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The Research Paper


The Research Paper What does this quote mean? MLA Format Where do you put the period? Body Paragraphs The Basic Principles of Persuasive Writing Tips for Writing Your ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Research Paper

The Research Paper
What does this quote mean?
What are you trying to tell your audience?
Start with your Basic topic
Then figure out why your topic is important
Examples --the impact of the atomic bomb of
modern warfare --how aggression and anger affects
personality --the assassination of JFK remains
one of the biggest and most controversial
American mysteries to date --the battle of
Antietam was one of the bloodiest battles in
American history
What does your audience need to know about your
topic to be informed?
Group similar sub-topics together
Shakespeares Shakespeares Playwright The
Returning Death Parents Siblings
Education Poet Globe to Stratford The
Childhood Career Later
Add supporting details and extra information
Shakespeares Career
-several plays on London stage by 1592 -wrote
Romeo and Juliet, The Merchant of Venice, Hamlet,
etc. -divided his time between London and
What is a thesis statement?
  • A thesis statement is an opinion-based sentence
    that names the topic of your paper. It is the
    last sentence in your introduction.

A thesis statement must do three things
  • Make a claim (that is debatable)
  • Be supportable with research
  • Be specific and narrow (only covering what is
    discussed in paper)
  • Be expressed in one sentence
  • You may need to revise it after youve written
    your paper in its entirety.

Types of Claims
  • Claims of fact or definition These claims argue
    about what the definition of something is or
    whether something is a settled fact. Example
  • What some people refer to as global warming is
    actually nothing more than normal, long-term
    cycles of climate change.
  • Claims of cause and effect These claims argue
    that one person, thing, or event caused another
    thing or event to occur. Example
  • The popularity of SUV's in America has caused
    pollution to increase.

Types of Claims
  • Claims about value These are claims made of what
    something is worth, whether we value it or not,
    how we would rate or categorize something.
  • Global warming is the most pressing challenge
    facing the world today.
  • Claims about solutions or policies These are
    claims that argue for or against a certain
    solution or policy approach to a problem.
  • Instead of drilling for oil in Alaska we should
    be focusing on ways to reduce oil consumption,
    such as researching renewable energy sources.
  • Types of Claims from Purdue OWL

Example Argumentative RP Thesis
  • Example of an argumentative thesis statement
  • High school graduates should be required to
    take a year off to pursue community service
    projects before entering college in order to
    increase their maturity and global awareness.
  • The paper that follows should
  • Present an argument and give evidence to
    support the claim that students should pursue
    community projects before entering college.
  • From Purdue OWL

  • Drug addiction is a big problem.

Drug addiction has caused a huge increase in
violent crimes.
  • Home and schools.

Parents need to participate more in the education
of their children.
  • I want to share some thoughts with you about the
    space program.

The space program is a waste of money.
  • Never use first (I, me, we, my, mine, our) or
    second (you, your) person in your final thesis
    statement. Its too informal.

Write a belief statement about your topic
  • I believe.
  • Example I believe that the SAT tests should be

Now add a fact to the belief statement
  • I believe.because.
  • Example I believe that the SAT tests should be
    eliminated because they cannot predict success in

Finally, take away your I believe statement and
you have your thesis!
  • Example SAT tests should be eliminated because
    they cannot predict success in college.

The Introduction
The Introduction
  • The Hookopening sentence that catches the
    readers attention
  • Quote from a source
  • Startling Statement/fact/statistic (use a
    misconception about the topic)
  • Vivid word picture description (of a scene or
    story related to topic)
  • Image bursts (Ancient buildings. Spicy food.
    Colorful clothing.)
  • Rhetorical question (make sure it is appropriate
    and thought-provoking)

The Introduction
  • The Link-bridge between hook thesis statement,
    explaining the significance of the hook
  • All Hard Core Rock musicians are
  • drug-seeking Satan worshippers who
  • are hardened criminals. This is a
  • misconception that many people share
  • about those who perform Hard Core Rock
  • music, but this is not an accurate
  • image of all of these artists.

The Introduction
  • Thesis Statementpurpose of paper and preview of
  • Hard Core Rock music is a genre that is
    misunderstood because the positive message is
    often overlooked.
  • Write your thesis from your worksheet in the box
    on your handout.

How can you avoid PLAGIARIZING in your research
  • 1. Use QUOTATION marks to identify a direct quote
    from your source. ALWAYS use quotation marks
    around quotes taken from your text which are word
    for word. Only use direct quotes when it is
    important for the reader to know the exact words
    that the author used. You also need to cite the
    source of your information immediately after your
    direct quote.

The Crime of Plagiarism
  • 2. CITE the source of your information when using
    ideas and information taken from the text. Even
    if you put the information in your own words, you
    must still cite your source.

The Crime of Plagiarism
  • 3. PARAPHRASE correctly. Just changing one or
    two words in a sentence from your source is not
    acceptable, even if you cite it. You must use
    your own sentence structure and ideas.

The Crime of Plagiarism
  • 4. Do NOT use others WORKS and IDEAS as your
    OWN. The most obvious form of plagiarism is
    turning in work that you did not complete at all,
    but that you borrowed from another and turned
    it in as your own. Just changing the name and
    some words does not make it yours.

Avoiding Plagiarism
  • If you have any information that contains a
    NUMERICAL figure, make sure that you document it.
    As a rule, numbers are not common knowledge.

Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Do not try to write as PROFESSIONAL as the
    sources you are using. Use coherent language and
    avoid long technical terms whose meaning you do
    not know.  

