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Title: A Research Based, Integrated Model for Improving Student Reading and Writing, Raising Student


1
A Research Based, Integrated Model for Improving
Student Reading and Writing, Raising
Students Test Scores and
Bringing Literature to Life
Effective Staff Development
Prepared and presented byBryce Passey and Dave
Anderson
2
Bringing Literature to Life
Where do the mermaids stand?
?
?
Wizards
Giants
Dwarfs
by Robert Fulghum
3
A Brief History of Educational Philosophies and
Attitudes
Bringing Literature to Life
  • Coleman Report (1966) showed that only 10 of
    student achievement was directly affected by the
    schools. Student success seemed to be 90
    dependent upon natural ability or aptitude,
    socioeconomic status, and a students home
    environment. These are all factors schools have
    no control over. This leaves schools, educators
    and administrators with a fairly hopeless and
    pessimistic view.

NOT TRUE!!!
4
The Myth of Intelligence
Bringing Literature to Life
TraditionallyIntelligence has been thought of as
a general characteristic.That is, an IQ of 140
is indicative of an all-around smart person.
Intelligence has been taught as a general
capacity which every human possesses to a greater
or lesser extent which, for the most part, is set
at birth by genetics.



NOT TRUE!!!
5
Bringing Literature to Life
  • Rationale for Our TraditionalThree Month Summer
    Break
  • Administration and maintenance need time to let
    the dust settle and gear up for the next school
    year.
  • Financially Limited school budgets are hard
    pressed to stretch to meet the needs of 9 months
    of schooling.
  • Economically Many businesses in our society
    depend heavily upon a good summer tourism and
    vacationing season.

6
Bringing Literature to Life
Summer Learning Loss
Research over the years has shown that students
will typically lose 1 full month of learning
during the time of summer vacation. This is most
pronounced in the areas of spelling and math
facts and computation skills. This loss is also
greatest for students in lower elementary grades
and from low income families.
7
Thinking Outside the Box
Bringing Literature to Life
8
Bringing Literature to Life
How do we create Powerful Learning?
In order to create the rich, environment needed
to stimulate powerful learning for all students,
current research shows that all 19 senses need to
be stimulated. YES, 19 Senses (not 5)
Sight Hearing Touch
Taste Smell Balance
Vestibular Pain Eidetic imagery
Temperature Magnetic Ultraviolet
Infrared Ionic Vomeronasal Proximal
Electrical Geogravimetric Barometric
9
Bringing Literature to Life
Curriculum and instructional strategies need to
be based upon being there input (stimulating as
many senses as possible) extended by immersion
and enriched with hands on of the real thing.
In contrast, learning based on secondary input
(print with some video) is inherently
brain-antagonistic because it severely restricts
input. The fewer senses involved, the more
difficult the task of learning becomes for all
learners.
10
Bringing Literature to Life
What is taken in by the senses (all 19 senses)
makes for profound differences in the structure
of the brain (the more senses involved, the more
efficiently and successfully the brain is able to
work.) Learning is a product of the creation of
dendrites connecting to neurons in the brain.
This complex web of connections is possible in
any brain, but is dependant upon powerful, real
world experiences.
11
Bringing Literature to Life
Students of today (the Nintendo and video
generation) come to our classes with very little
experience of the real world and thus with
minimal conceptual understanding of what makes
the world work.(In other words, their neuro net
is limited.) In the past we could assume that
students came to school with a wide range of
experiences of the real world and the concepts
and language that come with such experience. But
that is not true today.
12
Bringing Literature to Life
Todays students are starved for exposure to
reality. They are coming with a shortage of
experiences with the real world and the concepts
and language that accompany them. They are
therefore ill-equipped to adequately learn from
our secondhand sources. For example, we have
known for some time that 80 percent of reading
comprehension depends upon prior knowledge. In
effect, one can only take from a book what one
brings to the book. Books can expand our
knowledge but cannot create it from scratch
13
Bringing Literature to Life
Research Based Summer Programs
Multiple Intelligences Howard Gardner
Multiple Intelligences of Reading and Writing
Making the Words Come AliveThomas Armstrong
Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom Thomas
Armstrong
Classroom Instruction That Works Robert Marzano,
Deb Pickering
14
Multiple Intelligences
Bringing Literature to Life
Current research has identified eight (8)
intelligences, only two of which are focused on
in traditional schooling. One of the truly
revolutionary discoveries is that we all possess
portions of each of the intelligences. We each
favor certain intelligences as our particular
strengths, but we all possess portions of each.
Another revolutionary discovery, at least to
education, is that in order to truly educate a
student, any student, all 8 intelligences must be
developed
15
Verbal/Linguistic
Bringing Literature to Life
  • The ability to use language to convince others of
    a course of action
  • Like to write
  • Spin tall tales or tell jokes and stories
  • Have a good memory for names, places, dates, or
    trivia
  • Enjoy reading books in their spare time
  • Spell words accurately and easily
  • Appreciate nonsense rhymes and tongue twisters
  • Like doing crossword puzzles or playing games
  • Emily Dickinson, William Shakespeare, Edgar Allen
    Poe

