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Political Ideologies

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Title: Political Ideologies


1
Political Ideologies
AP Government Unit 2
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Political Ideology
  • What we believe and why
  • Definitions
  • Comprehensive, integrated set of views about
    government and politics
  • Plan of action for applying these ideas

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1. Our Ideology Comes from OurPolitical Culture
  • Widely shared beliefs, values and norms
    concerning relationship of citizens to government
    and to one another.
  • Name some of the beliefs shared by most
    Americans.

5
Did you name these?
  • Liberty
  • Democracy
  • Political Equality
  • Individualism
  • Justice and the Rule of Law
  • Capitalism and Free Enterprise
  • Nationalism, optimism, and idealism
  • The American Dream

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2. Our Ideology Comes from our Political
Socialization
  • Political Socialization
  • Process by which we are taught and develop our
    individual and collective political beliefs
  • Name some factors that influence our Political
    Socialization

7
Did you name these?
  • Family
  • Peers
  • Race and ethnic differences
  • Religious differences
  • Gender
  • Social and economic differences (SES)
  • Sectional/regional differences
  • Media influences
  • Age
  • Can be linked to Historical events (e.g., Pearl
    Harbor, Vietnam, Watergate, September 11 and War
    on Terror)

8
Basic Ideology Disagreements
  • Is Human Nature
  • Naturally good, cooperative, even perfectible?
  • Inherently flawed, evil, dangerous?
  • Is the Individual more important than the Group?
  • Should we look out for number one?
  • Should we be concerned about our fellow humans?

9
Many people Many opinions Many viewpoints
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Overview of PoliticalIdeologies
  • I. Liberalism
  • II. Conservatism
  • III. Socialism
  • IV. Communism
  • V. Fascism
  • VI. Populism
  • VII. Libertarianism

Raphaels The School of Athens
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The Classic Political Spectrum
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I. Liberalism
  • Classical Liberalism
  • Desire for free, open, tolerant society
  • Humans are rational and able to recognize and
    promote self-interest
  • Limited role of government.
  • That government is best which governs least.
  • Government was seen as chief threat to liberty.
  • Theory of government to protect property rights.
  • Liberty and equality of opportunity

John Stuart Mill
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Basic Tenets of Classic Liberalism
  • Social conditions are result of individual
    choices and actions
  • Societies work best when individuals are free to
    do as they wish without harming or violating
    rights of others

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Modern Liberalism
  • New Deal helped to expand role of government
  • Theory of government is to protect peoples
    well-being.
  • Need for strong central government to smooth out
    the rough edges of capitalism.
  • Corporations seen as chief threat to liberty.
  • Government role ? provide opportunity for all
    citizens
  • Favor using government to
  • Reduce economic inequalities
  • Champion rights of disadvantaged
  • Tolerate more diverse range of social behaviors
  • Finance social welfare programs with higher taxes
    on rich

15
The New (?) Left
  • Neo-liberals
  • Late 20th century and 21st century
  • Believe that government certainly has some role
    to play, but not as big a role as desired by New
    Deal liberals.
  • Need to get back to more individualism and less
    reliance on big government.
  • Discrediting of liberalism in 1980s and 1990s
  • Feeling that liberalism has gone too far.
  • Less likely to rely upon government as solution
    to problems.

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Neoliberalism
  • To help accomplish this, neoliberalism requires
    removal of various controls deemed as barriers to
    free trade, such as
  • Tariffs
  • Regulations
  • Certain standards, laws, legislation and
    regulatory measures
  • Restrictions on capital flows and investment

17
Neoliberalism
  • Essentially about making trade between nations
    easier.
  • Neoliberal states guarantee, by force if
    necessary, "proper functioning" of markets
  • Where markets dont exist (ex in use of land,
    water, education, health care, social security,
    or environmental pollution), then state should
    create them.
  • Freer movement of goods, resources and
    enterprises in a bid to always find cheaper
    resources to maximize profits/efficiency.

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II. Classic Conservatism
  • Learn from the past
  • Custom and tradition as latent wisdom
  • Look to the past??
  • Freedom and order
  • Focused on conserving existing social order
  • Organic or unrefined view of society
  • Belief in human imperfection
  • Acceptance of inequality

Edmund Burke
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Modern Conservatives
  • Generally
  • distrust government
  • have greater faith in private enterprise and free
    markets
  • BUTare willing to use government to enforce
    traditional moral standards.
  • Favor larger military and more assertive pursuit
    of national self-interest.
  • Advocate lower taxes to stimulate growth and to
    restrict governments capacity to finance social
    welfare programs.

