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American Revolution

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American Revolution 1775-1783 First Battle Lexington and Concord, Mass. April 19, 1775 Shot Heard Round The World British army against Militia ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: American Revolution


1
American Revolution
  • 1775-1783

2
The Coming Revolution
  • First Battle Lexington and Concord, Mass.
    April 19, 1775
  • Shot Heard Round The World
  • British army against Militia (Minutemen)
  • Battle of Bunker Hill June 1775 Boston
  • Dont fire until you see the whites of their
    eyes!
  • Shortage of gunpowder
  • Mecklenburg Resolves May 31, 1775
  • declared that British rule in the colonies was
    ended
  • Second Continental Congress May-June, 1775
    Philadelphia
  • A. Created a Continental Army
  • B. Chose George Washington to command
  • C. Olive Branch Petition

3
Second Continental Congress
4
Bunker Hill
Battle of Lexington
5
War in North Carolina 1775-1776
  • Opposing Sides
  • 1. Patriots in favor of independence, many
    former Regulators
  • 2. Loyalists/Tories wanted to remain part of
    England - political elite, recent immigrants
  • 3. Population is One/Third Patriot, One/Third
    Loyalist, One/Third Neutral at start of war
    majority has become Patriot by end of war

6
  • Josiah Martin last royal governor of NC
  • Battle of Moores Creek Bridge February 26,
    1776
  • Patriots win keeps Loyalists from taking over
    NC, keeps British from invading
  • Halifax Resolves April 12, 1776
  • document that makes NC the first colony to
    officially support independence
  • Some Trivia
  • Two dates on North Carolinas state flag
  • May 20, 1775Mecklenburg Resolves
  • April 12, 1776Halifax Resolves

7
Declaring Independence
  • Common Sense published January 9, 1776
  • (pg. 125 in textbook--The Power of Words and
    Ideas)
  • Thomas Paine
  • B. First written work to state that the colonies
    should be independent
  • Declaration of Independence
  • A. Approved by Second Continental Congress on
    July 4th, 1776signed by John Hancock President
    of the 2nd Continental Congress
  • B. Not signed until August 2nd, 1776
  • C. Contained three main ideas
  • 1. All men possess Unalienable Rights
  • 2. England had violated the colonists rights
  • 3. Colonies had the right to break away from
    England

8
  • THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
  • 4.   People have certain unalienable rights
    (rights that can not be taken away)
  • a.   Life
  • b.  Liberty
  • c.    Pursuit of happiness
  • 5.   People establish government to protect those
    rights.
  • 6.   Government derives power from the people.
  • 7.   People have a right and a duty to change a
    government that violates their rights.

9
Declaration of Independence
Picture of the Original Document
10
  • D. Written by Thomas Jefferson originally
    contained a clause outlawing slavery
    southerners would not approve
  • E. Declaration of Independence did not address
    the rights of slaves or women New England
    states abolished slavery on their own by 1784
  • Signers from NC William Hooper, Joseph Hewes,
    John Penn
  • Signers of the Declaration of Independence were
    committing treason and it was punishable by death

11
Signing of Declaration of Independence
Thomas Jefferson
12
Minority Groups
  • A. Blacks were not allowed to fight in
    Continental army at first
  • B. Lord Dunmores Proclamation British
    promised freedom to any slave who fought for them
    over 10,000 (p. 139 in textbook)
  • For the British built forts, unloaded supplies,
    gathered food
  • Some slaves fought in place of their owners (Ned
    Griffin for William Kitchin)
  • C. Most American Indians supported the British
    or remained neutral Cherokee led by
    Attakullakulla
  • D. For womens role see previous work
    (Remember the Ladies and pp. 50-55 in Change
    Challenge book)

13
Attakullakulla
Molly Pitcher
14
War in the North
  • A. 1775-1776 British win most battles
  • B. Low point of war for Patriots early winter
    of 1776
  • 1. Battle of Trenton December 25, 1776
  • 2. Hessians German mercenaries
  • C. Turning point of war in Northern colonies was
    the Battle of Saratoga October 17, 1777
  • 1. Defeated British plan to split the colonies
    in half
  • 2. France and Spain join the Patriots against
    England

15
Washington crossing the Delaware
Battle of Trenton
16
Battle of Saratoga
17
NC State Constitution
  • Written in November 1776 approved on December
    18, 1776
  • Conservatives wanted only wealthy people in
    government
  • Radicals wanted to open government to all free
    adult men (including blacks and Indians living
    outside of tribal lands)
  • Set up two-house legislature called the General
    Assembly. This body would elect the governor who
    had very limited power.
  • Each county would elect 2 representatives to the
    House (of Representatives) and 1 to the Senate
  • All free men over 21 who paid taxes could vote
  • To be in the government, you had to own at least
    100-300 acres of land.

