But what do we mean by the American Revolution? Do we mean the American war? The Revolution was effected before the war commenced. The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people; a change in their religious sentiments, of their duties and - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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But what do we mean by the American Revolution? Do we mean the American war? The Revolution was effected before the war commenced. The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people; a change in their religious sentiments, of their duties and

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Title: But what do we mean by the American Revolution? Do we mean the American war? The Revolution was effected before the war commenced. The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people; a change in their religious sentiments, of their duties and


1
But what do we mean by the American Revolution?
Do we mean the American war? The Revolution was
effected before the war commenced. The Revolution
was in the minds and hearts of the people a
change in their religious sentiments, of their
duties and obligations...This radical change in
the principles, opinions, sentiments, and
affections of the people was the real American
Revolution.
John Adams, letter
to H. Niles, February 13, 1818
2
Wars for Empire and their Effects on the Colonies
The Protestant regime of William and Mary,
installed after the Glorious Revolution of 1688,
precipitated a series of conflicts with Catholic
France over control of global empires.
European War Major Participants Colonial War Dates Treaty
War of the League of Augsburg England Holland vs. France King Williams War 1689-1697 Treaty of Ryswick (1697)
War of the Spanish Succession England, Austria Holland vs. France Spain Queen Annes War 1701-1713 Treaty of Utrecht (1713)
War of the Austrian Succession England Austria vs. France Prussia King Georges War 1744-1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)
Seven Years War England Prussia vs. France, Spain, Austria, Russia French and Indian War 1754-1763 Treaty of Paris (1763)
3
King Williams War A tie, the French take
English territories of Newfoundland and Hudson
Bay, and England gets Gibraltar at the entrance
of the Mediterranean Sea. Queen Annes War
Colonists from Charleston destroy St. Augustine.
New Englanders attack Quebec, but fail to take
it. England regains Hudson Bay, Acadia, and
Newfoundland. King Georges War As a world
war, it is a tie. In North America, Britain took
a major French fort, Louisbourg, showing naval
dominance and paving the way for an assault on
Quebec.
4
The wars with France left Britain deep in debt.
The debt caused Prime Minister Robert Walpole
to look for ways to cut spending. In 1723, he
created a policy called Salutary Neglect. It
relaxed enforcement of the Navigation Acts and
let the colonial economy run essentially
unregulated.
The loosening of English oversight had broader
effects on the colonies. The colonies grew closer
together and developed a sense of identity
different from Britain. During the brief time
of unsupervised growth, the colonies witnessed
the Great Awakening and the Enlightenment. When
it was abruptly ended, it caused a groundswell of
opposition that grew into an independence
movement.
5
The Great Awakening
Religious tensions had occurred before, but now
it seemed the masses were rejecting the city
upon the hill. These tensions mingled with
social unrest, natural disasters, and an apparent
increase in immoral behavior to create a
religious revival in the mid-1700s.
6
In 1734-1735, Jonathan Edwards, a
Congregationalist minister from western
Massachusetts, began rekindling the American
spirit of piety. It is no mystery why it
occurred on the extremities of the colony first.
A Baptist clergyman had once called frontiersmen,
A Gang of frantic lunatics broke out of Bedlam.
Edwards stirred his audience with explicit
descriptions of the torment of hell-fire and
damnation. In 1737, Edwards published his account
of the event, Faithful Narrative of the
Surprising Work of God. His most lasting sermon
is Sinners in the Hand of an Angry God.
Jonathan Edwards
7
The real catalyst of the Great Awakening,
however, was George Whitefield, a 27 year old
Anglican minister from England.
In 1739, he arrived in Philadelphia to stir up
piety. By December, he had won renown preaching
to crowds of as many as 6000. He continued his
tour of the colonies in Georgia and then New
England. Whitefield was a showman. He performed
in the pulpit--acting out the horrors of
damnation and the joy of the regenerate. Whitefie
lds meetings were so popular they often were
moved outside to accommodate the audience. The
core of Whitefields message was the idea of new
birth--the need for a sudden and emotional
moment of conversion and salvation where a sinner
would testify his (or more often her) finding
Christ.
8
The Great Awakening affected colonial society in
several ways. First, the sects established
colleges. The original three schools --Harvard
(Puritan, 1636), William and Mary (Anglican,
1693), and Yale (Puritan, 1701)--did not serve
colonists needs. Thus were founded
Presbyterian College of New Jersey (Princeton,
1746) Anglican Kings College of New York
(Columbia, 1754) Baptist College of Rhode Island
(Brown, 1764) Dutch Reformed Queens College in
New Jersey (Rutgers, 1766) Congregationalist
Dartmouth in New Hampshire (1769). A secular
school was created in Philadelphia in 1754, it
became the University of Pennsylvania.
