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Culture

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Title: Culture


1
Culture Origins/Diffusion of Language
2
Geography is Physical Landscape
3
.and Cultural Landscape
4
When did you last eat a hamburger?
5
Got beef?
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Characteristics of Culture
  • Culture is learned, not inherited.
  • Culture is changeable through discoveries,
    diffusion and assimilation.
  • Culture is ethnocentric.
  • Culture is help us to navigate our place in the
    world.

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Why is language so vital to a culture?
12
Family/Branch/Group
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There are 1,250 to 2,1001 and by some counts
over 3,000 languages spoken natively in
Africa,2 in several major language
families Afroasiatic is spread throughout the
Middle East, North Africa, the Horn of Africa,
and parts of the Sahel Nilo-Saharan is centered
on Sudan and Chad (disputed validity) NigerCongo
(Bantu and non-Bantu) covers West, Central,
Southeast and Southern Africa Khoe is
concentrated in the deserts of Namibia and
Botswana Austronesian is spoken in
Madagascar. Indo-European is spoken on the
southern tip of the continent.
20
What do these words mean?
  • Queue
  • Rubbish
  • Nappy
  • Football
  • Torch
  • Flat
  • Lorrie
  • Peggies

21
What do these words have in common?
  • Mocassin squash
  • Tipi kayak
  • Massachusetts canoe
  • Delaware turkey
  • Missouri igloo
  • Skunk Connecticut
  • Racoon moose
  • Pecan caucus

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The Incredible Diffusion of English
  • 300 million native speakers
  • 300 million use English as a second language.
  • 100 mill. use English as a foreign lang.
  • Official lang. of 50 countries.
  • Language of entertainment, aviation, diplomacy,
    computing, science, tourism-the lingua franca

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How does English begin?
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Celtic (Welsh)-derived place-names are
scattered across Great Britain, with many
occurring in the West Country some examples
are Avon from abona "river" (cf. Welsh
afon) Britain from Pritani "People of the
Forms" (cf. Welsh Prydain "Britain", pryd
"appearance, form, image, resemblance") Dover
from Dubris "waters" (cf. Welsh dwr, older
dwfr) Kent from canto- "border" (cf. Welsh cant
"rim or periphery") Lothian (Lleuddiniawn in
medieval Welsh) from Lugudun(iãnon) "Fort of
Lugus" Severn from Sabrina, perhaps the name of a
goddess (in Welsh, Hafren) Thanet from tan-eto-
"(place of the) bonfire" (cf. Welsh tân "fire",
Old Breton tanet "aflame") or more probably
tann-eto "oak grove" (tanno- "kind of oak",
Breton tannen "oak") Thames from Tamesis "dark"
(akin to Welsh tywyll "darkness", from Brittonic
temeselo-) York from Ebur-akon "stand of yew
trees" (cf. Welsh Efrog, from efwr "yew" -og
"abundant in") via Latin Eburacum gt OE Eoforwic
(re-analysed with OE roots as 'boar-village') gt
ON Jorvik
30
The Lord's Prayer in Old English Matthew 69-13.
Fæder ure þu þe eart on heofonum    Fæder ure þu þe eart on heofonum    Father our thou that art in heavens Father our thou that art in heavens
Si þin nama gehalgod    Si þin nama gehalgod    be thy name hallowed be thy name hallowed
to becume þin rice    to becume þin rice    come thy kingdom come thy kingdom








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How does Old English sound?
https//www.youtube.com/watch?voaCjqf3_T6M
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Norse placenames
http//www.stavacademy.co.uk/mimir/vikingplace.htm
35
Words Borrowed from Norse
anger grief (9th Century-except Sussex) 
axle ox tree  
bag    
bait cause to bite  
berserk   The name of a warrior who fought with frenzied fury.
birth    
blunder stumble around blindly  
bore wave Tidal estuary wave.
bulk cargo  
by-law town law Used in the UK.
call    
cast   As in "cast off" from the shore in a boat.
club   Item used for hitting. One of many fighting words from Norse.
crawl    
creek   Short arm of a river inlet on sea coast.
die    

