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The Renaissance

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Introduction to the The Middle Ages Sully-sur-Loire, a medieval castle visited by (among others) Joan of Arc, Louis XIV Giotto Madonna and child – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Renaissance


1
Introduction to the The Middle Ages
Sully-sur-Loire, a medieval castle visited by
(among others) Joan of Arc, Louis XIV
Giotto Madonna and child
Notre-Dame church in Orleans, France
2
Middle Ages
  • Middle Ages/Medieval Period 476 to 1453 C.E.
    Also known as the Dark Ages
  • "Middle Age invented by Italian scholars in the
    early 15th Century. Before this, it was believed
    there had been two periods in history, the
    Ancien times and the "Dark Age.
  • Renaissance means rebirth
  • The humanistic revival of classical art,
    architecture, literature, and learning that
    originated in Italy in the 14th century and later
    spread throughout Europe.
  • The period of this revival, roughly the 14th
    through the 16th century, marking the transition
    from medieval to modern times.

3
Medieval Europe 5th century to 1453
  • Three Elements
  • Graeco-Roman civilization and culture
  • the oldest and most important
  • Christianity
  • the newest
  • Germanic culture
  • Most adaptable

4
Origins
  • Roman empire private retainers and soldiers
  • Germanic society the comitatus
  • a warrior band
  • gifts of land for service or surrendering control
    of your land or talents to a superior for his
    protection

5
Germanic Tribes and Kingdoms
  • Italy - numerous invasions (Visigoths and
    Vandals)
  • Britain - Anglo-Saxon invasions
  • Spain - Visigoths, then the Islamic Moors
  • Gaul - by the Franks

6
Roman Invasion of Britain
  • Britain conquered in 43AD
  • North Britain (Scotland) was not conquered.
  • In 122 A.D., Emperor Hadrian built a wall
    separating North and South.

7
Hadrians Wall
8
Social Structure
  • Anglo-Saxon invasion
  • a complex class system
  • lower classes must work on the nobles farm
  • Britain divided into seven kingdoms, always
    fighting
  • United under King Alfred to defend against the
    Danes

9
Medieval Period in a Historical Nutshell
  • Rome attacked in 476 C.E.
  • beginning of the Middle Ages often called the
    "Dark Ages
  • Fall of Greece and Rome
  • Life in Europe during the Middle Ages was very
    hard.
  • Few people could read or write
  • Only hope strong belief in Christianity heaven
    would be better than life on earth.
  • In contrast
  • The Muslims in the Middle East and North Africa
    studied and improved on the works of the ancient
    Greeks
  • Civilization flourished in sub-Saharan Africa,
    China, India, and the Americas.
  • Great change by about 1450
  • Columbus America
  • printing press - spread literacy
  • Scientific discoveries
  • Great works of art
  • The Renaissance is the beginning of modern
    history.

10
With the Fall of Rome..
  • Barbarian tribes invading Britain and Western
    European lands
  • Emperors became more like kings
  • Feudalism involuntary peasant labor on lands not
    their own personal bonds and personal law
    replaced impersonal law common to large expanses
    of territory

11
With the Fall of Rome..
  • Medieval Guilds
  • Catholic Church, would provide spiritual and
    moral direction, as well as leadership and
    material support, during the darkest times of the
    early Medieval period.

Barbarian - first applied to any foreigner, one
who did not have a recognized culture or degree
of polish with the speaker or writer employing
the term. It is a Greek word, and expresses with
mocking duplication ("bar-bar") alleged attempts
by outsiders to speak a "real" language.
12
Key Concepts of the Middle Ages
  • War
  • Religion

13
Social Structure
  • Norman invasion
  • the development of a feudal system
  • Feudalism nobles received land from their lord,
    and had to fight in his army
  • Manorialism villeins (serfs) received land
    from a noble, and had to do work for him
  • feudalism declined in the 14th century
  • peasants had more freedom
  • they paid rent to the noble who owned the land

14
Why Feudalism Was Needed
  • No central government, therefore a new political
    system - Feudalism.
  • Feudalism - loosely organized system of rule
    where powerful local lords divided their
    landholdings among lesser lords. In exchange,
    lesser lords, or vassals pledged service and
    loyalty to the greater lord.


15
Feudalism cont
  • Political system based on social class and duty.
    Then be rewarded (paid)
  • FIEFS included the land and peasants to work it.
    It was granted to warriors, counts, and local
    officials
  • LORD the noble who granted the land and promised
    to protect the vassal
  • VASSAL the person who received the land and
    promised loyalty and military service ---
  • SERF work three or four days a week for the lord
    as rent. Spend the rest of their week growing
    crops to feed their families. Other serfs worked
    as sharecroppers. A sharecropper had to turn over
    most of what he grew in order to be able to live
    on the land.

