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Cold War Patterns

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Title: Cold War Patterns


1
Cold War Patterns
  • Anti communism
  • Anti colonialism
  • Western Economic Cooperation

2
Scientific and Tech AdvancesEnvironmental Decline
  • Transportation and Communication
  • Computer Advances
  • Genetics Medical Advances
  • Environmental Issues
  • Depletion of Non renewable energy sources
  • Oil minerals
  • Pesticides DDT
  • Nuclear energy

3
United States Economic Dominance
  • Allied powers formed the IMF World Bank GATT
  • International Monetary Fund
  • to encourage international economic growth and
    free trade
  • World Bank
  • International Bank of Reconstruction and
    Development
  • GATT
  • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
  • Created to reduce tariffs and other trade
    barriers
  • Particularly important to the United States

4
World ModernizationEconomic Disparity
  • From 1960 to 1990 consistent decline in income
    for the poorest nations
  • The IMF and Creditor-Debtor Relationship
  • Money lending to developing nations
  • Debt increased
  • IMF demands
  • Domestic financial reforms
  • Politically unpopular austerity programs
  • Balanced budgets
  • More private enterprise

5
Food Famine Post WWII
  • World per capita food production increased
  • Poverty malnourishment increased
  • 1980s Philippines
  • ½ the crops exported by mostly U.S. Corporations
  • Most children there were malnourished

http//www.unicef.org/philippines/Fahad-before-and
-after-low.jpg
6
Famine
  • 1970-80s
  • China
  • Bangladesh
  • India
  • Cambodia
  • The Sahel (South of the Sahara)
  • Eastern Africa
  • Southern Africa
  • 1982 UNICEF estimated 40,000 children died/day
  • Hunger related disease, poor health, poor
    sanitation

7
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8
Dispossession
  • Peasants forced from land they once farmed, as
    corporations converted it to the production of
    export crops
  • Peasants migrated into cities, creating slums
  • Latin America 1980s 10 of landowners owned 90
    of the farm land, Majority of peasants owned none
    at all.

9
Growing Economic Interdependence
  • Growing power of multinational corporations
    lessened control of individual nations over their
    own economies
  • Businesses increasingly operated on a Global
    scale
  • Chase Manhattan
  • Standard Oil
  • United Fruit Company
  • McDonalds, KFC
  • Growing service sector of the world economy

10
Rebellions Conflicting Ideologies
  • International Anti-Colonial movement
  • Rebellion against white male control Hegemony
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • Latin America
  • United States

11
Socialism Anti-Communism
  • Western Europe
  • Dominated by moderate socialist or moderate
    conservative parties
  • Socialists favored sweeping social welfare
    measures, less hostile towards the Soviet Union,
    willing to grant independence to colonies
  • Overall, heirs of the progressive tradition of
    support for civil rights individual liberties

12
United States Conservativism
  • United States
  • Socialism repressed dismantled by the
    government
  • Split between conservatives and liberals
  • Progressives wanted government to protect civil
    rights of the minorities and address needs of the
    poor, were sympathetic to peaceful co-existence
    with the Soviet Union and China
  • Conservatives sought more power for the
    government and executive on behalf of
    corporations and the wealthy

13
Anti-communism leaders
  • Asia
  • Africa
  • Latin America
  • Opposed communism, democracy, civil liberties
  • Opposed to social reforms redistribution of
    property
  • Military dictatorships Supported by the United
    States

14
Decolonization
  • WWII weakened Western Imperialist Control
  • Growing disenchantment with Imperialism in
    Western Nations
  • Cost of maintaining an empire
  • Depletion of resources
  • Resistance of colonized
  • Asia, Africa, Latin America
  • Massive impoverishment

15
Soviet Union U.S.
  • Sent economic and military aid, military
    advisers, troops in covert operations to support
    friendly governments or political factions
  • Many new leaders feared being trapped in
    neo-imperialism by cooperating with superpowers
  • Also feared being trapped in imperial struggles
  • When the elephants fight, its the grass that
    gets trampled
  • Many 3rd world leaders formed a non-aligned or
    neutral nations

