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Renaissance

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Title: Renaissance


1
Renaissance
2
  • It was the awakening of the human spirit -
    feelings and thoughts
  • High culture so only affected a few
  • Was not religious or scientific but moral and
    personal
  • In Italy an almost secular attitude appeared

3
  • Economic growth was the basis for the Renaissance
  • Northern Italy (centrally located) benefited from
    the crusades and the spice trade
  • Renaissance started in Florence and follows the
    success of the Medici family
  • Florentine merchants gained control of the papal
    banking
  • 1397 Giovanni deMedici founded the Medici Bank

4
  • Even marriage vows were business arrangements
  • The popolo (poor class) hated their position and
    used force to take over the cities
  • The popolo could not retain power and were later
    replaced by despots or oligarchies
  • Northern Italian cities were communes
  • Despots showed their wealth by patronizing the
    arts - Medici

5
  • Individual had a loyalty to their own city-state
  • Five city-states dominated the peninsula Venice,
    Milan, Florence, the Papal State, and the kingdom
    of Naples
  • Cesare Borgia (Machiavellis hero and son of Pope
    Alexander VI) tried to unite the peninsula
  • Northern Europe was uniting - Italy remained
    fragmented
  • Signing and breaking alliances was common

6
  • Savonarola of Florence attacked paganism, vice,
    undemocratic government of Lorenzo de Medici, and
    corruption of Pope Alexander VI.
  • Initially people supported him but later he was
    burned
  • People did not share his opinions of the
    commercial elite

7
  • Renaissance was characterized by self-conscious
    awareness that Italians were living in a new era
  • One of the founders of this movement was Petrarch
  • The Renaissance was the light after the gloom of
    the Dark Ages
  • The Roman Empire was the peak of human
    civilization

8
  • Artists of the Renaissance had contempt for
    medieval predecessors
  • But most people lived exactly the same in the
    Renaissance period as the medieval period
  • A new individualism appeared -
  • A deep interest in Latin, a revival of the
    antique lifestyle, and a more secular spirit.

9
  • Individualism stressed
  • a) personality
  • b) uniqueness
  • c) fullest development of capabilities
  • d) the quest for glory

10
  • Humanism
  • The study of the classics became known as new
    learning or humanism
  • Cicero considered this important for anyone who
    considered himself civilized
  • Humanism emphasized
  • a) human beings
  • b) human achievements
  • c) human capabilities
  • Italian humanism became more of an interest to
    lay people

11
  • Italian Humanists
  • i) Deeply religious viewed the classics in a new
    light
  • ii) Skeptical of the authority of the classics
    because of distance from the author
  • iii) Studied classics to understand human nature
  • iv) Very Christian - men and women were in Gods
    image
  • v) Rejected classical ideas that opposed
    Christianity but sought a harmony between
    paganism, secularism, and Christianity.
  • vi) Loved the language of the classics

12
  • Secularism
  • Concerned with the material world not the eternal
    world
  • Lorenzo Valla On Pleasure defended pleasure also
    wrote On the False Donation of Constantine which
    weakened the popes authority.
  • Boccaccio Decameron about a worldly society.
  • Papal interests actually encouraged worldliness

13
Politics
The Prince - Machiavelli For Machiavelli the test
was a good government was an effective
government. Machiavellis work rests on two
principles 1) Permanent social order reflecting
Gods will is impossible 2) Politics should be
considered a science.
14
NORTHERN RENAISSANCE
  • Politics and the State

15
  • More of a blend of old and new
  • Much more religious than in Italy
  • Studied Greek and Hebrew texts for a greater
    understanding of Christianity
  • Students from England, Holland, France, and
    Germany went to Italy for the new learning
  • Northern humanists interpreted Italian ideas in
    terms of their own traditions.

16
  • a) They were more religious
  • b) They stressed the Bible and early Christian
    themes
  • c) They developed an ethical way of life
  • d) Classical and Christian cultures should be
    combined
  • e) They had a profound faith in the human
    intellect
  • f) People could be improved through education

17
Northern Humanists
  • In Germany
  • Western and southern Germany were economically
    advanced
  • 14th century - mystics like Thomas a Kempis
    believed the human soul could communicate with
    God
  • They did not rebel against the Church but wanted
    a deeper religion

18
  • In France
  • Jacques Lefevre dEtaples applied humanism to
    religion
  • Believed in education
  • Rabelais was secular
  • Wrote Gargantua and Pantagruel

19
  • In England
  • More was trained as a lawyer
  • Deeply interested in the classics
  • Entered government under Henry VIII
  • Wrote Utopia where all children receive a
    humanist education.