16
Logical/Mathematical
Bringing Literature to Life
  • Compute arithmetic problems quickly in their head
  • Enjoy using computers
  • Ask questions like Where does the universe
    begin? What happens after we die? When did
    time begin?
  • Play chess, checkers, or other strategy games,
    and win
  • Reason things out logically and clearly
  • Devise experiments to test out things they dont
    understand
  • Stephen Hawking, Isaac Newton, Marie Curie

17
Spatial/Mechanical
Bringing Literature to Life
  • Spend free time engaged in art activities
  • Report clear visual images when thinking about
    something
  • Easily read maps, charts, and diagrams
  • Draw accurate representations of people or things
  • Like it when you show movies, slides, or
    photographs
  • Enjoy doing jigsaw puzzles or mazes
  • Daydream a lot
  • Michelangelo, Georgia OKeefe, Frank Lloyd Wright

18
Bodily/Kinesthetic
Bringing Literature to Life
  • Do well in competitive sports
  • Move, twitch, tap, or fidget while sitting in a
    chair
  • Engage in physical activities such as swimming,
    biking, hiking, or skateboarding
  • Need to touch people when they talk to them
  • Enjoy scary amusement rides
  • Demonstrate skill in a craft like woodworking,
    sewing, or carving
  • Cleverly mimic other peoples gestures,
    behaviors
  • Michael Jordan, Jim Carey, Wilma Rudolph

19
Musical
Bringing Literature to Life
  • Play a musical instrument
  • Remember melodies to songs
  • Tell you when a musical note is off key
  • Say they need to have music on in order to study
  • Collect records or tapes
  • Sing songs to themselves
  • Keep time rhythmically to music
  • Mozart, Ella Fitzgerald, George Gershwin

20
Interpersonal
Bringing Literature to Life
  • Have lots of friends
  • Socialize a great deal at school or around the
    neighborhood
  • Seem to be street-smart
  • Get involved in after-school group activities
  • Serve as the family mediator when disputes
    arise
  • Enjoy playing groups games with other students
  • Have lots of empathy for the feelings of others
  • Nelson Mandela, Mahatma Gandhi, Ronald Reagan

21
Intrapersonal
Bringing Literature to Life
  • Display a sense of independence or a strong will
  • React with strong opinions when controversial
    topics are being discussed
  • Seem to live in their own private, inner world
  • Like to be alone to pursue some interest, or
    hobby
  • Seem to have a deep sense of self-confidence
  • March to the beat of a different drummer in their
    style of dress, their behavior, or their general
    attitude
  • Motivate themselves to do well on independent
    projects
  • Mother Teresa, Victor Frankl, C. S. Lewis

22
Naturalist
Bringing Literature to Life
  • Communion with nature
  • Caring for, taming,, and interacting with living
    creatures
  • Sensitivity to natures flora
  • Recognize and classify members of a species
  • Growing things
  • Appreciating the impact of nature on the self
    (and the self of nature)
  • Rachel Carson, Henry David Thoreau, John Muir

23
Multiple Intelligences
Bringing Literature to Life
  • By Howard Gardner

We should spend less time ranking children and
more time helping them to identify their natural
competencies and gifts, and cultivate those.
There are hundreds and hundreds of ways to
succeed, and many, many different abilities that
will help you get there.
24
Bringing Literature to Life
Objectives for Summer 2004
What???
  1. Improve Students Reading Comprehension
  2. Improve Students Reading Fluency
  3. Improve Students Writing Skills

25
Bringing Literature to Life
Objectives for Summer 2004
How???
  • Develop valid reading comprehension, reading
    fluency, and writing assessments
  • Design high interest, integrated activities to
    engage all students, but especially those who
    have been identified as at risk students, in
    improving their reading comprehension, their
    reading fluency and their writing skills