9
Territorial boundaries between churches broke
down. Itinerant preachers spread sects across
borders, helping to create a national, as opposed
to regional, religious culture. Thirdly,
religion became increasingly an individual
choice. Finally, the rise of individual
conscience fostered the breakdown of the state
church. Religious libertarians began to push for
the freedom of conscience that would become a
rallying cry after the revolution.
10
The Great Awakening was essential in creating
what became Iredell County. Headstones in the
Fourth Creek Burying Ground on West End Avenue,
and the First Presbyterian Church history inform
us that in about 1749, a group of Scots-Irish
Presbyterians made their way along the Great
Wagon Road south to the Piedmont of North
Carolina. John Thompson, the first minister, held
outdoor services at which he preached sermons
that could last for two or more hours.
Development of the Fourth Creek congregation was
hindered by the French and Indian War (1756-63).
The town of Statesville began to form around the
church's location. Source Henry Middleton
Raynal, Old Fourth Creek Congregation The Story
of the First Presbyterian Church, Statesville,
1964-1989 (1995).
11
The Enlightenment
In the late 1600s, was experiencing a change in
world-view. Known as the Enlightenment, it
reflected the advance of the scientific
revolution that had been ongoing for more than a
century. The most important scientist of the
revolution was Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727).
Newton excelled in physics, theoretical
mathematics, and optics.
Newton developed theoretical proofs for his laws
of physics. In 1687, he published Mathematical
Principles of Natural Philosophy, known as the
Principia. The most important laws included a law
of gravity and his three laws of motion.
12
The scientific revolution bred new approaches to
other elements of life, including politics. The
most important political thinker of the English
Enlightenment is John Locke (1632-1704). Two
works by Locke stand out Two Treatises of
Government, and An Essay Concerning Human
Understanding.
13
The Enlightenment, symbolized by Newton and
Locke, was largely limited to the upper and the
educated middle classes. It had less effect on
the poor or peasantry of America than the Great
Awakening. But because the upper class were
politically powerful, the Enlightenment is
significant. The Enlightenment did not really
reach its peak in America until the 1740s when
several scientists and natural philosophers
formed the American Philosophical Society. The
society's most prominent member and principal
founder was Benjamin Franklin. Perhaps the
smartest man in the colonies and certainly the
most famous, Ben Franklin embodied the
Enlightenment in America as a man of science and
letters, and as a deist. Franklin was born in
Boston in 1706, the son of a candle and soap
maker. He was apprenticed to his older brother as
a printer, but at the age of seventeen he decided
he'd had enough of that and ran away, finally
ending up in Philadelphia.
14
By 1730, Franklin established a print shop and
published the Pennsylvania Gazette. Colonial
newspapers were the main means of getting
information about local activities. But they were
also a reservoir of axioms. In 1733, Franklin
gathered some of them, added more and created the
first almanac in the colonies. Poor Richard's
Almanac included maxims, home remedies,
astrological information, an index of English
monarchs, weather forecasts, and other tidbits.
It was revised many times. It was hugely
popular. The proverbs Franklin collected (i.e.
stole or dreamed up) include It is hard
for an empty sack to stand upright. The
rotten apple spoils his companion. God
heals and the doctor takes the fee. Marry
your sons when you will, but your daughters when
you can. Women age from the top
down. Franklin was particularly interested in
economy and thrift. In 1758, he created Father
Abraham to deliver a sermon on frugality and the
evils of idleness. Father Abrahams popularity
was astronomical and not just in the colonies.
Father Abraham raised the celebrity of Franklin
in Europe, as well. Franklin retired from the
printing business in 1748 to pursue his interest
in science and public service.
15
Franklin devised many practical inventions,
including the bifocal lens (to save having to
switch spectacles to read and see at a distance)
the Franklin stove (a small fireplace that
generated great heat with less fuel) swim fins
that fit onto one's hands like gloves and the
odometer (to measure distance to speed up the
mail) among other things.
His greatest scientific achievement, however,
related to the studies of electricity and
weather. His most famous experiment involved the
discovery that lightning was really electrified
air. He also created the lightning rod, a vitally
important invention which reduced the danger of
fires started by lightning hitting homes, barns,
and other buildings. His Experiments and
Observations on Electricity was published in 1751.
16
Franklin was also a statesman and public servant.
