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World War II: The Peace

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Title: World War II: The Peace


1
World War II The Peace
  • Amanda Zhao
  • 3-5-13
  • Period 5

2
End of WWII Timeline
  • April 1, 1945 - U.S. troops encircle Germans in
    the Ruhr Allied offensive in northern Italy.
  • April 12, 1945 - Allies liberate Buchenwald and
    Belsen concentration camps President Roosevelt
    dies. Harry Truman becomes President.
  • April 16, 1945 - Soviet troops begin their final
    attack on Berlin Americans enter Nuremberg.
  • April 18, 1945 - German forces in the Ruhr
    surrender.
  • April 21, 1945 - Soviets reach Berlin.
  • April 28, 1945 - Mussolini is captured and hanged
    by Italian partisans Allies take Venice.
  • April 30, 1945 - Adolf Hitler commits suicide.
  • May 2, 1945 - German troops in Italy surrender.
  • May 7, 1945 - Unconditional surrender of all
    German forces to Allies.

"The History Place - World War II in Europe
Timeline." The History Place - World War II in
Europe Timeline. The History Place, n.d. Web. 12
Mar. 2013. lthttp//www.historyplace.com/worldwar2
/timeline/ww2time.htmgt.
3
  • June 5, 1945 - Allies divide up Germany and
    Berlin and take over the government.
  • June 26, 1945 - United Nations Charter is signed
    in San Francisco.
  • July 16, 1945 - First U.S. atomic bomb test
    Potsdam Conference begins.
  • July 26, 1945 - Atlee succeeds Churchill as
    British Prime Minister.
  • August 6, 1945 - First atomic bomb dropped, on
    Hiroshima, Japan.
  • August 8, 1945 - Soviets declares war on Japan
    and invade Manchuria.
  • August 9, 1945 - Second atomic bomb dropped, on
    Nagasaki, Japan.
  • September 2, 1945 - Japanese sign the surrender
    agreement  V-J (Victory over Japan) Day.
  • October 24, 1945 - United Nations is born.
  • November 20, 1945 - Nuremberg war crimes trials
    begin.

4
The Final Months (Europe)
  • Allies invade Germany (1945)
  • American and British forces halt at Elbe River
    (prevent Hitler make stand at Berchtesgaden)
  • Russian take Berlin
  • April 30, 1945 Hitler commits suicide
  • Germans sign unconditional surrender
  • War in Europe over

5
The Final Months (Asia)
  • Conflict in Asia continue for 4 more months
  • Allied progress in Pacific to Japan slow and
    bloody
  • Americans took Guam and Iwo Jima, landed in
    Philippines
  • Tactics
  • Land on some islands while skipping others, allow
    formation of bases
  • From bases Allied planes bomb Japanese fleet and
    mainland (killed nearly 200,000 people in Tokyo
    in one week)
  • August 6 US President Harry Truman authorize use
    of atomic bomb
  • Bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki (August 9)
  • August 8 Soviet Union declare war on Japan
  • September 2, 1945 Japan surrenders

6
Post-War Issues
  • Euphoria of victory ? difficulties from war
  • Struggle with effects of death, destruction,
    displacement of people (millions)
  • Economic hardship, social dislocation, political
    division
  • Dominance of United States and Soviet Union (Cold
    War)

7
Immediate Crises
  • Devastation from war
  • Majority of deaths civilian (ex. Germans killed
    12-20 million people in occupied countries and
    concentration camps)
  • 4 million soldiers died
  • 5/6X more greater EU casualties than WWI
  • ? Total European casualties 45-55
    million
  • Industrial capability halved
  • Ports, bridges, rail lines, homes destroyed
  • Agriculture impacted (US and Soviet Union
    provide relief)
  • Farmland in FR, Italy, Germany cannot be
    cultivated
  • FR cattle number halved
  • 1945-1946 Famine a threat (ex. Vienna)
  • Disease (though penicillin helped)

8
StarHalo. World War II Deaths. Digital image.
CandlePowerForums. CandlePowerForums, n.d. Web.
12 Mar. 2013. lthttp//www.candlepowerforums.com/v
b/showthread.php?2 63721-Charts-amp-Graphsgt.
9
Immediate Crises con.
  • Refugees
  • 8 million slave laborers (from Germany) and
    millions from concentration camps sent home
  • Poles, Czechs, Hungarians, Germans leave
  • Prisoners of war (both sides)
  • Placement of refugees contributed to settlement
    of national boundaries
  • Most civilians (60 million total)
  • Majority women and children
  • Housed in abandoned factories, warehouses,
    concentration camps, crude barracks

10
Potsdam Conference
  • July 1945 Soviet Union (Stalin), Great BR
    (Churchill, Clement Attlee), and U.S. (President
    Harry Truman) meet at Potsdam
  • Germany
  • Nazi institutions all to be abolished
  • No German arms production
  • Controlled Germany industry
  • Restore democracy and free speech
  • Divide into 4 zones of occupation
  • Eastern border moved to Oder and Neisse rivers
    (enlarge Poland)
  • Japan
  • Soviet Union get some territory
  • European nations regain Asian colonies
  • Prime beneficiaries China, U.S.