26
Bringing Literature to Life
Okay, this sounds reasonable BUT
Lets talk about
youre big but.
27
The Multiple Intelligences of Reading and
WritingMaking the Words Come Alive
Thomas Armstrong
28
The Multiple Intelligences of Reading and
WritingMaking the Words Come Alive
The Conundrum of Multiple Intelligences
?
?
Bodily/Kinesthetic
Logical/Mathematical
?
?
Spatial/Mechanical
Intrapersonal
?
?
Musical
?
Interpersonal
Thomas Armstrong
Verbal/Linguistic
Naturalist
29
The Multiple Intelligences of Reading and
WritingMaking the Words Come Alive
The Conundrum of Multiple Intelligences
Bodily/Kinesthetic
Logical/Mathematical
Spatial/Mechanical
Verbal/Linguistic
Intrapersonal
Musical
Interpersonal
Thomas Armstrong
Naturalist
30
The Multiple Intelligences of Reading and
WritingMaking the Words Come Alive
Page 6-7
Introduction
Whether we like it or not, one of the best
things that we as educators can do to help our
students achieve success in this culture is to
assist them in becoming as fully literate as
possible What we really need are not reasons or
excuses for why so many children and adults are
not literate, but rather positive solutions for
helping empower everyone with the skills of
literacy I advocate an approach to literacy
based on the belief that there is no one best way
to teach reading and writing skills, in part
because each person is so differently organized
neurologically, and that the best attitude to
adopt in any literacy program is a
multiple-solution focus reading and writing are
not simply linguistic acts they involve all of
the intelligences, and many more areas of the
brain are involved in literacy acquisition than
has previously been assumed by educators working
in the field. We have limited ourselves too much
in the past even in the field of MI theory by
considering too narrow a range of interventions,
and ignoring many other strategies that are
available for helping children and adults acquire
literacy skills.
Thomas Armstrong
31
The Multiple Intelligences of Reading and
WritingMaking the Words Come Alive
Page 7, 21
Introduction
Literacy emerged out of our oral language
capacities (verbal/linguistic intelligence), our
logical capabilities (logical/mathematical
intelligence), our physical movement
(bodily/kinesthetic intelligence), our
image-making abilities (spatial/mechanical
intelligence), our musical proclivities (musical
intelligence), our emotional life (intrapersonal
intelligence), our attempts to decipher and
control nature (naturalist intelligence), and our
impulse to connect meaningfully with others
(interpersonal intelligence) A revolution of
sorts is required in the way that we think about
reading and writing, so that more of the brains
power may be brought to bear upon the acquisition
of these valued skills. The biggest question is
whether we as educators are going to teach
literacy skills in such a way that the words lie
dead there on the page for so many students, or,
conversely, whether were going to take positive
steps toward the ultimate goal of making the
words come alive for all students.
Thomas Armstrong
32
The Multiple Intelligences of Reading and
WritingMaking the Words Come Alive
Page 10-11
1.The Blind Educators and the Literacy Lion
Thomas Armstrong
33
The Multiple Intelligences of Reading and
WritingMaking the Words Come Alive
Page 10-11
1 The Blind Educators and the Literacy Lion
This beast is made up of whole words! Yes, all
sorts of words, like the and captain and sure and
poultry and wizard and tens of thousands more.
Thomas Armstrong
34
The Multiple Intelligences of Reading and
WritingMaking the Words Come Alive
Page 10-11
1.The Blind Educators and the Literacy Lion
This animal isnt made up of whole words! It is
made up of sounds! Sounds like thhh and buh
and ahhhh and ayyyy and juh and many more.
In fact, I counted all the sounds, and there are
exactly 44!
Thomas Armstrong
35
The Multiple Intelligences of Reading and
WritingMaking the Words Come Alive
Page 10-11
1.The Blind Educators and the Literacy Lion
This creature isnt made of sounds or whole
words. Its constructed out of stories, and
fables, and songs, and chants, and poems, and
storybooks, and Big Books, and board books, and
novels, and plays, and whole libraries full of
living, exciting tales, and lots more besides!
Thomas Armstrong
36
The Multiple Intelligences of Reading and
WritingMaking the Words Come Alive
Page 10-11
1.The Blind Educators and the Literacy Lion
Theyre all wrong! This beast is made up of
whole cultures, and people crying out for freedom
and power, and its about understanding who we
are and what were capable of, and how each of us
can speak, and read, and write with our own
voices, and in this way contribute to the good of
all.
Thomas Armstrong
37
The Multiple Intelligences of Reading and
WritingMaking the Words Come Alive
Page 32-34
2.Coming to Grips with the Muscularity of
Words(Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence)
Ive often suggested to educators that if, after
reading a story, teachers would simply have
students quickly role-play the material that they
have just read, reading comprehension levels
would increase rapidly for many students,
particularly for many of those students who have