36
Bayeux Tapestry
37
The introduction of Christianity from around 600
encouraged the addition of over 400 Latin loan
words into Old English, such as priest, paper,
and school, and fewer Greek loan words. The Old
English period formally ended some time after the
Norman conquest of 1066, when the language was
influenced to an even greater extent by the
Normans, who spoke a French dialect called Old
Norman.
38
Pardon my French
39
Words Borrowed from Norman French 1066 AD- (300
year occupation)
accuse   One of many legal words from Norman French.
adultery    
archer   One of several military words from Norman French.
arson   Crime of deliberate burning.
assault    
asset enough  
bacon   Cured pig's meat. One of many names for meats from Norman French.
bail to take charge Security for a prisoner's appearance.
bailiff carrier Officer who executes writs.
beef   Meat of ox or cow.
butcher seller of goat flesh A dealer in meat.
button    
chivalry horseman One of many words used in royal life from Norman French.
comfort strengthen  
court retenue  
courtesy    
crime judgement  
curfew cover fire Period to be off the streets.
custard   Baked mixture of eggs and milk.
defeat    
dungeon  
40
Even after the decline of Norman-French, standard
French retained the status of a prestige language
and had a significant influence on the language,
which is visible in Modern English today. A
tendency for French-derived words to have more
formal connotations has continued to the present
day. For example, most modern English speakers
consider a "cordial reception" (from French) to
be more formal than a "hearty welcome" (from
Germanic).
41
From The Canterbury Tales General Prologue lines
43-78 The Knight
       A KNYGHT ther was, and that a worthy man,
That fro the tyme that he first bigan
To riden out, he loved chivalrie,
Trouthe and honour, fredom and curteisie.
Ful worthy was he in his lordes werre,
And therto hadde he riden, no man ferre,
As wel in cristendom as in hethenesse,
        A KNIGHT there was, and what a gentleman,
Who, from the moment that he first began
To ride about the world, loved chivalry,
Truth, honour, freedom and all courtesy.
Full worthy was he in his sovereign's war,
And therein had he ridden, no man more,
As well in Christendom as heathenesse,
And honoured everywhere for worthiness.
At Alexandria, in the winning battle he was there
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Possible causes Experts in linguistics and
cultural history continue to debate possible
reasons for the Great vowel shift.8 Some
theories emphasize the mass migration after the
Black Death in the mid-14th century to southeast
England, where differences in accents led to some
groups modifying their speech to allow for a
standard pronunciation of vowel sounds. Another
theory foregrounds a sudden social mobility after
the Black Death, with people from lower levels in
society moving to higher levels (the pandemic
also having hit the aristocracy). Another
explanation highlights the language of the ruling
class the medieval aristocracy had spoken
French, but by the early 15th century they had
come to use English. This may have caused a
change to the "prestige accent" of English,
either by making pronunciation more French in
style or by changing it in some other way,
perhaps by hypercorrection to something thought
as "more English" (England being at war with
France for much of this period). But there is
just as much evidence of the hypercorrection to
be "more English" as there is for it to be "more
French"citation needed (with French still the
slightly favored language of the upper class).
45
Colonized or controlled by Britain beginning with
the 1600s
46
Contributors to English
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caribou   A type of reindeer.
caucus advisor Political committee.
Massachusetts place near the big little hills USA state.
Missouri town of the large canoes USA state.
moccasins    
Oregon beautiful water USA state.
pecan   A type of nut.
raccoon   Nocturnal animal.
49
What does Indo-European mean?
50
Common Proto-Indo-European Roots
  • Bee
  • Oak
  • Pheasant
  • Bear
  • Deer
  • Beech
  • Winter
  • Snow

51
  • In the 16th century, European visitors to the
    Indian Subcontinent began to suggest similarities
    between Indo-Aryan, Iranian and European
    languages. In 1583, Thomas Stephens, an English
    Jesuit missionary in Goa, in a letter to his
    brother that was not published until the 20th
    century, noted similarities between Indian
    languages, specifically Sanskrit, and Greek and
    Latin.
  • Another account to mention the ancient language
    Sanskrit came from Filippo Sassetti (born in
    Florence in 1540), a merchant who travelled to
    the Indian subcontinent. Writing in 1585, he
    noted some word similarities between Sanskrit and
    Italian (these included
  • deva?/dio "God",
  • sarpa?/serpe "serpent",
  • sapta/sette "seven",
  • a??a/otto "eight",
  • nava/nove "nine")
  • It was Thomas Young who in 1813 first used the
    term Indo-European

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  • Centre
  • Organisation
  • Defence
  • Realise
  • Colour
  • 27 March 2007
  • Catalogue
  • Theatre
  • Analogue