11
Other Peace Settlements
  • 4 principle Allies (BR, FR, U.S., USSR) draft
    treaties for other defeated states
  • Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, Finland cede
    minor territories to neighbors
  • Austria divided into four occupied zones

12
War Crime Trials
  • Drive against Fascism and former Nazis
  • Nazi occupied countries had summary execution of
    collaborators and some public prosecutions
  • Pierre Laval and Marshal Petain publically tried
    in FR (worked with Nazis in French occupation)
  • Germanys high numbers of prosecuted made
    denazification difficult
  • Allies organize Nuremberg Trials

13
Nuremberg Trials
  • 1945-1946 international tribunal created by
    Allies, held in Nuremberg
  • Prosecute Hitlers closest associates for crimes
    against humanity
  • To inform German people horrors of Nazi rule
  • 12/22 defendants condemned to death
  • Important precedent of an international court,
    trying for genocide, and international law

14
International Agencies and Institutions
  • 1943 United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation
    Administration (UNRRA)
  • Reconstructing postwar Europe
  • Organize food and medical relief
  • International loans
  • 1944 International Monetary Fund and an
    International Bank for Reconstruction and
    Development (World Bank) established
  • Established in conference in Bretton Woods,New
    Hampshire
  • Avoid dangerous inflation
  • Support stable currencies
  • Mechanisms for shaping international capitalist
    economy
  • Main institution United Nations

15
United Nations
  • Main instrument of peace
  • Conference in San Francisco approve United
    Nations charter
  • Established
  • General Assembly (determine policy)
  • Security Council (decision-making/supervision)
  • More promising than League of Nations, but
    superpowers still compete

16
Europe Divided
  • Communists (Eastern nations and USSR) vs.
    Anticommunists (Western ones and U.S.)
  • Communist call for social justice
  • Democracy with post-war idealism
  • Led to 1947 Cold War between USSR and U.S.
    (military, political, ideological conflict)

17
Eastern Europe
  • USSR annex Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
    territories of East Prussia, Poland, Hungary, and
    Romania
  • Soviets encourage establishment of single-party,
    communist dictatorship governments loyal to them
  • Used coercion, social issues, secret police
  • Five Year Plan of 1946 ransack occupied areas
  • 1946 Forced merger of East Germanys Social
    Democratic party with Communist party ? Eastern
    zone becomes German Democratic Republic (1949)
    (Divide Germany)
  • Poland
  • Weaken Peasant party in 1947 election and come
    into power
  • Attack Catholic Church
  • Also dominate Czechoslovakia (defeat Benes and
    Masaryk), Romania, Albania, Bulgaria
  • Yugoslavia (under Marshal Tito) different avoid
    USSR influence

18
Western Europe
  • Return to democratic life, social reform
  • Right to work, social/civil rights, women
    suffrage
  • Spain, Portugal remain dictatorships
  • West Germany
  • Christian and Social Democrats return to Weimar
    Republic politics
  • Industry recover well
  • Western divisions of Germany Federal Republic
    of Germany
  • Chancellor Konrad Adenauer
  • Italy
  • Christian Democrats dominant
  • Prime minister Alcide De Gasperi (1945-1953)
  • France (Fourth Republic)
  • President subordinate to legislature, troubled by
    instability
  • Britain
  • Churchill lose to Clement Attlee (Labour party)
    in 1945
  • Launched large program of nationalization,
    welfare program
  • Tensions between Communist and Anticommunist ?
    Cold war
  • U.S. announce Truman Doctrine (against Communist
    takeover)
  • Ex. Greece, Turkey
  • Aid also Cold War issue
  • U.S. Marhsall Plan
  • Russia Council of Mutual Economic Assistance
  • Escalating tensions and fear of atomic weapons ?
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (1949)
  • Soviets form Warsaw Pact (1955)

19
Effects on Empire
  • Decolonization
  • Pressures against colonization Japanese conquest
    of European colonies, obstacles from war, U.S.
    and USSR unsupportive
  • Nationalist movements
  • India (Jawaharlal Nehru), Senegal (Leopold
    Senghor), Guinea (Sekou Toure), West Indies
    (Franz Fanon)
  • BR and FR withdraw from Middle East
  • Lebanon and Syria (1946), Iraq, Iran, Egypt,
    Sudan
  • UN endorse creation of Israeli state

20
The Global Pattern
  • Decolonization throughout world
  • Ex. Mohandas K. Gandhi ? Indian independence
    (1947)
  • Independence campaigns in Pakistan, Sri Lanka,
    Burma, Malaya, Indonesia
  • Most African colonies (ex. Ghana, Kenya) won
    independence by 1960s (Portuguese Angola caught
    in civil war backed on different sides by U.S.
    and USSR)
  • BR and FR continue influence former colonies
    through taking advantage of diplomacy, economic
    interests, common languages, and various
    institutions
  • French withdrawal from Vietnam from Vietnamese
    conflict
  • Vietnamese guerilla campaign under Ho Chi Minh
  • Cold war also had global affects
  • Mao Zedong bring communists to power in China
    (1949)
  • Democratic Japan, U.S. support in Taiwan
  • U.S. form Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) (like
    NATO)

21
  • Works Cited
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  • "Cold War." History.com. AE Television Networks,
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