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The Renaissance


The Renaissance Describe three of the great changes that occurred in Europe during the Renaissance. Explain the influence Petrarch had on the Renaissance in .Europe – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Renaissance

The Renaissance
  • Describe three of the great changes that occurred
    in Europe during the Renaissance.
  • Explain the influence Petrarch had on the
    Renaissance in .Europe
  • Identify the practices within the Roman Catholic
    Church that led to the Reformation.
  • Explain how peoples thinking changed during the
  • Explain the effects that the Renaissance
    continues to have on us today.

The Duomo of Florence
The Awakening
  • Italy consisted of many city-states, but three
    were very important.
  • Florence
  • Milan
  • Venice
  • These were the sites of trade and commerce (the
    buying and selling of large quantity of goods.
  • Florence was the birthplace of the Renaissance.
  • The Renaissance was the intellectual and
    economic movement that saw a revived interest in
    the art, social, and scientific, and political
    ideas of ancient Greece and Rome.

Italian City-States
  • A poet and a scholar
  • A powerful influence on the early Renaissance
  • He encouraged people to seek out and study the
    philosophy and literature of the past.
  • He encouraged people to speak and write
  • The style is the man.
  • Careless expression was the sign of careless

The Awakening
  • As markets grew, merchants, bankers, and trades
    people became more prosperous.
  • They wanted fine clothing and jewelry.
  • The Renaissance spread to England, France,
    Germany, the Netherlands, and Spain.

Art in the Renaissance
Art in the Renaissance
  • The Renaissance began in Italy for several
  • Ancient ruins could be seen all over the Italian
  • Trade made the Italian city-states wealthy.
  • The wealthy people would hire artists to create
    beautiful works of art.
  • Unlike medieval European artists, Renaissance
    painters and sculptors portrayed people and
    nature realistically.

Renaissance Artists
  • They were inspired by Greek and Roman artists.
  • They mastered the art of the perspective
    objects in paintings are closer or farther from
    their viewer.
  • They gave depth to pictures as well as proportion
    to people, things, and buildings.

The Betrothal of the Arnolfini
Raphaels School of Athens
Famous Renaissance Artists
  • Raphael, Michelangelo, and Leonardo da Vinci
    were famous Renaissance artists.
  • Some people considered them to be geniuses.
  • Raphael was noted for his portraits of the Mother
    of Jesus.
  • He mastered perspective and architecture.

  • Not only a painter, but the finest sculptor of
    the Renaissance.
  • He painted the Sistine Chapel in fresco and
    sculpted the Pieta.
  • He carefully chose marble blocks by visiting the
    quarries where they were mined.
  • He would visit the mine before the sun rose and
    wait to see how the sun shone through the marble
    in order to recognize flaws.

The Sistine Chapel
Leonardo da Vinci
  • A painter, sculptor, engineer, and a scientist.
  • His most famous paintings were the Mona Lisa and
    The Last Supper.
  • He created statues of men and horses.
  • As a scientist, he investigated optics (the study
    of light and vision), and dissected human bodies
    to study anatomy.

Mona Lisa
The Last Supper
Leonardo Da Vinci
  • Leonardo Da Vinci is believed to be the first
    person to draw the human body accurately.
  • He experimented with mechanics, the study of
    forces on solids, liquids and gases.
  • He build models of aircrafts, a parachute, tanks,
    machine guns, and moveable bridges.
  • He wrote books backwards so they had to be held
    up to a mirror.
  • He didnt want everyone to read what he
    everything he wrote.

Leonardo Da Vincis Flying Machine
Revolution in Science
  • Renaissance thinkers believe people should use
    reasoned thought and the scientific method to
    understand how the world works.
  • Two very influential scientists were Copernicus
    and Galileo.
  • Both were astronomers and both taught that the
    Earth moves around the sun.

  • Copernicus taught at the University of Cracow in
  • His studies led him to believe that the Earth was
    not the center of the universe.
  • He wrote his ideas in 1510 but did not allow them
    to be published until 1540.

  • He lived in Italy and taught at the University of
  • He spoke out in favor of Copernicus ideas and
    was criticized by the Catholic Church.
  • He built an improved telescope and became the
    first person to point it to the sky.
  • He used it to study the sky.

  • Galileos studies challenged the Catholic Church
    and they placed him on trial.
  • He was put on house arrest for the rest of his
  • He still described the motion of pendulums and
    the physics of motion.

Renaissance Inventions
  • Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press
    that used movable type, or small reusable metal
    pieces for each letter or number.
  • In 1455 he introduced a Bible printed on his
    printing press.
  • Up until this time, books had to be written by
  • The printing press produced books far more
    quickly and allowed books to become more
    affordable for the middle class.

The Printing Press
  • Invented by Johannes Gutenberg.
  • Produced books far more quickly than they could
    by hand.
  • The demand for books grew and the book trade
  • Books were made more affordable for the educated
    middle class.
  • People became more literate and the economy

Other Inventions
  • Leonardo Da Vinci experimented with mechanics,
    but many of his inventions were too advanced for
    his time.
  • The watch was created in the early 1500s.
  • A mainspring was created so clocks didnt have to
    be operated by fallen weights and remain
  • A compound microscope was later improved upon and
    a single lens microscope was created in 1670 that
    could magnify and object 270 times its real size.
  • The air thermometer was invented in 1592.

The Need for Church Reform
  • Problems with the Church
  • The Church became wealthy and with wealth came
  • The Church sold indulgences, or pardons from
    punishment for sins.
  • Originally, indulgences could be received by
    doing charity or fasting, but now people could
    buy them.
  • Indulgences were given to crusaders who fought in
    the war.

Martin Luther
  • He believed Christians should not be judged by
    the good works they perform, but by their belief
    in God.
  • He challenged the Church by posting 95 theses and
    attacked the sale of indulgences.
  • He believed people should read and interpret the
    Bible themselves. The church said only the pope
    or other church officials should do this.
  • Martin Luther called for a debate.

Reactions to Martin Luther
  • The church excommunicated, or expelled, Martin
    Luther from the Church.
  • Martin Luther was asked to take back his
    statements but he said he could not.
  • People who followed his beliefs became Lutherans.
  • Other groups started to break away from the
  • The Reformation began in which people wanted to
    reform or change the church.
  • This began a movement known as Protestantism.

The Catholic Church Responds
  • The Catholic Church calls the Council of Trent.
  • These efforts were known as The
  • Roman Catholics still accepted that only the
    Church could explain the Bible.
  • The believed the pope was the highest authority
    in church.
  • The church began a ban on the selling of
  • The Catholic Church was again split between
    Catholics and Protestants.