16
Economic Revival
  • Changes in medieval society
  • Rise of merchant class and larger middle class
  • People had greater skills
  • Inhabitants in town
    played larger role in politics
  • Townsfolk no longer
    dependent on manorial lord
  • Rise of ghettos
  • Crusades

17
The Church
  • Christianity became the universal faith of almost
    all of the people of Europe.
  • The Church was often the only way to get an
    education.
  • Monks men who lived in monasteries, or small
    communities of religious workers.

18
Middle Ages General Timeline
1095-1291C.E. Crusades
19
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20
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21
What was the Renaissance?
  • What was the Renaissance, and where did it begin?
  • Italy
  • Italian Cities
  • Urban Societies
  • Major Trading Centers
  • Secular
  • Moved away from life in the church
  • Focuses more on material objects and enjoying life

22
The Renaissance was a time of renewal Renaissance
means rebirth and Europe was recovering from the
Dark ages and the plague. People had lost their
faith in the church and began to put more focus
on human beings.
23
The Crusades and the Renaissance
Increased demand for Middle Eastern products
Stimulated production of goods to trade in Middle
Eastern markets Encouraged the use of credit
and banking
Church rule against usury and the banks
practice of charging interest helped to
secularize northern Italy. Letters of credit
served to expand the supply of money and expedite
trade. New accounting and bookkeeping practices
(use of Arabic numerals) were introduced.
24
Political Ideas of the Renaissance
Niccolò Machiavelli The Prince Machiavelli
believed One can make this generalization about
men they are ungrateful, fickle, liars, and
deceivers, they shun danger and are greedy for
profit Machiavelli observed city-state rulers of
his day and produced guidelines for the
acquisition and maintenance of power by absolute
rule. He felt that a ruler should be willing to
do anything to maintain control without worrying
about conscience.
25
  • Better for a ruler to be feared than to be loved
  • Ruler should be quick and decisive in decision
    making
  • Ruler keeps power by any means necessary
  • The end justifies the means
  • Be good when possible, and evil when necessary

26
Renaissance Economics
  • Cottage Industry
  • Art became the way to advertise economic success
    Patronage
  • Intensified commercial competition created the
    need to be efficient
  • Medici Bankers

27
Renaissance Economics
  • Profit-making became more important than Church
    doctrine
  • To overcome guilt, profit-makers indulge in
    philanthropy
  • Influence of guilds declining
  • High profits led to economic diversification

28
The Renaissance produced new ideas that were
reflected in the arts, philosophy, and
literature. Patrons, wealthy from newly expanded
trade, sponsored works which glorified
city-states in northern Italy. Education became
increasingly secular.
Medieval art and literature focused on the Church
and salvation
Renaissance art and literature focused on
individuals and worldly matters, along with
Christianity.
29
Renaissance Artists embraced some of the ideals
of Greece and Rome in their art They wanted their
subjects to be realistic and focused on humanity
and emotion New Techniques also emerged Frescos
Painting done on wet plaster became popular
because it gave depth to the paintings Sculpture
emphasized realism and the human
form Architecture reached new heights of design
30
Born in 1475 in a small town near Florence, is
considered to be one of the most inspired men who
ever lived
31
David
Michelangelo created his masterpiece David in
1504.
32
Sistine Chapel
About a year after creating David, Pope Julius II
summoned Michelangelo to Rome to work on his most
famous project, the ceiling of the Sistine
Chapel.
33
Creation of Adam
Creation of Eve
The Last Judgment
Separation of Light and Darkness
34
La Pieta 1499 Marble Sculpture
35
Moses
36
1452-1519 Painter, Sculptor, Architect, Engineer
Renaissance Man
37
Mona Lisa
38
The Last Supper
39
Notebooks
40
Raphael Painter 1483-1520
41
The School of Athens
42
How did classical knowledge of the ancient Greeks
and Romans foster humanism in the Italian
Renaissance?
Humanism Celebrated the individual Stimulated
the study of Greek and Roman literature and
culture Was supported by wealthy patrons
43
Northern Renaissance Growing wealth in Northern
Europe supported Renaissance ideas. Northern
Renaissance thinkers merged humanist ideas with
Christianity. The movable type printing press
and the production and sale of books -
1455 (Gutenberg Bible) helped disseminate ideas.
Northern Renaissance writers ErasmusThe Praise
of Folly (1511) Sir Thomas MoreUtopia
(1516) Northern Renaissance artists portrayed
religious and secular subjects.
44
Literature flourished during the Renaissance This
can be greatly attributed to Johannes
Gutenberg In 1455 Gutenberg printed the first
book produced by using moveable type. The Bible
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