55
Noah Webster
56
Slowly, edition by edition, Webster changed the
spelling of words, making them "Americanized". He
chose s over c in words like defense, he changed
the re to er in words like center, and he dropped
one of the Ls in traveler. At first he kept the u
in words like colour or favour but dropped it in
later editions. He also changed "tongue" to
"tung"an innovation that never caught on.
57
What are some British spellings we have retained?
58
Amazing dialect diversity in the US- Regional
variation of language distinguished by variations
in spelling, pronunciation and vocabulary
59
Would you like a soda, a pop, or a coke?
60
http//news.msn.com/pop-culture/sub-hoagie-hero-ma
p-shows-how-americans-speak-english-differentlyim
age1
61
Grab your tennis shoes?
http//i.stack.imgur.com/emyhR.png
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Dialect Map-US
63
Appalachian
https//www.youtube.com/watch?v03iwAY4KlIU
64
Smoky Mountain Dialect
afeared afraid
airish breezy, chilly
bald treeless mountaintop
bluff cliff, usually facing a river
boomer red squirrel indigenous to the Smokies
bottom flat land along a stream or riverbed
branch area or settlement defined by a creek
65
ALGERIAN - Someone from Algiers (the only part of
the City of New Orleans to lie on the West Bank).
Some locals say "Algereens", but we always said
Algerians. It's funnier. ALLIGATOR PEAR -
Avocado. ARABIAN - Someone from Arabi, in St.
Bernard Parish. See "Algerian". AWRITE, HAWT - A
female response of agreement. BACKATOWN - (i.e.,
"back of town") the section of New Orleans from
the River to North Claiborne, popularly used in
the 6th adn 7th wards (submitted by
caljazz98-at-aol.com) BANQUETTE - The sidewalk.
Pronounced ltBANK-itgt. Usage fairly rare nowadays.
BERL - To cook by surrounding something in hot,
bubbling 212F liquid the preferred method for
cooking shellfish. BOBO - A small injury or
wound. BOO - A term of endearment, frequently
used by parents and grandparents for small
children, even small children who happen to be 40
years old ... Believed to be Cajun in origin.
BRA - A form of address for men, usually one
with whom you are not acquainted. Usually used in
this manner "Say, bra ..." Ostensibly an
abbreviation for "brother." \
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Tangier Island, VA
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Tangier
  • http//vimeo.com/4037124

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PA Dutch
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vfWR7_PkyJ2M

71
Sea Islands-Gullah
72
Gullah
https//www.youtube.com/watch?vijl7Sg3ZAd0
73
Pidgin English/Standard English in Hawaii
Da baby cute. (or) Cute, da baby. The baby is
cute. Da book stay on top da table. The book
is on the table. Da water stay cold. The water
is cold.
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Creole
Haitian Creole French English
Liv yo Les livres The books
Machin yo Les autos The cars
Fi yo mete wob Les filles mettent des robes The girls put on dresses
76
Why is language such an important issue in
the stability of a country?
77
Trilingualism in Israel
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The Constitution Act, 1982 entrenched much
stronger and more detailed guarantees for the
equal status of the two official languages...
Sections 16-19 guarantee the equal status of both
languages in Parliament, in all federal
government institutions, and in federal courts.
These sections also mandate that all statutes,
records and journals of Parliament be published
in both languages, with the English and French
versions both holding equal status before the
courts. Section 20 guarantees the right of the
Canadian public to communicate in English and
French with any central government office or with
regional offices where there is "a significant
demand for communication with and services from
that office....
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What does official language mean?
Declaring English the official language means
that official government business at all levels
must be conducted solely in English. This
includes all public documents, records,
legislation and regulations, as well as hearings,
official ceremonies and public meetings.
Official English legislation contains exceptions
permitting the use of languages other than
English for such things as public health and
safety services, judicial proceedings (although
actual trials would be conducted in English),
foreign language instruction and the promotion of
tourism.
84
Should English be our official language?
85
Official English promotes unity. Our national
motto is E pluribus unumout of many, one.
Immigrants of many nationalities built our
nation, but the "melting pot" melded us into one
people. This long tradition of assimilation has
always included the adoption of English as the
common means of communication. Unfortunately,
the proliferation of multilingual government
sends the opposite message to non-English
speakers it is not necessary to learn English
because the government will accommodate them in
other languages. USEnglish.org
86
TEXT OF PROPOSED AMENDMENT-Prop. 103/Arizona
2006 Whereas, the United States is comprised of
individuals from diverse ethnic, cultural and
linguistic backgrounds, and continues to benefit
from this rich diversity and Whereas, throughout
the history of the United States, the common
thread binding individuals of differing
backgrounds has been the English language, which
has permitted diverse individuals to discuss,
debate and come to agreement on contentious
issues and Whereas, among the powers reserved
to the States respectively is the power to
establish the English language as the official
language of the respective States, and otherwise
to promote the English language within the
respective States, subject to the prohibitions
enumerated in the Constitution of the United
States and federal statutes.
87
  • Proposition 227-California
  • Requires all public school instruction be
    conducted in English.
  • Requirement may be waived if parents or guardian
    show that child already knows English, or has
    special needs, or would learn English faster
    through alternate instructional technique.
  • Provides initial short-term placement, not
    normally exceeding one year, in intensive
    sheltered English immersion programs for children
    not fluent in English.





    
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