Early Cold War America: A New Role, Irrational Fears, and the Dream 1945 - 1956 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Early Cold War America: A New Role, Irrational Fears, and the Dream 1945 - 1956

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Title: Early Cold War America: A New Role, Irrational Fears, and the Dream 1945 - 1956


1
Early Cold War America A New Role, Irrational
Fears, and the Dream 1945 - 1956
2
President Harry S. Truman, 1945 - 1952
  • Decisive The buck stops here.
  • A-Bomb
  • Berlin Crisis
  • Civil Rights
  • Firing of MacArthur
  • Growth of presidential power (FDR Nixon)

3
Post World War II European Politics
  • Atlantic Charter (1941) and Yalta Conference
    (1945) ? US hoped for a Wilsonian peace
  • End of US isolationism
  • US world leader
  • United Nations involvement vs. League of Nations
    in 1919
  • Division of Europe
  • Germany and Berlin ? divided into 4 sectors
  • East Europe Communist (Soviet satellite states)
  • West Europe Democracies

4
The Division of Germany and Berlin
5
An iron curtain has descended across the
Continent Churchill
6
Trumans Foreign Policy
  • Europe 1 priority
  • Containment (1947 George F. Kennan)
  • Limit the spread and influence of Communism
  • No more total victory or unconditional
    surrender
  • Truman Doctrine March 1947
  • 400 million in aid to Turkey and Greece
  • US military and economic aid to nations that were
    threatened by Communism
  • Marshall Plan June 1947
  • Massive international aid to rebuild Europe
  • Total of 13 billion

7
Marshall Plan
8
Trumans First Major Cold War Test
  • Crisis in Berlin (March 1948)
  • Soviet reaction to unification of W. Germany ?
    blockade W. Berlin
  • We are very close to war. Trumans diary
  • Trumans options
  • The choiceBerlin Airlift (June 1948 May 1949)

9
Berlin Airlift
  • 4500 tons of supplies/day for 2.2 million
    Berliners
  • 1 flight every 3 minutes

Operation Little Vittles
10
Peacetime Alliances
NATO (1949) W. Europe, US, Canada An attack on
one an attack on all Warsaw Pact (1955) E.
Europe
11
Post WWII Asia
  • Firmly in US sphere of influence
  • Japan
  • US occupied with US written Constitution ?
    democracy and capitalistic
  • All imperial holdings lost
  • Philippines
  • Independent in 1946

12
Post World War II Asia
  • 1949 A year of uncertainty
  • Containment tested China
  • Civil war resumed after WWII
  • Chiang Kai-Shek US backed Nationalists
  • Mao Zedong Communists
  • Communists won in 1949 and Nationalists fled to
    Taiwan ? Trumans commitment to containment
    questioned
  • Formal alliance with USSR in 1950 no US
    recognition for 30 years

13
Chinese Civil War
14
Mao Zedong, 1949 - 1976
15
Post WWII Asia Korean War, 1950 - 1953
  • The Cold War turns hot
  • Causes
  • Pre WWII Japanese occupation ? post WWII divided
    Korea between US and USSR
  • 38th Parallel
  • North Korea Communist Kim Il Sung
  • South Korea Democratic Syngman Rhee
  • Ongoing civil war both leaders want to unite
    Korea, but under different ideals
  • June 1950 Stalin backs N. Korean plan to invade
    S. Korea

16
The Korean War
17
The Korean War
  • Legacy
  • The Forgotten War why?
  • Active US involvement in Asia (Vietnam)
  • Permanently divided Korea
  • Tense US/China relations
  • Fading domestic support for US military action
  • Rise of UN
  • Growth of presidential power
  • No formal declaration of war police action
  • Firing of MacArthur

18
Domestic Politics 1948 Election
1. Civil Rights divided the Democratic Party ?
Dixiecrats
3. Continuation of New Deal ? Fair Deal
2. A stunning upset Truman over Dewey
19
Cold War Fears at Home
  • In fighting Communism, did we undermine democracy?