20
  • More believed private property caused vices and
    civil disorder
  • Lost his life to maintain his convictions

21
  • Low Countries
  • Erasmus had a deep appreciation for the classics
  • Most well-respected man in Europe
  • Influenced by John Colet in England
  • Wrote The Education of a Christian Prince and The
    Praise of Folly

22
  • Two main themes
  • 1) Education is the means to reform
  • 2) The philosophy of Christ Christianity is an
    inner feeling

23
new monarchs
  • A new breed of leaders - ruthless, preferred
    security to love
  • Outside of Italy they were actively building
    states
  • They used the monarchy to guarantee law and order
  • The despots of Italy, Henry VII of England, Louis
    XI of France, Ferdinand of Aragon
  • All Machiavellian (but could not have read The
    Prince)

24
  • 1) invested kingship with strong authority and
    national purpose
  • 2) Monarchy linked all classes of society within
    a boundary
  • 3) Insisted on respect and loyalty
  • 4) Ruthless oppressed rebellions and opposition
  • 5) Loved the business of kingship
  • 6) Tended to rely on the middle-class - new
    bourgeoisie

25
FRANCE
  • Charles VII revived the monarchy
  • i) expelled the English
  • ii) increased the influence of the middle class
  • iii) strengthened finances through taxes like
    salt (gabelle) and land (taille)
  • iv) created first permanent royal army
  • v) by the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438)
    asserted French Church supremacy over the papacy
  • vi) crown could appoint bishops

26
  • His son, Louis XI (Valois) was a Renaissance
    prince
  • Promoted industryimproved the armysigned
    international treaties
  • The Estates General met only once during his
    reign
  • 1516 Francis I signed the Concordat of Bologna
    which rescinded the Pragmatic Sanction - king
    could appoint bishops (keeping France Catholic)

27
ENGLAND
  • Decimated by the Black Death
  • The Tudors (1485-1603) won War of the Roses
  • They passed laws against nobles having standing
    armies
  • The monarch did not depend on government for
    money so much more independent
  • Royal Council (Star Chamber) was the center of
    authority

28
  • The Royal Council handled the kings business
    including arranging marriages.
  • Aristocratic threats were dealt with by the Star
    Chamber
  • Star Chamber used Roman Law and methods to
    enforce the law
  • a) accused people were not entitled to see the
    evidence against them
  • b) sessions were in secret
  • c) torture was often used
  • d) there were no juries

29
  • The Tudors promoted peace and order
  • Henry VII (1485) rebuilt the monarchy
  • Ruled through unpaid officials
  • a) he encouraged trade
  • b) built up the merchant fleet
  • c) crushed an invasion from Ireland
  • d) secured peace with Scotland (his daughter
    Margaret married the Scottish king)

30
SPAIN
  • Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon
    married (1469) and united the regions
  • They ruled through hermandades
  • Restructured the royal council - excluded the
    rich and powerful
  • The church was the linchpin of the reform.
  • Alliance with the Spanish pope Alexander VI
    Spanish monarchs gained great power and a
    national church

31
  • reconquista (1492) - expulsion of the Jews and
    Moors from Spainlasted over 100 years
  • Conversos- Jews that converted
  • Moriscos - Christians of Moorish background
  • Marranos - Christians of Jewish background
  • inquisition - the ruthless court that decided if
    conversos were telling the truth later used
    against the Protestants

32
  • Ferdinand and Isabella expelling all Jews from
    Spain had major economic consequences
  • Absolute religious orthodoxy and pure blood were
    the foundation of Spain
  • Ferdinand and Isabellas daughter Joanna married
    Philip. Their son was Charles V, the Holy Roman
    Emperor.
  • Charles V - the Universal Monarch

33
Germany
  • Part of the Holy Roman Empire
  • Local lords recognized the supremacy of the
    Emperor, who was elected by 7 Electors
  • 1452 Archduke of Austria (Habsburg) was elected
    Emperor Maximilian I (1493-1519)
  • He married the heiress of the Duke of Burgundy
  • Their son, Philip married Mad Joanna, daughter of
    Ferdinand and Isabella
  • Their son was Charles V

34
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35
Politics
  • The Prince - Machiavelli
  • For Machiavelli the test was a good government
    was an effective government.
  • Machiavellis work rests on two principles
  • 1) Permanent social order reflecting Gods will
    is impossible
  • 2) Politics should be
  • considered a science.

36
  • Johann Gutenberg changed the course of history
    with the movable print. Printing made propaganda
    possible and forced people into groups i.e.
    church and state or Crown and nobility.
  • Printing stimulated literacy of lay people.

37
Women
  • The status of upper-class women declined
  • women generally had less power than in the Middle
    Ages
  • Renaissance humanism represented an educational
    advance for a small minority.
  • Women had to choose marriage or education
  • Education brought jealousy and envy

38
  • Girls in the upper-class were taught how to
    dance, paint, and play music - they were
    decorative
  • Women belonged at home
  • Educational opportunities were severely
    limitedLiterary and art works had no effect on
    ordinary women
  • Women were a sign of wealth.
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