been labeled as having attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or learning
disability. What were asking students to do is
think through material in the text through their
bodies, instead of simply requiring them to sit
still at their desks and do all the thinking
invisibly. Tell them that in addition to having
a physical body, they also have an imaginary
kinesthetic body. After reading a text, have
students experience the action of the text (if it
is a narrative) by closing their eyes and
imagining themselves in the story.
Thomas Armstrong
38
The Multiple Intelligences of Reading and
WritingMaking the Words Come Alive
Page 49
3.Seeing the Visual Basis of Literacy(Spatial/M
echanical Intelligence)
Perhaps the simplest activity and one that I
believe would make a big difference in the
reading comprehension rates of students,
especially for those with good imaginations
would be to ask students anytime they have read a
body of text to close their eyes for a minute or
two and picture what theyve just read. To go
one step further, students might be asked to draw
their images of what theyve just read, making
quick one- to three-minute sketches or creating
longer art projects. Another approach to
employing visual imagery in reading involves the
use of guided imagery to help students into the
text.
Thomas Armstrong
39
The Multiple Intelligences of Reading and
WritingMaking the Words Come Alive
Page 55, 57
4.Grooving with the Rhythms of
Language(Musical Intelligence)
Notice how, this sentence is particularly
difficult to, read because, I have put in,
punctuation, marks that, disturb the, basic, flow
of what I am, trying to, say. Whereas, when I
place the punctuation marks appropriately, my
ability to communicate effectively with you
becomes much smoother. This little experiment
provides a small indication of the huge
importance that rhythm, meter, and music have in
language and literacy The rhythms of music stir
words to life in our great orators (remember
Martin Luther King Jr.s historic I Have a
Dream speech)
Thomas Armstrong
40
The Multiple Intelligences of Reading and
WritingMaking the Words Come Alive
Page 63
4.Grooving with the Rhythms of
Language(Musical Intelligence)
There is the sense in education that music is a
frill and that, aside from small doses of it in
cute little songs and rhymes, formal reading
programs are much too serious to be bothered by
this kind of creative nonsense. And yet, for the
highly musical individual who struggles with
reading using traditional methods, such a program
might well be the key that gives them access to
the world of literacy. Look for environmental
sounds in texts, such as rain falling, the wind
blowing against the trees, or the sounds of an
avalanche. Have students keep a journal of
sounds and rhythms they hear in their everyday
world.
Thomas Armstrong
41
The Multiple Intelligences of Reading and
WritingMaking the Words Come Alive
Page 68, 75, 80
5.Calculating the Logic of Words(Logical/Mathem
atical Intelligence)
(The logic or illogic of letters, sounds and
words.) There are more than 1,100 ways that
letters in English can be used to symbolize the
44 sounds in the spoken language. This diversity
gives rise to sentences that would baffle just
about anyone trying to learn the code. Some
examples The bandage was wound around the
wound. The farm was used to produce produce.
The soldier decided to desert his dessert in the
desert. In a classroom, students who have
logical proclivities may be interested in
thinking about and creating both logical and
illogical sentences. Ask students to share the
problem-solving process they go through when
reading something that they dont initially
understand. Encourage them to articulate what
questions, ideas or strategies work best for them.
Thomas Armstrong
42
The Multiple Intelligences of Reading and
WritingMaking the Words Come Alive
Page 82,
6.Feeling the Emotional Power of
Text(Intrapersonal Intelligence)
I have to chuckle a little when I hear educators
and researchers discuss reading and writing as if
they were exact sciences I suspect that for most
of us, our early memories of literacy acquisition
were probably not scientifically neutral
experiences Instead, Ill bet these memories
were something far more luminous, set in a
complex web of emotions sitting in the arms of a
loved one reading a book together, angrily
attempting to write some words after a real or
imagined slight, writing a love note to a secret
admirer, listening to a fairy tale before
drifting off into dreamland. (Quote by 1971 Noble
Prize winner in Literature Pablo Neruda p. 82)
Thomas Armstrong
43
The Multiple Intelligences of Reading and
WritingMaking the Words Come Alive
Page 91-92
6.Feeling the Emotional Power of
Text(Intrapersonal Intelligence)
What are we doing in our literacy programs,
reading classes, and literature courses to help
students feel deeply what they read? We need to
remember that while illiteracy is a terrible
plague on society, so is aliteracy, a term I like
to use to describe people who are able to read,
but choose not to do so. Too many people are
turned off by text because they feel there is
nothing in the words that speaks to their lives,
their concerns, their hopes and dreams. Select