16
Policy of Non-alignment
  • First Conference in 1961
  • 1968, 101 nations took part in the 8th conference
  • Called for new economic order to lessen economic
    disparity between nations and people
  • To ensure "the national independence,
    sovereignty, territorial integrity and security
    of non-aligned countries" in their "struggle
    against imperialism, colonialism,
    neo-colonialism, racism, and all forms of foreign
    aggression, occupation, domination, interference
    or hegemony as well as against great power and
    bloc politics".

17
Gamal Abdel Nasser
  •  1954 Overthrew a corrupt monarchy in Egypt
  • King Farouq supported by Britain
  • Promised to rescue Arab nations from imperialist
    domination
  • Policy of non-alignment or neutralism

18
Nasserism the Eisenhower Doctrine
  • Feared the spread of Nasserism throughout the oil
    rich middle east
  • In 1957 the Eisenhower doctrine pledged to
    defend Middle eastern Countries against overt
    armed aggression from any nation controlled by
    international communism.
  • Anti communist rhetoric supplied the
    justification for maintaining governments that
    supported the wests need for oil.
  • International CIA Suppression

19
The Marshall Plan and NATO
  • Institutions designed by the US to implement
    containment in Europe.
  • Marshal Plan
  • massive economic aid to western Europe.
  • NATO
  • military assistance/alliance involving the US and
    non-communist European nations to resist
    potential soviet military advance.
  • To protect the economic interests of the United
    States and allies (western regional and
    international cooperation)

20
Warsaw Pact
  • The soviet union reacted by creating the Warsaw
    Pact,
  • military alliance with 7 European communist
    nations.
  • Cold war division of Europe in place, 35 more
    years of stand off and fear of nuclear war.

21
United States Covert Operations
  • Eisenhower the military budget was reduced,
    relying on nuclear capabilities and covert
    action.
  • Elevated psychological warfare and informational
    programs into major cold war weapons
  • Radio broad castes globally and programmed in
    more languages
  • Covert Action economic leverage (embargo
    Trade Aid)
  • The US Information Agency
  • Coordinate anti communist informational and
    propaganda campaigns.

22
Covert Action and economic leverage
  •  Shift of focus to 3rd world
  • CIA covert action and economic leverage replaced
    overt military confrontation as its primary
    foreign policy
  • Less expensive, less visible, less likely to
    provoke public controversy.
  • Elevated psychological warfare and Information
    programs into weapons
  • Funded radio free Europe

23
School of the Americas
  • US offered 3 billion dollars in economic aid to
    friendly nations a year
  • Trained 225,000 representatives from nations in
    anticommunism and police tactics
  • Contributed to the development of military
    dictatorships

24
Algeria
  • France not willing to grant independence
  • The National Liberation Front fought a bloody war
    against the French (1954 1962)
  • 1 million Algerians killed
  • 1,000s of French casualties
  • Divided French society in much the way Vietnam
    did the United States
  • Colons were 10 of the population
  • France established secret army to fight those who
    supported independence
  • FLN attacked urban centers populated by Colons
  • French bombed villages, removed families from the
    countryside, tortured suspects
  • General De Gaulle took power in 1958 in France,
    negotiated
  • Independence achieved 1962

25
1960s
  • France granted all of West African colonies
    independence
  • Senegal under Leopold Senghor
  • Ivory Coast
  • Nigeria, military president, Yukubu Gowan
  • Military dictatorships predominated Maintained
    close economic ties with France

26
Africa Today
  • United States Intervention
  • USAFRICOM or AFRICOM
  • Involved in 53 African Nations
  • Operational by September 30, 2008
  • Guise of Anti-terrorism
  • Fighting terrorism world wide
  • Spreading democracy and western institutions
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