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Political Culture

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Political Culture & Political Ideologies Types of Political Culture Political Ideology – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Political Culture


1
Political Culture Political Ideologies
  • Types of Political Culture
  • Political Ideology

2
Introduction
  • Historic evolution of political traditions shape
    a countrys concept of who has authority to rule,
    who is legitimate power
  • Evolution can be gradual (UK) or forced (Iran)
  • Political Culture collection of political
    beliefs, values, practices and institutions
  • If society values individualism then the govt
    will generally reflect that value
  • If a govt doesnt value basic political values
    of the people, it will have difficulty remaining
    viable

3
Intro cont
  • Social capital amount of reciprocity and trust
    that exists among citizens, and between citizens
    and state
  • Societies w/ low amounts of social capital may be
    more inclined toward authoritarianism and
    anti-individual govts
  • Some argue that Islam is incompatible with
    democracy because they emphasize subservience
  • On other hand, democracy has flourished in India,
    South Africa and Turkey

4
Types of Political Culture
  • Consensus political culture
  • Citizens may disagree on some political
    processes, but agree on how decisions are made or
    how problems are solved
  • By and large, consensus political culture accepts
    both legitimacy or the regime solutions to
    major problems
  • Conflictual political culture
  • Citizens are sharply divided, often on legitimacy
    and how to solve problems
  • Hard to come to conclusions when citizens agree
    or disagree on basics like capitalism v.
    communism
  • Religious differences may also threaten the
    legitimacy or stability of a regime
  • Political subcultures may arise divisions will
    be so deep that govt will struggle to function
    properly

5
Political Ideologies
  • Political ideologies political culture shapes
    political ideologies ideologies are sets of
    political values held by individuals regarding
    the basic goals of govt politics
  • Liberalism
  • Emphasis on individual political and economic
    freedom
  • Not the stereotype that liberalism has in the
    U.S.
  • Liberalism is the broad ideology in many
    democratized countries
  • Liberals seek to
  • Freedom for all people
  • Freedom of speech
  • Freedom of religion
  • Freedom of association
  • People also have right to disagree with govt
    decisions and leaders
  • But in civil society people dont have right to
    destroy or loot in response to govt actions or
    activities
  • English riots
  • PM Camerons speech on English riots
  • PM Cameron on police powers during the English
    riots
  • English response to riots

6
Political Ideologies
  • Communism
  • Technically speaking- equality is valued over
    freedom
  • Liberal democracies value equal opportunity but
    tolerate inequality in society and economy
  • Communists
  • reject the notion that personal freedom equals
    prosperity
  • argue that liberal democracies re created by the
    wealthy to protect the wealthy
  • Advocate a takeover of all resources by the state
    in order to eliminate inequalities and
    exploitation
  • Argue that private ownership should be abolished
    and needs of state are more important than
    society as a whole

7
Political Ideologies
  • Socialism
  • Shares value of equality with communism but
    influenced by liberal value of freedom
  • Accepts and promotes private property/ownership
    and free market
  • believe the state has a strong role to play in
    regulating economy and providing benefits to the
    public
  • Benefits ensure some measure of equality

8
Political Ideologies
  • Fascism
  • Confused w/ communism because both devalue the
    idea of individual freedom
  • Fascism rejects the value of equality, instead
    people exist in degrees of inferiority and
    superiority
  • State has the right and responsibility to mold
    the society and economy
  • The regime is authoritarian and can determine who
    is superior and who is inferior

9
Political Ideologies
  • Religions
  • Important to group identity
  • Religion serves as a basis for interest groups
    and volunteer associations within society
  • Britain has an official religion, but their
    society is largely secularized- religious and
    political leaders are not the same
  • Iran bases its political system on Shia Islam
  • China has suppressed religious movements
  • In Nigeria sharia Law is legal in the Muslim, but
    not in the Christian south.
  • Frontline The Road North

10
Conclusions
  • No matter how we categorize political cultures,
    they are constantly changing
  • Political values and beliefs tend to endure and
    typically political culture has shaped political
    systems
  • Political ideologies also play the key role in
    shaping political culture
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