materials for reading that has been passionately
written. Avoid textbook materials that have been
written by committees or with a school culture
voice.(share from Beyond the Aspen Grove by Anne
H. Zwinger p. 278) In writing activities, help
students move beyond the superficial mechanics of
writing to focus on what real writers care about
telling a moving story in the most compelling way
possible
Thomas Armstrong
44
The Multiple Intelligences of Reading and
WritingMaking the Words Come Alive
Page 99
7.Relating to the Social Context of
Literacy(Interpersonal Intelligence)
(The Power of Words) An 8 year old writes the
words Go Away! on a piece of paper and tacks
it to his bedroom door, and suddenly he shapes
the social world around him in a tangible way
A 6th grader writes an essay on environmental
waste that helps to create a recycling program
for her school A teenager writes a passionate
love letter to a girl he just met and discovers
to his joy that it serves to transform an
accidental meeting into a significant romantic
relationship. An adult writes an article for a
local newspaper on recent layoffs in his
community and generates a political action group
from among several of its unemployed readers.
Thomas Armstrong
45
The Multiple Intelligences of Reading and
WritingMaking the Words Come Alive
Page 99-100
7.Relating to the Social Context of
Literacy(Interpersonal Intelligence)
(The Impotence of Words) The infant may up
until she is blue in the face, and no one may
come. The school child may write the
environmental essay, only to have it filled with
red pencil marks and given a D for poor
penmanship. The teenager may strike out with both
the letter and the girl. The adult may find his
submission to periodicals met with rejection at
every turn. No mini-revolution, no big or small
social reforms to create, no cultural
transformations to effect but rather serve only
the narrowest social goal of doing what the
teacher wants me to do. When students feel
their words are written only to be graded and
then tossed into the wastepaper basket, then
clearly they are being indoctrinated into the
social impotence of words.
Thomas Armstrong
46
The Multiple Intelligences of Reading and
WritingMaking the Words Come Alive
Page 111, 115
8.Speaking out About the Oral Basis of Reading
and Writing(Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence)
Even people who may not be able to read or write
a single word have the ability to speak thousands
of different words and know what they mean. They
can orally construct complex sentences with
elaborate syntax and intricate meaningsOral
language has had an enormous head start over
written language in evolution and history Prior
knowledge of words and their meanings a good
oral vocabulary is a very useful prerequisites
to launching into the experience of reading and
writing. Consequently, any program that provides
students with plenty of exposure to spoken words
through discussions, conversations, dialogues,
lectures, storytelling, and plays, as well as
through having books read to them on a regular
basis, will help create a strong foundation for
literacy acquisition.
Thomas Armstrong
47
The Multiple Intelligences of Reading and
WritingMaking the Words Come Alive
Page 123-124
9.Opening the Book of Nature(Naturalist
Intelligence)
Words and literacy have a central relationship
to the natural world for example, humans were
pre-adapted neurologically for reading through,
among other things, the ancient skill of animal
tracking, which could be considered the reading
of hoof and paw prints. In ancient Egypt, the
need the to control the flooding Nile using vast
irrigation systems, led to more complex social
organizations and the need to develop a system of
writing to handle the increased workload. A
young child is alive with the rhythms and
sensations of nature she revels in watching a
bird fly, smelling a flower, feeling the wind
against her face, observing a squirrel eating a
nut. These experiences captivate the child in a
way that words, lying lifeless on a page, simply
cannot. However, as a child is introduced to
printed words and discovers the mysteries they
can reveal about the world around her, they too
become imbued with a kind of magical natural
quality
Thomas Armstrong
48
The Multiple Intelligences of Reading and
WritingMaking the Words Come Alive
Page 127, 132
9.Opening the Book of Nature(Naturalist
Intelligence)
As they walk, students may be asked to name the
many natural things they see Once back in the
classroom, each student might assemble (these
words) into a story or poem. In a nature-focused
literacy program, many students first words
might consist of onomatopoetic words based in
nature, such as buzz, splash and murmur. Sitting
in a chair at a table or desk in a classroom with
fluorescent lighting and no windows is certainly
one of the worst places for highly naturalistic
students to do their reading and writingHave
students go to a specific place in nature
(preferably of their choosing) for 5 to 10
minutes a day for a week or longer and read or
write down their observations in a notebook.
Thomas Armstrong
49
Multiple Intelligencesin the Classroom
Bringing Literature to Life
  • By Thomas Armstrong

