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The Renaissance

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The Renaissance Describe three of the great changes that occurred in Europe during the Renaissance. Explain the influence Petrarch had on the Renaissance in .Europe – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Renaissance


1
The Renaissance
  • Describe three of the great changes that occurred
    in Europe during the Renaissance.
  • Explain the influence Petrarch had on the
    Renaissance in .Europe
  • Identify the practices within the Roman Catholic
    Church that led to the Reformation.
  • Explain how peoples thinking changed during the
    Renaissance.
  • Explain the effects that the Renaissance
    continues to have on us today.

2
The Duomo of Florence
3
The Awakening
  • Italy consisted of many city-states, but three
    were very important.
  • Florence
  • Milan
  • Venice
  • These were the sites of trade and commerce (the
    buying and selling of large quantity of goods.
  • Florence was the birthplace of the Renaissance.
  • The Renaissance was the intellectual and
    economic movement that saw a revived interest in
    the art, social, and scientific, and political
    ideas of ancient Greece and Rome.

4
Italian City-States
5
Petrarch
  • A poet and a scholar
  • A powerful influence on the early Renaissance
  • He encouraged people to seek out and study the
    philosophy and literature of the past.
  • He encouraged people to speak and write
    thoughtfully.
  • The style is the man.
  • Careless expression was the sign of careless
    thought.

6
The Awakening
  • As markets grew, merchants, bankers, and trades
    people became more prosperous.
  • They wanted fine clothing and jewelry.
  • The Renaissance spread to England, France,
    Germany, the Netherlands, and Spain.

7
Art in the Renaissance
8
Art in the Renaissance
  • The Renaissance began in Italy for several
    reasons.
  • Ancient ruins could be seen all over the Italian
    Peninsula.
  • Trade made the Italian city-states wealthy.
  • The wealthy people would hire artists to create
    beautiful works of art.
  • Unlike medieval European artists, Renaissance
    painters and sculptors portrayed people and
    nature realistically.

9
Renaissance Artists
  • They were inspired by Greek and Roman artists.
  • They mastered the art of the perspective
    objects in paintings are closer or farther from
    their viewer.
  • They gave depth to pictures as well as proportion
    to people, things, and buildings.

10
The Betrothal of the Arnolfini
11
Raphaels School of Athens
12
Famous Renaissance Artists
  • Raphael, Michelangelo, and Leonardo da Vinci
    were famous Renaissance artists.
  • Some people considered them to be geniuses.
  • Raphael was noted for his portraits of the Mother
    of Jesus.
  • He mastered perspective and architecture.

13
Michelangelo
  • Not only a painter, but the finest sculptor of
    the Renaissance.
  • He painted the Sistine Chapel in fresco and
    sculpted the Pieta.
  • He carefully chose marble blocks by visiting the
    quarries where they were mined.
  • He would visit the mine before the sun rose and
    wait to see how the sun shone through the marble
    in order to recognize flaws.

14
Pieta
15
The Sistine Chapel
16
Leonardo da Vinci
  • A painter, sculptor, engineer, and a scientist.
  • His most famous paintings were the Mona Lisa and
    The Last Supper.
  • He created statues of men and horses.
  • As a scientist, he investigated optics (the study
    of light and vision), and dissected human bodies
    to study anatomy.

17
Mona Lisa
18
The Last Supper
19
Leonardo Da Vinci
  • Leonardo Da Vinci is believed to be the first
    person to draw the human body accurately.
  • He experimented with mechanics, the study of
    forces on solids, liquids and gases.
  • He build models of aircrafts, a parachute, tanks,
    machine guns, and moveable bridges.
  • He wrote books backwards so they had to be held
    up to a mirror.
  • He didnt want everyone to read what he
    everything he wrote.

20
Leonardo Da Vincis Flying Machine
21
Revolution in Science
  • Renaissance thinkers believe people should use
    reasoned thought and the scientific method to
    understand how the world works.
  • Two very influential scientists were Copernicus
    and Galileo.
  • Both were astronomers and both taught that the
    Earth moves around the sun.

22
Copernicus
  • Copernicus taught at the University of Cracow in
    Poland.
  • His studies led him to believe that the Earth was
    not the center of the universe.
  • He wrote his ideas in 1510 but did not allow them
    to be published until 1540.

23
Galileo
  • He lived in Italy and taught at the University of
    Pisa.
  • He spoke out in favor of Copernicus ideas and
    was criticized by the Catholic Church.
  • He built an improved telescope and became the
    first person to point it to the sky.
  • He used it to study the sky.

24
Galileo
  • Galileos studies challenged the Catholic Church
    and they placed him on trial.
  • He was put on house arrest for the rest of his
    life.
  • He still described the motion of pendulums and
    the physics of motion.

25
Renaissance Inventions
  • Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press
    that used movable type, or small reusable metal
    pieces for each letter or number.
  • In 1455 he introduced a Bible printed on his
    printing press.
  • Up until this time, books had to be written by
    hand.
  • The printing press produced books far more
    quickly and allowed books to become more
    affordable for the middle class.

26
The Printing Press
  • Invented by Johannes Gutenberg.
  • Produced books far more quickly than they could
    by hand.
  • The demand for books grew and the book trade
    flourished.
  • Books were made more affordable for the educated
    middle class.
  • People became more literate and the economy
    strengthened.

27
Other Inventions
  • Leonardo Da Vinci experimented with mechanics,
    but many of his inventions were too advanced for
    his time.
  • The watch was created in the early 1500s.
  • A mainspring was created so clocks didnt have to
    be operated by fallen weights and remain
    stationary.
  • A compound microscope was later improved upon and
    a single lens microscope was created in 1670 that
    could magnify and object 270 times its real size.
  • The air thermometer was invented in 1592.

28
The Need for Church Reform
  • Problems with the Church
  • The Church became wealthy and with wealth came
    corruption.
  • The Church sold indulgences, or pardons from
    punishment for sins.
  • Originally, indulgences could be received by
    doing charity or fasting, but now people could
    buy them.
  • Indulgences were given to crusaders who fought in
    the war.

29
Martin Luther
  • He believed Christians should not be judged by
    the good works they perform, but by their belief
    in God.
  • He challenged the Church by posting 95 theses and
    attacked the sale of indulgences.
  • He believed people should read and interpret the
    Bible themselves. The church said only the pope
    or other church officials should do this.
  • Martin Luther called for a debate.

30
Reactions to Martin Luther
  • The church excommunicated, or expelled, Martin
    Luther from the Church.
  • Martin Luther was asked to take back his
    statements but he said he could not.
  • People who followed his beliefs became Lutherans.
  • Other groups started to break away from the
    Church.
  • The Reformation began in which people wanted to
    reform or change the church.
  • This began a movement known as Protestantism.

31
The Catholic Church Responds
  • The Catholic Church calls the Council of Trent.
  • These efforts were known as The
    Counter-Reformation.
  • Roman Catholics still accepted that only the
    Church could explain the Bible.
  • The believed the pope was the highest authority
    in church.
  • The church began a ban on the selling of
    indulgences.
  • The Catholic Church was again split between
    Catholics and Protestants.
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