Blacklisting and the Hollywood Ten
The HUAC
20
Cold War Fears at Home
  • Fear of Communism nothing new
  • Anti-Labor Union sentiment (Haymarket Affair
    1886), Red Scare of 1920s, Liberals/Dems.
    Communists
  • Federal Employee Loyalty Program (1947 - 1951)
    under Truman
  • Background checks
  • Violated 6th Amendment rights
  • HUAC congressional
  • committee formed to
  • investigate suspected
  • Communists

21
Cold War Fears at Home
  • HUAC Target Hollywood
  • Movies power of public opinion/propaganda
  • Naming names ? blacklisting of over 300
  • Hollywood Ten (1947)
  • Violations of 1st and 5th Amendment rights ? no
    testimony
  • Jailed and fined for contempt of Congress

22
McCarthyism
Senator Joseph McCarthy Republican from
Wisconsin
23
Cold War Fears (Seemingly) Confirmed
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg 1950 - 1953
Alger Hiss Case 1948 50
24
The Election of 1952
Truman CHOSE not to run for a 3rd term
Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower
Democrat Adlai Stevenson (Senator from IL)
25
The Election of 1952
  • Southern voting patterns ? 1st Republican wins
    since Reconstruction
  • Use of TV commercials http//www.youtube.com/watc
    h?v8zB2rqaLXP4

26
Eisenhowers Presidency, 1953 - 1961
  • First Republican president since 1932 ? cut
    budget deficits and spending, BUT maintained
    basic New Deal programs
  • Korean War armistice
  • Represented traditional American values
    democracy, freedom, prosperity, family
  • Stalin died in 1953 replaced by Nikita
    Khrushchev

27
Eisenhowers Foreign Policy
  • Containment ? Brinkmanship
  • Containment unnecessarily defensive and
    complacent ? US needs to be more assertive
  • Brinkmanship (Sec. of State John Foster Dulles)
  • Take the nation to the brink of war if needed to
    stop Communism
  • Gamble Would the aggressor back down before war
    broke out?
  • Nuclear weapons the deterring threat ?
    heightened arms race and mutually assured
    destruction policy ? no incentive to go to war

28
Eisenhowers Foreign Policy
  • CIA (1947) and Covert Operations
  • Battle for influence in 3rd World Nations
  • Instability ? appeal of Communism
  • Covert operations used to support anti-Comm.
    governments even if they were ruthless and
    undemocratic lesser of two evils philosophy
  • Ex Iran and the Middle East
  • Eisenhower Doctrine US will provide aid to
    Middle Eastern nations to defeat Communist
    rebellions

29
The Middle East
30
Iran and the Cold War Key Points
  • Motivation OIL
  • Azerbaijan Crisis 1946-47
  • Iranian Coup (1953)
  • Pro-British, Pro-Western Shah Mohammed Reza
    Pahlevi
  • Popularly elected PM Mohammed Mossadegh
    nationalized Irans oil industry ? threatened
    British economy and empire
  • US concerned that Mossadegh would sell oil to
    USSR Mossadegh supported by Iranian Comm. Party
  • Joint US and British operation to overthrow
    Mossadegh and reinstate the shah (US and arms)
    in August 1953
  • Legacies
  • Anti-US sentiment in Iran
  • 1979 Iranian Revolution (overthrow Shah by
    Islamic fundamentalists) and Iranian Hostage
    Crisis
  • US lost Iran as a cold war ally in the region
  • Iran-Iraq war (1980 1988)

31
The Space Race and U-2 Incident
  • October 1957 USSR launch Sputnik ? Americans
    fear they are losing to Soviets
  • Response NASA and National Defense Education Act
    (emphasize science and math)
  • U-2 Incident (1960) American spy plane shot down
    and pilot taken captive by Soviets
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