50
Eight Ways of Learning
Children who are highly THINK LOVE NEED
Verbal-Linguistic in words reading, writing, telling stories, playing word games books, tapes, writing tools, paper, diaries, dialogue, discussion, debate, stories
Logical-Mathematical by reasoning experimenting, questioning, figuring out logical puzzles, calculating materials to experiment with, science materials, manipulatives, trips to the planetarium and science museums
Spatial-Mechanical in images and pictures designing, drawing, visualizing, doodling art, LEGOS, video, movies, slides, imagination games, mazes, puzzles, illustrated books, trips to art museums
Bodily-Kinesthetic through somatic sensations dancing, running, jumping, building, touching, gesturing role play, drama, movement, things to build, sports and physical games, tactile experiences, hands-on learning
Musical via rhythms and melodies singing, whistling, humming, tapping feet and hands, listening sing-along time, rips to concerts, music playing at home and school, musical instruments
Interpersonal by bouncing ideas off other people leading, organizing, relating, manipulating, mediating, partying friends, groups games, social gatherings, community events, clubs, mentors/apprenticeships
Intrapersonal in relation to their needs, feelings and goals setting goals, meditating, dreaming, planning, reflecting secret places, time alone, self-paced projects, choices
Naturalist through nature and natural forms playing with pets, gardening, investigating nature, raising animals, caring for planet earth access to nature, opportunities for interacting with animals, tools for investigating nature (e.g., magnifying glass, binoculars)
51
Eight Ways of Teaching
Intelligence Teaching Activities Teaching Materials Instructional Strategies
Verbal-Linguistic lectures, discussions, word games, storytelling, choral reading, journal writing books, tape recorders, word processors, stamp sets, books on tapes read about it, write about it, talk about it, listen to it
Logical-Mathematical brain teasers, problem solving, science experiments, number games, mental calculation,, critical thinking calculators, math manipulatives, science equipment, math games quantify it, think critically about it, put it in a logical framework, experiment with it
Spatial-Mechanical visual presentations, art activities, imagination games, mind-mapping, metaphor, visualization graphs, maps, videos, LEGO sets, art materials, optical illusions, camera, picture library see it, draw it, visualize it, color it mind-map-it
Bodily-Kinesthetic hands-on learning, drama, dance, sports that teach, tactile activities, relaxation exercises building tools, clay, sports equipment, manipulatives, tactile learning resources build it, act it out, touch it, get a gut feeling of it, dance it
Musical rhythmic learnings, rapping, using songs that teach tape recorders, tape collection, musical instruments sing it, rap it, listen to it
Interpersonal cooperative learning, peer tutoring, simulations, community involvement, social gathering board games, party supplies, props for role plays teach it, collaborate on it, interact with respect to it
Intrapersonal individualized instruction, independent study, options in course of sturdy, self-esteem building self-checking materials, journals, materials for projects connect it to your personal life, make choices with regard to it, reflect on it
Naturalist nature study, ecological awareness, care of animals plants, animals, naturalists tools, (e.g. binoculars), gardening tools connect it to living things and natural phenomena
52
Blooms Taxonomy
Competence Skills Demonstrated
Knowledge observation and recall of information knowledge of dates, events, places knowledge of major ideas mastery of subject matter Question Cues list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc.
Comprehension understanding information grasp meaning translate knowledge into new context interpret facts, compare, contrast order, group, infer causes predict consequences Question Cues summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend
Application use information use methods, concepts, theories in new situationssolve problems using required skills or knowledge Questions Cues apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, discover
Analysis seeing patterns organization of parts recognition of hidden meanings identification of components Question Cues analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, explain, infer
Synthesis use old ideas to create new ones generalize from given facts relate knowledge from several areas predict, draw conclusions Question Cues combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if?, compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite
Evaluation compare and discriminate between ideas assess value of theories, presentations make choices based on reasoned argument verify value of evidence recognize subjectivity Question Cues assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize
53
Blooms Taxonomy Multiple Intelligences(Ecology
Unit Local environment-trees in your
neighborhood)
Intelligences Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation
Verbal-Linguistic memorize names of trees explain how trees receive nutrients give description of tree diseases, suggest cause of each disease describe how each part of a tree functions in relation to the whole write a paper describing the life cycle of a tree rate different methods of controlling tree growth
Logical-Mathematical remember number of points on specific leaves convert English to metric in calculating height of tree given height of smaller tree, estimate height of larger tree analyze materials found in sap residue given weather, soil etc. chart projected growth of a tree rate different kinds of tree nutrients based on data
Spatial-Mechanical remember basic configurations of specific trees look at diagrams of trees and tell what stages of growth they are in use geometric principles to determine height of tree draw cellular structure of tree root create a landscape plan using trees as a central feature evaluate practicality of different landscape plans
Bodily-Kinesthetic identify tree by the feel of the bark given array of tree fruits, identify seeds given type of local tree, find an ideal place for planting create different parts of tree from clay gather all materials needed to plant a tree evaluate the quality of different kinds of fruit
Musical remember songs that deal with trees explain how old tree songs came into being change the lyrics of an old song to reflect current issues classify songs by issue and historical period create your own tree song based on information in this unit rate songs from the best to worst and give reasons for your choices
Interpersonal record responses to the question, What is your favorite tree? determine the most popular tree in class by interviewing others use survey results to pick location for field trip to orchard classify kids into groups according to favorite tree arrange a field trip to orchard by contacting necessary people rank three methods to ask others about tree preference
Intrapersonal remember a time you climbed a tee share the primary feeling you had while up in the tree develop tree climbing rules based on your own experience divide up your experience into beginning, middle and end plan a tree climbing expedition based on you past experience explain what you liked best and least about your experience
Naturalist learn to discriminate different tree leaves by sight explain how other living beings benefit from trees create a system for classifying different tree leaves analyze the function of a given tree in terms of the larger ecosystem plan an approach for protecting specific trees in your neighborhood evaluate which trees in your neighborhood are most eco-valuable
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Planning QuestionsAround Multiple Intelligences
Logical-MathematicalHow can I bring in numbers,
calculations, logic, classifications, or critical
thinking skills?
Verbal LinguisticHow can I use the spoken or
written word?
Spatial MechanicalHow can I use visual aids,
visualization, color, art, or metaphor?
NaturalistHow can I incorporate living things,
natural phenomena, or ecological awareness?
MusicalHow can I bring in music or environmental