He founded the University of Pennsylvania. He
helped organize the first volunteer fire
department in America. He organized the financing
of a sewer system and paved roads in
Philadelphia. He created the first lending
library in the colonies. He would lead the
colonies in the French and Indian War, the
American Revolution, the Confederation Era, and
in creating the U.S. Constitution. He died in
1790.
17
The French and Indian War
In 1747, several wealthy Virginians established
the Ohio Company. Hoping to make money in the fur
trade and in land speculation, in 1748, the
company received a 200,000 acres grant in
Pennsylvania at the forks of the Ohio River, near
present-day Pittsburgh. The land was also claimed
by France and in 1749, French troops went to the
region to shore up Frances claim by building a
series of forts, and befriending the Indians.
18
In October 1753, George Washington led an
expedition to demand a French withdrawal. The
French refused. On the trip back to Virginia, in
January 1754, Washingtons troops fought French
and Indian forces near Fort Duquesne. Returning
in May, Washington and his troops engaged the
French and Indians in the Battle of Jumonville
Glen. Winning, Washington set out to build Fort
Necessity. The French attacked, forcing
Washington's withdrawal (July 4th, 1754).
The skirmishes developed into the last
French-English global war for empire, the Seven
Years War.
19
The war, in America, was inconsistent. In 1755,
Gen. Edward Braddock led British troops to the
area and was ambushed by Indians and Frenchmen in
Indian costumes. The English were defeated and
Braddock was killed. George Washington again led
the retreat.
Little of significance occurred in the North
American war between Braddocks death (1755) and
the fall of Louisbourg in 1758. What was
important was William Pitt became Prime Minister.
Pitt reorganized the British government and put
in the resources (military and financial) needed
to win the war and establish Britains imperial
dominance once and for all.
20
Pitts policies turned the tide of war. British
troops made significant gains, including building
Fort Pitt at the forks of the Ohio. In
September 1759 came the death blow for the French
in North America. Gen. James Wolfe led a British
force against the Marquis de Montcalm at the
Citadel of Quebec. Both commanders were killed in
the British victory in the Battle of the Plains
of Abraham.
The Death of General James Wolfe, by Benjamin
West (1769).
21
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22
Parliament What was the temper of America
towards Great Britain before the year
1763?Franklin The best in the world. They
submitted willingly to the government of
theCrown, and paid, in all their courts,
obedience to acts of Parliament . . .
The Treaty of Paris (1763) ended the French and
Indian War. In it, France gave up all claims to
North America, ceding land east of the
Mississippi River to Britain and west of it to
Spain.
The land between the Appalachians and the
Mississippi River posed an opportunity and a
problem for Britain. Colonials wanted the land
and the Transylvania Company (whose investors
included George Washington and Ben Franklin) was
created in Virginia to speculate in lands in
Kentucky. But each new incursion by colonials
resulted in war with the Indians. So King George
III banned colonists from entering the region.
The Proclamation of 1763 banned all settlement
west of the continental divide in the
Appalachians. Colonists were outraged. Many,
including North Carolinian trailblazer Daniel
Boone, simply ignored it and went anyway. The
Proclamation brought a formal end to the era of
Salutary Neglect.
23
The French and Indian War in Western North
Carolina
1756 Fort Dobbs, built near Statesville to
house settlers during times of war, is completed.
The Moravians build a fort around the village of
Bethabara. 1758 North Carolina militia and
Cherokee assist the British military in campaigns
against the French and Shawnee Indians. The
Cherokee decide to change sides after receiving
ill treatment by the English, and they return
home, where they eventually attack North Carolina
colonists. 1759 The French and Indian War
intensifies as the Cherokee raid the western
Piedmont. Refugees crowd into the fort at
Bethabara. Typhus kills many refugees and
Moravians there. A second smallpox
epidemic devastates the Catawba tribe, reducing
the population by half. 1760 An act of
assembly permits North Carolinians serving
against Indian allies of the French to enslave
captives. February Cherokee attack
Fort Dobbs and white settlements near Bethabara
and along the Yadkin and Dan Rivers.
June An army of British regulars and American
militia under Colonel Montgomerie destroys
Cherokee villages and saves the Fort Prince
George garrison in South Carolina but is defeated
by the Cherokee at Echoe. August
Cherokee capture Fort Loudoun in Tennessee and
massacre the garrison. 1761 June An army of
British regulars, American militia, and Catawba
and Chickasaw Indians under Colonel James Grant
defeats the Cherokee and destroys 15 villages,
ending Cherokee resistance.
December The Cherokee sign a treaty ending
their war with the American colonists.
24
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