18
  • NC life during wartime blockade created
    shortages, financial difficulties, ongoing
    conflict between the Patriots and Loyalists
    (1000s of Loyalists left the state)
  • 3 types of troops Continental Army, militias,
    partisans or irregulars
  • 3. Valley Forge Winter of 1777-78 Americans
    did not have enough food, clothing, or shelter.
    They had also not been paid for months. 2000
    died. Ages ran from 12 to 60
  • 4. Alliance with France in 1778
  • Marquis De Lafayette
  • sent supplies, money, troops, navy

19
Valley Forge
Marquis De Lafayette
Steuben trains the Americans
20
War in the South
  • After Saratoga (turning point of the war),
    British focus on the southern colonies most
    loyalists in South
  • A. British are successful at first, winning most
    southern battles
  • Charleston May 1780
  • Camden August 16, 1780
  • B. These battles destroyed the Patriots southern
    army
  • C. Patriots had to resort to Guerilla warfare
    hit and run, (terrorist-style) Francis Marion
    (used as model for The Patriot) - Partisans

21
South Continued
  • The Hornets Nestarea around Charlotte where
    the British army under Cornwallis met constant
    harassment by Patriots under the leadership of
    William Davie and William Lee Dawson
  • Battle of Kings Mountain, NC (35 miles from
    Charlotte)
  • October 7, 1780
  • Patriots under the leadership of John Sevier,
    Isaac Shelby, and Joseph Charles McDowell
    defeated the Loyalists under command of Patrick
    Ferguson
  • Considered a turning point in the war
  • NC Loyalists v. NC Patriots (mostly)
  • Kept the British from moving north until spring

22
South Continued
  • Battle of Cowpens, SC
  • January 17, 1781
  • Nathanael Greene became commander of Continental
    Army in the South
  • Divided army into smaller units used militia to
    fire 2 shots Daniel MorganPatriot commander
  • Greene crushed British led by Banastre Tarleton
  • Made the British chase the colonists into NC
  • .British were commanded by Charles Cornwallis
    decide to move north through North Carolina to
    meet main British army in the North.

23
  • Battle of Guilford Courthouse
  • March 15, 1781
  • Greene goes to NC and waits for Cornwallis at
    Guilford County Courthouse (now Greensboro)
  • British win, but are badly weakened1/4 of
    British troops dead or badly wounded
  • Another such victory would destroy the British
    army (British politicians quote)
  • Tory Warjust in NC
  • conflict between Patriots and Loyalists
  • Tory leaderDavid Fanning
  • Major attack near Hillsborough took prisoners
    including the NC governor which were handed over
    to the British

24
End of War
  • Cornwallis is surrounded by American and French
    armies and French navy at Yorktown, Virginia
  • British surrender on October 20, 1781 last
    major battle of war
  • Some trivia The British army band played The
    World Turned Upside Down
  • British decided war was not worth the costpulled
    troops
  • Treaty of Paris is signed in 1783 America gets
    independence
  • (Make sure you have read pp. 116-143 in your
    textbook A Journey Through North Carolina.) You
    are responsible for all information included in
    these pages.

25
Francis Marion The Swamp Fox
George Rogers Clark
26
Nathanael Greene
Charles Cornwallis
27
British surrender at Yorktown
28
Revolutions Aftermath
  • NCs economy was wrecked and the state had a
    large war debt - 3 million
  • Thousands of casualties (dead and wounded)often
    from fighting each other
  • Raleigh was chosen as state capitalnear center
    of the state
  • 1795 University of North Carolina opens
  • Chartered in 1789 by General Assembly
  • nations first public university
  • 1st studentHinton James attends classes for 1st
    time in February
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