sounds, or set key points in a rhythmic or
melodic framework?
Objective
IntrapersonalHow can I evoke personal feelings
or memories, or give students choices?
Bodily-KinestheticHow can I involve the whole
body or use hands-on experiences?
InterpersonalHow can I engage students in peer
sharing, cooperative learning, or large group
simulation?
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Bringing Literature to Life
Six Traits of Writing
If kids are going to write, they need something
to write about. Lucy
Caulkins The Art of Teaching Writing
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Bringing Literature to Life
Six Traits of Writing
Ideas and Content Organization Voice Word Choice Sentence Fluency Conventions
It all makes sense My reader will learn a lot Specific details fun to read Great lead, hooks the reader The order is clear Power house conclusion Personality It sounds like you Humor, feelings Puts a picture in the readers mind Use words you love Show, dont tell Easy to read out loud Sentences begin in different ways Some sentences are long, some are short Spelling Punctuation, capital letters Paragraphs
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Bringing Literature to Life
Six Traits of Writing - Rubric
Trait Mastery (4) Near Mastery (3) Partial Mastery (2) Minimal Mastery (1)
Ideas The writer thoroughly understands the topic and has a clear, focused, main idea throughout the paper. The writers idea for this paper is interesting and engaging it may be unusual or leave the reader with a new perspective. The writer understands the topic. The main idea is fairly clear, but there may be a place or two where the writing seems to lose focus. The writers idea is interesting, but may not be unusual. The writer may not understand the topic well. The main idea lacks clarity or may shift from one part of the paper to the next. The idea for this paper is predictable, but it is appropriate. The writer does not understand the topic. The paper does not have a clear, focused main idea. It is confusing and hard to understand. The idea for this paper may not be appropriate.
Organization The order is logical and guides the reader through the text effortlessly. Details all fit. Strong transitions connect text effectively. The order moves the reader through text with minimal confusion. Most details are well-placed. Transitions are used to connect text. The order is sometimes confusing. Some details are missing or misplaced. Transitions are weak or do not exist. Lack of organizational structure leaves reader confused. Details are randomly placed. Ideas do not link. No pattern or logical structure exists.
Voice The sound of this writing is appropriate for the assignment for example, if it needs to be formal, it is consistently so throughout the paper. The writer comes across as confident, strong and enthusiastic. The writer is aware of the audience and keeps the language appropriate for that audience. The sound of the writing is appropriate to the assignment, but may lose strength or focus occasionally. The writers voice comes across as being strong, confident and enthusiastic sometimes. The writer is aware of the audience, but may not seem to have a clear sense of who the audience is. The sound of the writing may be inconsistent. For example, it may change from being formal to informal. The writers has little strength or enthusiasm. The writer often is unaware of the audience sometimes a sense of talking to the reader comes through, but it is minimal. The sound of the writing isnt appropriate for the assignment it might be too formal, sarcastic, or informal. The writers voice does not have any strength or enthusiasm. May sound bland. The writer is completely unaware of the audience or the language is inappropriate for the audience.
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Bringing Literature to Life
Six Traits of Writing - Rubric
Trait Mastery (4) Near Mastery (3) Partial Mastery (2) Minimal Mastery (1)
Word Choice Words convey the intended meaning in a precise, interesting, and natural way. Writer uses specific terminology for assigned topic. The words are powerful and engaging. Words create a vivid picture in the readers mind. The language is functional, even if it lacks much energy (e.g., strong verbs, vivid adjectives). Writer is comfortable with terminology yet lacks complete understanding. It is easy to figure out the writers meaning on a general level. The writer demonstrates a limited vocabulary or has not searched to convey specific meaning. The writer uses worn-out phrases (e.g., cool, great, awesome). The writer uses terminology out of context. Just doesnt know what the words mean. The writer uses minimal content vocabulary. The writer is not knowledgeable with terminology and, therefore, does not convey the message and may detract from the meaning. Words and phrases are so unimaginative and lifeless that they detract from the meaning. Redundancy may distract the reader.
Sentence Fluency Text flows and is easy to read aloud. Sentences are well-crafted and vary in length and structure. Most sentences flow and are easy to read. Sentences are generally well-crafted. Some sentences flow, but some are mechanical. More variation in length and structure would enhance readability. Sentences tend to be choppy and mechanical. Reader must often reread to get the meaning. Sentence patterns are repetitive for example noun-verb, noun-verb.
Conventions Writer demonstrates a good grasp of standard writing conventions (e.g., spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and grammar.) The text appears clean, edited, and polished. Writer shows reasonable knowledge of standard writing conventions with few errors. These errors do not get in the way of the meaning of the text. Writer makes errors in standard writing conventions that distract the reader and make the text difficult to read. Writer has little knowledge of standard writing conventions. Errors block the understanding/meaning of the text.
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Bringing Literature to Life
Service Learning
Service Learning is a method of teaching that
enriches learning by engaging students in
meaningful service to their school or communities
through careful integration with established
curricula.
The greatest use of a life is to spend it for
something that outlasts it.
William James
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Bringing Literature to Life
Service Learning
Stand Alone Service Project
Integrated Curricula Based Project
(Where will your summer program fall on the
continuum?)
I dont know what your destiny will be, but the
one thing I know the only ones among you who
will really be happy are those who will have
sought and found how to serve. Albert
Schweitzer
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Bringing Literature to Life
Needs Assessment
I dont want to know that all students can
learn, I want to know what you do when they
dont. Richard Dufour
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Bringing Literature to Life
What Students Do We Target?
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What Curriculum Do We Emphasize?
Bringing Literature to Life
Art?
Math?
Science?
Writing?
Music?
Technology?
Reading?
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Bringing Literature to Life
What Local Resources Do We Have?
American West Heritage Center
Hardware RanchElk Refuge
Cutler MarshWetlands
Willow Park Zoo
Stokes Nature Center
Tony Grove
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Bringing Literature to Life
What Human Resources Do We Have?
How can we combine a students interests with a
teachers expertise, in an academically
beneficial way?
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Bringing Literature to Life
What Partnerships Can We Form?
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Bringing Literature to Life
Mount Logan Middle School Summer Learning 2003
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Bringing Literature to Life
Needs Assessment
  • According to Cognos (a web based academic
    performance measurement tool) 42 of the 6th
    grade students at Mount Logan Middle School are
    performing at or below partial or minimal mastery
    in language arts, mathematics or science.

