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Culture of Modernism

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Culture of Modernism Popular Culture in Europe Race and Nation 1890-1914 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Culture of Modernism


1
Culture of Modernism
  • Popular Culture in Europe
  • Race and Nation

1890-1914
2
Modernism and Progress
  • As an intellectual movement, modernism was based
    on the belief that the problems of modern society
    could be solved by scientific knowledge and
    technology
  • Modernism accepted that accelerated change was
    permanent and encouraged its followers to seek
    out the new
  • What was holding back the progress to a better
    world was adherence to tradition and fear of
    moving forward

3
The advent of mass culture
  • The public sphere that had been developing since
    the Renaissance exploded with mass production of
    daily newspapers
  • Along with the advent of mass political
    participation there developed the idea of a mass
    public who were interested in science, culture,
    and art which before tended to be the purview
    of societys elites

4
Popular Science
  • In the 1820s Auguste Comte, the father of
    sociology, claimed that science was a religion
    and that modern society was heading into a
    scientific phase
  • Compte helped to promote the idea that science
    could solve any problems that human beings would
    face
  • Also important for promoting the idea that there
    was a science to society

5
Urban Spaces
  • One of the major challenges to modernist optimism
    was the state of cities that had grown quickly
    during the industrial revolution
  • Overcrowding, slums, lack of infrastructure
    characterized the problems of the overgrowth of
    essentially medieval cities and lack of
    planning was causing tensions in new cities

6
Case Study Paris
  • Between 1850 and 1870 George-Eugene Haussmann was
    commissioned by Napoleon III to drastically
    modernize the city of Paris
  • In order to do so, Haussmann had to first
    demolish much of the medieval city in order to
    make way for things like running water and gas
    lamps
  • Another major concern was to build a city that
    would give easy access to troops in case of a
    revolutionary uprising

7
Cartoon showing demolition teams taking over Paris
A cross, section of a new boulevard, showing
allowances for water and gas
8
Haussmann Style
  • His style was characterized by wide boulevards
    built around a grid pattern to make it easier for
    growing traffic and shopping
  • Paris had become a centre of the bourgeois life
    and Haussmann responded to that by making it
    easier to shop, to get from one end of the city
    to the other
  • Railway stations around the city brought in
    passengers from outside the city
  • Green areas and parks set up

9
  • Façade of a new apartment block
  • The bottom level would house shops and would
    get more prestigious as it went up

10
  • Sidewalk cafés (left) offered a new space for
    public interaction New department stores (right)
    offered new forms of public consumption

11
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12
Shift in the Arts
  • Artists also embraced modernism believing that
    they had to challenge traditionalism
  • As the face of Paris was changing under
    Haussmann, there was also a growing change in the
    taste for art
  • The reigning taste in art, judged by the Académie
    de Beaux Arts, promoted a rigid style based on
    classical and religious themes

13
Jean-Léon Gérôme, Phryne before the Areopagus
(1861)
14
Alexandre Cabanel Harmonie (1877)
15
Impressionism
  • The style known as impressionism brought together
    a number of artists who rejected the rigid style
    of the Académie
  • Setting up exhibitions of their own, artists like
    Edouard Manet, Claude Monet, Paul Cezane and
    others shocked the public but also developed a
    strong following

16
Edouard Manet, The Luncheon on the Grass, 1863
17
  • It was from Claude Monets painting (Impression,
    Sunrise) the impressionism got its name though
    it was meant as an insult by a reviewer who
    panned the show

18
Paul Cézane, The Card Players, (1890s)
19
Camille Pissaro, Boulevard Montmarte, Winter
Morning (1897)
20
Appeal of impressionism
  • Impressionism appealed to the new urban middle
    class who saw in these works a reflection of
    their own lives and experiences
  • These works tend to emphasize every-day, ordinary
    subject matter a snapshot of reality (at a time
    when photography was developing as a new art form)

21
Mass Society
  • The society that developed out of the Industrial
    Revolution was largely urban
  • Some saw a great future ahead for humanity as a
    result (the optimists) while others saw it as a
    society in decay and decline (pessimists)
  • Many wondered on what principles such a society
    should be run what was the place of the
    individual?

22
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)
  • A vocal critic of modern society, which he
    believed turned people into drones, or robots
  • Believed that the general tenor of modern society
    was to turn people into slaves taking away
    their self-realization and humanity

23
Futurism
  • Futurism was an aggressive and political movement
    in Italy that glorified the age of machines
  • Through art, literature, poetry, and theatre
    aimed to reach the potential of modern life

Tomasso Marinetti, 1876-1944
24
Conclusion
  • The twentieth century began with a strong wave of
    optimism about the possibilities of mass society
    and modern life
  • That optimism, however, would be challenged by
    the outbreak if World War I in 1914
  • Though modernism would survive the war its
    foundations were much less optimistic
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