to Share Other Ideas
112
Bullying
  • Olweus Bullying Prevention Program
  • Olweus Bullying Prevention Program Schoolwide
    Guide
  • Olweus Bullying Prevention Program Teacher Guide
  • Olweus Bullying Questionnaire
  • Bully Prevention with School Wide PBScurriculum
  • http//www.pbis.org/common/pbisresources/publicati
    ons/bullyprevention_ES.pdf

113
Final Considerations
  • We cant make students learn or behave
  • We can create environments to increase the
    likelihood students learn and behave
  • It is all about providing and supporting the
    systems so that adults can change their behavior
    to implement the practices that will bring
    about change in student behavior

114
  • Some Final Thoughts
  • on the Road to Success

115
All of us will have set-backs on the journey
116
Allow yourself plenty of time to get there
117
Remember to bring the kids along
118
Remember, Building a PBIS Continuum is a
Marathon not a Sprint
119
Thank you for all that you do, day in and day
out, to support your schools,
students, and families
120
For additional resources
  • Maryland PBIS website
  • www.pbismaryland.org
  • National PBIS website
  • www.pbis.org
  • Florida PBS Project website
  • http//flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu/
  • Illinois PBIS Network
  • www.pbisillinois.org
  • San Bernardino City Unified School District
  • www.modelprogram.com
  • Dr. Jim Wright
  • www.interventioncentral.org
  • Dr. Laura Riffel
  • www.behaviordoctor.org/
  • Dr. Tom McIntyre
  • www.behavioradvisor.com

121
For Additional Information
  • Joan Ledvina Parr
  • PBIS Facilitator / School Psychologist
  • jparr_at_bcps.org 410-887-1103
  • Debely Fenstermaker
  • PBIS Coach / School Psychologist
  • dfenstermaker_at_bcps.org 410-887-7566
  • Margaret Grady Kidder
  • PBIS Coordinator / Coordinator of Psychological
    Services
  • mkidder_at_bcps.org 410-887-0303
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