All 6th Grade Students
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Bringing Literature to Life
Needs Assessment
  • Hispanic Students While 42 of the general
    student body is at partial mastery or below in
    language arts, mathematics and science, 77 of
    the 6th grade Hispanic students attending Mount
    Logan Middle School are performing at or below
    partial or minimal mastery.

6th Grade Hispanic Students
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Bringing Literature to Life
Design and Strategy
  • Staff Development Model
  • One full week of training in current educational
    research, the most effective teaching strategies
    and curriculum development.
  • Two weeks of mentored implementation with
    students who typically struggle the most in a
    traditional academic setting.

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Bringing Literature to Life
Design and Strategy
  • Student Learning Model
  • Two weeks of immersion in a rich, hands-on, real
    world, integrated program where they go beyond
    reading a book and actually live the book.
  • If kids are going to write, they need something
    to write about.
  • Lucy Caulkins The
    Art of Teaching Writing

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Bringing Literature to Life
Data for Summer 2003
  • Enrollment 136 students were registered
    106 scholarship (78) 30 paid
    185 tuition (22)
  • Attendance overall 91 (average daily
    attendance) scholarship 88
    paid tuition 97
  • Demographics 46 ESL students (34) 30
    Hispanic (65) 14 Asian
    (30)
    2 African (4)

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Bringing Literature to Life
Data for Summer 2003
  • Fluency The most significant improvement was in
    their reading fluency. We would not have
    expected much change in such a short period of
    time, but everyone showed improvement. The
    student improvement in words per minute read
    correctly improved an average of 22 words per
    minute. The range of improvement was between 7
    words per minute to 46 words per minute.
  • (Jane Adams, Thane Hutchinson, Mike Monson)

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Bringing Literature to Life
Data for Summer 2003
  • Comprehension (Pre/post test question)
  • Read the following part of the book Naya Nuki
  • Naya Nuki had learned her wilderness travel
    lessons well. Study the current, look for an
    eddy on the opposite shore for a safe landing
    spot, go upstream, walk out into the current as
    far as possible, then begin to swim and float
    downstream and across the current to a safe
    landing on the opposite side.
  • How did Naya Nuki plan on using the current?
  • Pre-test 9 students had no idea, 1 knew
  • Post-test 9 students knew, 1 was still unclear
  • (Bryce Passey, Michelle Hatch,
    Dave Anderson)

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Bringing Literature to Life
Summer Learning 2003
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