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Chapter 10 Fact-Finding Techniques

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Title: Chapter 10 Fact-Finding Techniques


1
Chapter 10 Fact-Finding Techniques
  • CS 522 Fall 2001

2
Special Topic A Comparison of Development Model
3
Special Topics Types of Development Models
  • The Waterfall Development Model
  • The Spiral Model
  • The Iterative Development Model

4
The Waterfall Development Model
  • Characteristics
  • Encouraging to gather and define system
    requirements.
  • Breaking the complex mission of development into
    several logical steps (analysis, design, code,
    test, and so forth) Divide and conquer
    approach.
  • Ensuring each step is executed properly with good
    quality deliverable, validation, entry, and exit
    criteria for each step.

5
The Waterfall Development Model
  • Advantages
  • Enabling tracking of project progress more
    accurately and uncovering possible slippages
    early.
  • Focusing the organization that develops the
    software system to be more structured and
    manageable.
  • Disadvantages
  • The process could become too rigid to be
    efficient and effective.

6
The Spiral Model
  • Developed by Boehm in 1988
  • Characteristics
  • Relying heavily on prototyping and risk
    management vs. the document-driven approach of
    the waterfall approach.
  • Foe each portion of the project and for each of
    its levels of elaboration, the same sequence of
    steps (cycle) is involved. For instance, the
    concept of software requirements, to design, and
    implementation, each involves a spiral cycle.

7
The Spiral Model
  • Approach
  • The first step of each cycle is to identify the
    objective of the portion of the product being
    elaborated, the alternative means of
    implementation of the portion of the product, and
    the constraints imposed on the application of the
    alternatives.
  • The next step is to evaluate the alternatives
    relative to the objectives and constraints and to
    identify the associated risks and resolve them.
  • In addition to prototyping for risk analysis, the
    spiral model also simulations, models, and
    benchmarks in order to reach the best
    alternatives.

8
Development Team
Project Lead
Developer
Tester
9
The Iterative Development Model
  • Characteristics
  • Begin with a subset of the requirements and
    develop a subset of the product that satisfies
    the essential needs of the users.
  • Based on the analysis of each immediate product,
    the requirements and design are modified over a
    series of iterations to provide a system to the
    user that meets evolving customer needs with
    improved design based on feedback and testing.
  • Combine with prototyping with the strength of the
    classical waterfall model.

10
The Iterative Development Model
  • Supporting the iterative development was the
    small team approach in which each team assumed
    the full responsibility of the system.

11
Sampling and Investigating Hard Data
12
Topics
  • The Needs for Sampling
  • Sampling Design
  • Kinds of Information Sought in Investigation

13
The Needs for Sampling
  • Containing costs
  • Speeding up the data gathering
  • Improving effectiveness
  • Reducing bias

14
Sampling Design
  • Four steps
  • Determine the data to be collected or described
  • Determine the population to be sampled
  • Choose the type of sample
  • Decide on the sample size

15
Kinds of Information Sought in Investigation
  • Types of hard Data (other than interviewing and
  • Observation)
  •  Analyzing Quantitative Documents
  • Reports used for decision making
  • Performance reports
  • Records
  • Data capture forms

16
Kinds of Information Sought in Investigation
  • 2.  Analyzing Qualitative Documents
  • Memos
  • Signs on bulletins boards or in work areas
  • Corporate Web sites
  • Manuals
  • Policy handbooks

17
Interviewing
18
Topics
  • Five Steps in Interview Preparation
  • Two Types of Questions Open-End vs. Closed
    Questions
  • Three Basic ways of Structuring Interviews
  • JAD (Joint Application Design (Development))

19
Five Steps in Interview Preparation
  • Reading background material
  • Establishing interview objectives
  • Deciding when to interview
  • Preparing the interviewee
  • Deciding on question type and structure

20
Two Types of Questions Open-End Questions vs.
Closed Questions
  • Open-ended interview questions
  • Open describes the interviewees options for
    responding.
  • They are open.
  • Advantages
  • Putting the interviewee at ease
  • Allowing more spontaneity
  • Disadvantages
  • Possibly losing control of the interview
  • May not get the types of answers you want

21
Two Types of Questions Open-End Questions vs.
Closed Questions
  • Closed interview questions
  • Such as How many subordinates do you have?
  • Benefits
  • Getting to relevant data
  • Keeping control over the interview
  • Drawbacks
  • Failing to obtain rich detail
  • Intimidating the interviewee

22
Three Basic ways of Structuring interviews
  • Pyramid Structure Starting from closed
    questions, then gradually expand into open
    territory.
  • Funnel Structure The reverse of pyramid
    structure approach.
  • Diamond-Shaped A combination of the two above
    structures.

23
JAD (Joint Application Development)
24
JAD (Joint Application Development) vs.
Traditional Way of Gathering Requirements
  • JAD sessions (also called facilitated session)
    are used to gather information and feedback and
    confirm the results of requirements gathering.
  • JAD sessions replace the traditional way of
    conducting a series of interviews on a one-to-one
    basis with the users.
  • Advantages Achieving consensus during the
    session when
  • multiple sources of information exist, raising
    and
  • addressing issues or assigning them for
    resolution, and
  • immediately confirming information.

25
JAD Session
  • JAD sessions are used to scope the project. Each
    session should last two to three day. They are
    very focused and fast-paced.
  • JAD sessions can be very formal and follow strict
    guidelines or be informal group sessions.

26
JAD - Roles
  • Whether they are formal or informal, there are
    four
  • necessary roles to be filled
  • Facilitator
  • The Facilitator is the session leader. It is the
    facilitators
  • responsibility to ensure that the objectives of
    the sessions
  • are met.
  • Scribes(s)
  • Scribes are responsible for recording the minutes
    of the
  • session and optionally constructing deliverables
    using an
  • automated tool as the session progresses.

27
JAD- Roles
  • User
  • The users provide knowledge specific to the scope
    of the
  • project.
  • Developers
  • Developers are the team members who will be
    building
  • the system.

28
JAD Session
  • The session is divided into three segments
  • Introduction Welcoming remarks description of
    the facilities such as rest room locations,
    messages, reviewing the agenda and setting
    expectations.
  • Conducting the session To confirm deliverables
    set out in the session objectives.
  • Wrapping up the session By summarizing progress
    towards the objectives reviewing the agenda for
    the next one and obtaining feedback from the
    participants.

29
JAD Session
  • Potential drawbacks
  • The commitment of a large block of time for all
    participants
  • Requirements collected could be less than
    satisfactory due to unpredictability of the JAD
    session or organizational culture not
    sufficiently developed to enable the concerted
    efforts required to be productive in a JAD
    setting.

30
Using Questionnaires
31
Observing Decision-Maker Behavior and Office
Environment (Observing the Enterprise in
Operation)
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