20
Modern Conservatism
  • Reversal of liberal trend of 1930s to look to
    government as solution to our problems.
  • Emphasis today on private sector to solve
    problems.
  • Resurgence since late 70s  
  • Strength in formerly solid South.
  • Reagan/Bush/GHW Bush
  • Republican control of Senate 1980-86, 1994-2000,
    and 2002-2006.
  • Republican Congresses 104th, 105th, 106th, 108th,
    109th, 112th House

21
Extreme New Right
  • More extreme conservatives
  • Sometimes called Neo-Conservatives and the New
    Right
  • John Birch Society
  • 3 types of Neo-Cons
  • Foreign policy neo-conservatives
  • Social policy neo-conservatives
  • Economic neo-conservatives

22
Neo Conservatives
  • Foreign policy neo-conservatives
  • Want to promote U.S. interests abroad and spread
    democracy
  • Interventionists who want to defend national
    interest, wary of any New World Order, and
    wary of international organizations like
  • United Nations
  • World Trade Organization
  • International Monetary Fund
  • World Bank
  • NAFTA
  • Social policy neo-conservatives
  • Emphasize social issues like prayer in school,
    anti-abortion, anti-homosexuality.
  • Sometimes known as Religious Right.
  • Economic neo-conservatives
  • Want to unleash market forces to attack various
    ills in society.
  • If we just cut taxes and free up the free
    enterprise system everything will improve.

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Far Left AND Far Right
  • U.S. neo-conservatives, with their commitment to
    high military spending and global assertion of
    national values, tend to be more authoritarian
    than hard right.
  • By contrast, neo-liberals, opposed to such moral
    leadership and ensuing demands on tax payer,
    belong to further right but less authoritarian
    region.
  • Paradoxically, "free market", in neo-con
    parlance, also allows for large-scale subsidy of
    military-industrial complex, considerable degree
    of corporate welfare, and protectionism when
    deemed in national interest.
  • These viewed by neo-libs as impediments to
    unfettered market forces that they champion.
  • -About the Political
    Compass, January 6, 2004

24
III. Socialism
  • Means of production are owned and controlled by
    all of society.
  • Belief that Economic Equality creates True
    Equality
  • System in which means of production,
    distribution, and exchange are controlled by
    government.
  • Strong impact upon Western Europe.
  • Many Americans associate it with radicalism
  • Americans have a strong belief in individualism
  • Is this the Welfare State or the Perfect Society?

25
Socialism
  • How society should be run exactly and how it
    should be implemented or achieved is a matter of
    controversy
  • Marxism and communism are both branches of
    socialism.
  • Marxist theory also refers to society that would
    succeed or supplant capitalism, and would later
    develop further into communism, as the necessity
    for the socialist structure would wither away
  • Robert Owen
  • British capitalist turned socialist who
  • Founded socialist colony in New Harmony, IN

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IV. Communism
  • Communism refers to a conjectured, future,
    classless, stateless, social organization based
    upon common ownership of the means of production
  • Establishment of communism viewed as culmination
    of class struggle between capitalist class
    (owners of capital) and working class.

27
Karl Marx Theory
  • Marxs Theory of Historical Progression
  • Communist society Marx envisioned emerging from
    capitalism has never been implemented
  • Remains theoretical

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V. Fascism
  • Belief that society should triumph over
    individual
  • Characteristics of Fascism
  • Hypernationalism/Racism
  • Nation/People as determining identity
  • Elitism
  • Rejection of Democracy
  • Militarism
  • Mussolini Slogan
  • credere, obbediere, combattere
  • (Believe, obey, fight)

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VI. Populism
  • Average Joe or Jane
  • Can be traced back to politicians trying to
    connect to common people
  • Todays Populism
  • Conservative on social issues
  • Strong on family issues
  • Pro-Life issues and Prayer in school
  • Liberal on economic issues
  • Watch out for little guy and his wages
  • Stand up to corporate America
  • Corporations should be monitored and closely
    watched
  • Government regulations necessary

32
VII. Libertarianism
  • Extreme emphasis on individual liberty.
  • Extreme cutback on role of government.
  • Look to Constitution and Bill of Rights
  • Liberal on social issues
  • Government should not be involved in social
    issues
  • No drug laws
  • But some pro-choice some pro-life
  • Conservative on economic issues
  • Believe that government should only defend
    nation.
  • Lower taxes
  • No public education
  • No need for much of bureaucracy

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Another Political Spectrum
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Yet Another Political Spectrum
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And a Final Political Spectrum
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