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Title: Chapter 21: Revolutionary Changes in Atlantic World, 1750-1850


1
Chapter 21 Revolutionary Changes in Atlantic
World, 1750-1850
2
(No Transcript)
3
Essential Question
  • How did the costs of imperial wars the
    Enlightenment challenge established political
    structures forms of governance religion in
    Europe the American colonies?

4
Prelude to Revolution Eighteenth-Century Crisis
  • European rivalries increased
  • Dutch attacked Spanish Portuguese in Americas
    Asia
  • Britain
  • checked Dutch commercial colonial ambitions
  • defeated France-Seven Years War (17561763)
  • French Indian War in N. America
  • took over French colonial possessions in
    Americas India
  • Huge costs drove them to seek new revenue
  • Enlightenment inspired people to question
    protest new ways of collecting revenue

5
The Enlightenment the Old Order
  • Enlightenment thinkers applied methods
    questions of Scientific Revolution to study of
    human society

6
Enlightenment Old Order
  • Enlightenment encouraged reform, not revolution
  • Women were instrumental
  • New ideas attracted expanding middle class
  • Americas viewed as new, uncorrupted- progress
    would come more quickly
  • Benjamin Franklin was symbol of natural genius
    potential of America

7
Folk Cultures Popular Protest
  • Most people didnt support Enlightenment ideas
  • tax reforms, etc. were violations of sacred
    customs
  • violent protests meant to restore
    custom/precedent, not revolutionary change

8
American Revolution, 17751800
  • After French defeat in 1763, British faced two
    problems
  • Conflict between settlers Amerindians
  • need to pay debts defend colonies
  • provoked protests in colonies
  • policies undermined Amerindian economy
  • led to attempts to restrict settlement
  • Proclamation of 1763
  • Quebec Act of 1774

9
Road to Independence
  • British government tried to raise new revenue
  • Stamp Act of 1765
  • Colonists organized boycotts, staged violent
    protests, and attacked British officials
  • Boston Massacre
  • East India Company granted monopoly on import of
    tea to the colonies
  • Boston Tea Party

10
Course of Revolution, 17751783
  • Continental Congress formed
  • Thomas Paines pamphlet Common Sense
    Declaration of Independence
  • Military sent to pacify colonies
  • won most battles
  • unable to control countryside
  • unable to achieve compromise political solution
    to problems of colonies

11
Course of Revolution, 17751783
  • Amerindians allies to both sides
  • France entered war as ally of US in 1778
  • Crucial to success
  • naval support enabled Washington to defeat
    Cornwallis at Yorktown, Virginia
  • Treaty of Paris (1783), gave unconditional
    independence to former colonies

12
Construction of Republican Institutions, to 1800
  • colonies drafted written constitutions
  • Articles of Confederation served as constitution
    for US during after war
  • democratic but only minority of adult male
    population could vote
  • protected slavery

13
French Revolution, 17891815
  • Clergy/nobility controlled most wealth
  • Clergy exempt from taxes
  • Third Estate, rapidly growing, wealthy middle
    class (bourgeoisie)
  • peasants (80 of population), suffered -poor
    harvests
  • violent protests-not revolutionary
  • expensive wars drove France into debt
  • kings introduced new taxes fiscal reforms to
    increase revenue
  • met with resistance

14
Protest Turns to Revolution, 17891792
  • King called Estates General for approval of new
    taxes
  • Third Estate some members of First Estate
    declared National Assembly-pledged to write
    constitution to incorporate popular sovereignty
  • As king prepared to arrest members of National
    Assembly, common people of Paris rose up against
    government-peasant uprisings broke out in
    countryside
  • National Assembly issued Declaration of the
    Rights of Man
  • As economic crisis grew worse, Parisian market
    women marched on Versailles-captured king
    family
  • National Assembly passed new constitution
    -limited power of monarchy, restructured French
    politics and society.
  • Austria Prussia threatened to
    intervene-National Assembly declared war in 1791

15
The Terror, 17931794
  • Kings attempt to flee, led to execution
    formation of new government, the National
    Convention, which was dominated by radical
    Mountain faction of Jacobins, led by, Robespierre
  • Under Robespierre, executive power placed in
    hands of Committee of Public Safety, militant
    feminist forces repressed, new actions against
    clergy approved, suspected enemies imprisoned
    guillotined
  • In July 1794, conservatives in National
    Convention voted to arrest execute Robespierre

16
Reaction Rise of Napoleon, 17951815
  • Convention worked to undo radical reforms of
    Robespierre years, ratified a more conservative
    constitution created new executive authority,
    the Directory
  • Directorys suspension of election results of
    1797 signaled end of republican phase of
    revolution
  • Napoleon seized power in 1799-began another form
    of government popular authoritarianism
  • Napoleon provided internal stability protection
    of personal/property rights
  • negotiated agreement w/ Catholic Church
    (Concordat of 1801)
  • Created Civil Code of 1804
  • declared himself emperor (also in 1804)
  • Napoleonic system denied basic political
    property rights to women- restricted speech
    expression
  • stability depended on military diplomacy
  • No single European state could defeat Napoleon-
  • occupation of Iberian Peninsula turned into
    costly war w/ resistance forces
  • attack on Russia ended in disaster
  • Alliance of Russia, Austria, Prussia, England
    defeated Napoleon in 1814

17
Haitian Revolution, 1789-1804
  • French Saint Domingue was one of richest European
    colonies in Americas
  • one of most brutal slave regimes
  • political turmoil in France led to conflict
    between slaves gens de couleur whites
  • slave rebellion under François Dominique
    Toussaint LOuverture took over in 1794
  • Napoleons attempt to reestablish French
    authority led to capture of LOuverture- failed
    to retake colony
  • became independent republic of Haiti in 1804

1791-Slaves rebel, end slavery, create Western
Hemispheres second independent nation Haiti
18
Congress of Vienna Conservative Retrenchment,
18151820
  • From 1814 to 1815, Britain, Russia, Prussia,
    Austria met in Vienna to reestablish safeguard
    the conservative order in Europe
  • The Congress of Vienna
  • restored the French monarchy
  • redrew borders of France other European states
  • established Holy Alliance of Austria, Russia,
    Prussia
  • Holy Alliance defeated liberal revolutions in
    Spain Italy in 1820
  • Tried, without success, to repress liberal
    nationalist ideas

19
Nationalism, Reform, Revolution, 18211850
  • Popular support for national self-determination
    democratic reform grew
  • Greece gained independence from Ottoman Empire
  • French monarchy forced to accept constitutional
    rule extend voting privileges
  • Democratic reform in both Britain in US
  • In Europe, desire for national self-determination
    democratic reform led to series of revolutions
    in 1848

20
Conclusion The American Revolution
  • expense of colonial wars led to imposition of new
    taxes on colonials
  • Resentment over taxation led British American
    colonies to fight win independence
  • New American government reflected for
    contemporaries the democratic ideals of the
    Enlightenment

21
Conclusion The French Revolution
  • Revolutionaries in France created more radical
    representative democracy than found in America
  • Events in France led to Haitian Revolution
    Haitis independence
  • Entrenched elite forces within foreign
    intervention from without, made French Haitian
    Revolutions more violent destructive than
    American Revolution
  • In France, chaos led to rise of Napoleon

22
Aftermath of Revolution
  • Conservative retrenchment after Napoleon
    prevailed in the short term in Europe-nationalism
    liberalism could not be held in check for long
  • New social classes that arose w/ industrial
    capitalism demanded a new social political
    order
  • New political freedoms were limited to a minority
  • Women could not participate until twentieth
    century
  • slavery endured until second half of 19th
    century in America
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