The Play Years: Cognitive Development - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – The Play Years: Cognitive Development PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 4f80e2-NjljN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

The Play Years: Cognitive Development

Description:

Part III Chapter Nine The Play Years: Cognitive Development Piaget and Vygotsky Children s Theories Language Early-Childhood Education Prepared by Madeleine ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:600
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 31
Provided by: ITDe73
Learn more at: http://hhh.gavilan.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The Play Years: Cognitive Development


1
Part III
Chapter Nine
  • The Play Years Cognitive Development

Piaget and Vygotsky Childrens Theories Language E
arly-Childhood Education
2
The Play Years Cognitive Development
  • thinking and learning from age 2 to 6
  • remarkable advances in language and thought
  • the simple sentence of the typical 2-year-old
    that are nonstop, complex outpourings of a
    talkative 6-year-old, who can explain almost
    anything

3
Piaget and Vygotsk
  • famous for their description of cognition the
    eager learning of children are compatible in
    many ways

4
Piaget Preoperational Thinking
  • Preoperational Intelligence
  • Includes languages and imagination (in addition
    to the senses and motor skills of infancy)
  • However, logical, operational thinking is not yet
    possible

5
Piaget Preoperational Thinking
  • Obstacles to Logical Operation
  • Centration
  • a young child focuses (centers) on one idea,
    excluding all others
  • Egocentrism
  • childrens tendency to think about the world
    entirely from their own personal perspective
  • Focus on Appearance
  • a young child ignores all attributes that are not
    apparent

6
Piaget Preoperational Thinking
  • Obstacles to Logical Operation
  • Static Reasoning
  • thinking that nothing changes Whatever is now
    has always been and always will be
  • Irreversibility
  • the idea that nothing can be undone the
    inability to recognize that something can
    sometimes be restored to the way it was before a
    change occurred

7
Piaget
  • Conservation and Logic
  • Conservation
  • the idea that the amount of a substance remains
    the same (i.e., is conserved) when its appearance
    changes

8
Limitations of Piagets Research
  • underestimated the conceptual ability of young
    children and infants
  • Designing experiments to reveal what children
    seemed not to understand, rather than to identify
    what they could understand
  • Relied on the childs words rather than the
    childs nonverbal signs in play context

9
Vygotsky Social Learning
  • young children can be very sensitive to the
    wishes and emotions of others
  • young children have social thoughts

10
Vygotsk
  • Children as Apprentices
  • cognitive development is embedded in a social
    context
  • curious and observant
  • ask questions

11
Vygotsky Apprentices cont.
  • Apprentice in Thinking
  • a person whose cognition is stimulated and
    directed by older more skilled members of society
  • Guided Participation
  • the process by which people learn from others who
    guide their experiences and explorations

12
Vygotsk
  • Children as Apprentices
  • guided participation

13
Vygotsk
  • Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
  • the skills that a person can exercise only with
    assistance, not yet independently
  • ZPD applies to the ideas or cognitive skills a
    person is close to mastering as well as to more
    apparent skills
  • Scaffolding
  • temporary support that is tailored to a learners
    needs and abilities and aimed at helping the
    learner master the next task in a given learning
    process

14
Vygotsk
  • Language as a Toll
  • Private Speech
  • internal dialogue that occurs when people talk to
    themselves (either silently or out loud)
  • Social Mediation
  • a function of speech by which a persons
    cognitive skills are refined and extended through
    both formal instruction and casual conversation

15
Childrens Theories
  • Theory-Theory
  • the idea that children attempt to explain
    everything they see and hear by constructing
    theories

16
Childrens Theories
  • Theory of Mind
  • a persons theory of what other people might be
    thinking
  • children must realize that other people are not
    necessarily thinking the same thoughts that they
    themselves are thinking
  • the realization is seldom possible before age 4

17
Childrens Theories
  • Belief and Reality Understanding the Difference
  • a sudden leap of understanding occurs at about
    age 4
  • between age 3 6 children come to realize that
    thoughts may not reflect reality

18
Childrens Theories
  • Contextual Influences
  • maturation of the brains prefrontal cortex
    appears to be the reason for the age-related
    advance in children

19
Language
  • is pivotal to cognition in early childhood
  • is the leading cognitive accomplishment in early
    childhood
  • 24-month-olds begin this period with short
    sentences and limited vocabulary
  • 6-year-olds end it with the ability to understand
    and discuss almost anything

20
Language
  • Critical Period
  • a time when a certain development must happen if
    it is ever to happen
  • Sensitive Period
  • a time when a certain type of development is most
    likely to happen and happens most easily

21
Language
  • Vocabulary
  • new words are added rapidly
  • at age 2 knows about 500 words
  • at age 6 about 10,000 words

22
Language
  • Fast-Mapping
  • the speedy and sometimes imprecise way in which
    children learn new words by mentally charting
    them into categories according to their meaning

23
Language
  • Words and the Limits of Logic
  • logical extension
  • used to describe other objects in the same
    category
  • use of available vocabulary to cover all the
    territory they want to talk about

24
Language
  • Grammar
  • includes the structure, techniques, and rules
    that are used to communicate meaning
  • word order and word repetition, prefixes and
    suffixes, intonation and emphasis
  • Overregularization
  • the application of rules of grammar even when
    exceptions occur, so that the language is made to
    seem more regular than it actually is

25
Language
  • Learning Two Languages
  • bilingualism is an asseta necessity
  • language-minority children are at a disadvantage
    (not the dominant language of the nation)
  • more likely to
  • do poorly in school
  • feel ashamed
  • become unemployed as adults
  • learning the majority language is crucial

26
Language
  • What is the goal of having a second language?
  • research supports that children should learn at
    least two languagesthe language-sensitive years
    of early childhood are the best time
  • soon after the vocabulary explosion, young are
    able to master two

27
Language
  • Bilingualism, Cognition, and Culture
  • Since language is integral to culture,
    bilingualism is embedded in emotions of ethnic
    pride and fear. This reality hampers
    developmental research.

28
Early-Childhood Education
  • a hundred years ago children had no formal
    education until first grade
  • today 3 5-year-olds in developed nations are in
    school
  • early educational institutions differ, but names
    do not indicate the nature of the program

29
Early-Childhood Education
  • Child-Centered Programs
  • Montessori Schools
  • The Reggio Emilia Approach
  • Teacher-Directed Programs
  • Intervention Programs
  • Head Start
  • Experimental Programs

30
Early-Childhood Education
  • Costs and Benefits
  • quality early-childhood education matters
  • financial aspects are especially significant
  • parents pay the bulk of the cost or preschool in
    the United States
  • quality child care
  • safety
  • adequate space and equipment
  • low adult-child ratio
  • positive social interaction among children and
    adults
  • trained staff and educated parents
  • continuity helps
  • How long has each staff member worked at the
    center?
About PowerShow.com