MLA Format
Sample 1st Page
Works Cited Page Books
Basic Format Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book.
Place of Publication Publisher, Year of
Publication. Medium of Publication. Examples Gle
ick, James. Chaos Making a New Science. New
York Penguin, 1987. Print. Gillespie,
Paula, and Neal Lerner. The Allyn and Bacon Guide
to Peer Tutoring. Boston Allyn, 2000.
Print. Palmer, William J. Dickens and New
Historicism. New York St. Martin's, 1997.
Print. ---. The Films of the Eighties A Social
History. Carbondale Southern Illinois UP,
1993. Print.
Works Cited Page Periodicals
Article in a Magazine Format Author(s). "Title
of Article." Title of Periodical Day Month Year
pages. Medium of publication. Example Buchman
, Dana. "A Special Education." Good Housekeeping
Mar. 2006 143-8. Print. Article in
Scholarly Journal Format Author(s). "Title of
Article." Title of Journal Volume.Issue (Year)
pages. Medium of publication. Example Duvall,
John N. "The (Super)Marketplace of Images
Television as Unmediated Mediation in
DeLillo's White Noise." Arizona Quarterly
50.3 (1994) 127- 53. Print.
Works Cited Page Web
Web Source Format Editor, author, or compiler
name (if available). Article Name. Name of
Site. Name of institution/organization
affiliated with the site (sponsor or
publisher). Date of last update. Medium of
publication. Date of access.
Works Cited Page Web
Examples Bernstein, Mark. "10 Tips on Writing
the Living Web. A List Apart For People
Who Make Websites. A List Apart Mag., 16
Aug. 2002. Web. 4 May 2009. Felluga, Dino. Guide
to Literary and Critical Theory. Purdue U,
28 Nov. 2003. Web. 10 May 2006. "How to Make
Vegetarian Chili." eHow, n.d. Web.
24 Feb. 2009.
Parenthetical Documentation
Parenthetical Documentation
  • How much of my paper should be documented?
  • You do not have to document your TOPIC or
    TRANSITION sentence because you wrote them. The
    rest of every body paragraph must be from a
    SOURCE, and must be documented.
  • How do you document?
  • To document, you put important information in
    PARENTHESIS after the information you have

Author-Page Style
In-text Example Wordsworth stated that Romantic
poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of
powerful feelings" (263). Romantic poetry is
characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of
powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263). Wordsworth
extensively explored the role of emotion in the
creative process (263). Corresponding Works Cited
Entry Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads.
London Oxford U.P., 1967. Print.
Print Source with Author
In-text Example Human beings have been described
by Kenneth Burke as "symbol-using animals"
(3). Human beings have been described as
"symbol-using animals" (Burke 3).
Print Source with Author
  • Corresponding Works Cited Entry
  • Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action
  • on Life, Literature, and Method. Berkeley U
  • California P, 1966. Print.

With Unknown Author
In-text Example We see so many global warming
hotspots in North America likely because this
region has more readily accessible climatic data
and more comprehensive programs to monitor and
study environmental change . . . (Impact of
Global Warming 6).
With Unknown Author
  • Corresponding Works Cited Entry
  • The Impact of Global Warming in North America.
  • GLOBAL WARMING Early Signs. 1999. Web. 23
  • 2009.

Where do you put the period?
In-Text Citations
  • 1 sentence
  • In 2013, more than 59 percent of the population
    still believed that more than one person was
    involved in the murder of John F. Kennedy (Who
    shot the president 78).

In-Text Citations
  • More than 1 sentence
  • In contrast to the conclusions of the Warren
    Commission, the United States House Select
    Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) concluded in
    1978 that Kennedy was probably assassinated as a
    result of a conspiracy. The HSCA found the
    original FBI investigation and the Warren
    Commission Report to be seriously flawed. While
    agreeing with the Commission that Oswald fired
    all the shots which caused the wounds to Kennedy
    and Connally, the HSCA stated that there were at
    least four shots fired (only three of which could
    be linked to Oswald) and that there was a high
    probability that two gunmen fired at the
    President. (Who Shot JFK 56-58)

In-Text Citations
  • More than one source in a sentence
  • Although some medical ethicists claim that
    cloning will lead to designer children (Miller
    12), others note that the advantages for medical
    research outweigh this consideration (James 46).

Body Paragraphs
Writing Paragraphs
  • Organized around one controlling idea that is
    usually stated in a topic sentence
  • Made up of supporting sentences that develop the
    main idea
  • Typically 5-8 sentences
  • Topic Sentence doesnt have to be the first
    sentence (you can begin a paragraph with details
    that build up to a summary topic sentence)
  • Topic Sentence formula topic something
    particular about the topic
  • You should always be able to find a topic
    sentence in a paragraph!

Body Paragraphs
  • Topic Sentenceclearly identifies main point of
    the paragraphit is like a mini thesis statement
    for each paragraph.
  • The variety of cuisine in Brussels provides a
    delicious culinary experience.
  • Write a topic sentence for each of your body

Body Paragraphs
  • Transition sentence to next point (reviews
    current paragraph and previews relationship with
    next paragraph it is the puzzle piece that
    connects your paragraphs).
  • Belgians enjoy eating their delicious food while
    watching popular sporting events.
  • Write a transition statement for each of your
    body paragraphs. The last body paragraphs
    transition sentence is a summary of that
    paragraphs main idea.

Body Paragraphs
  • Meat of the paragraph
  • Find information about the topic of each
    paragraph and put it in your own words.
  • Start writing after the topic sentence.
  • Make sure you are putting the information in a
    logical order and are paraphrasing correctly!
  • Dont forget to document at the end of each block
    of information you paraphrase from a source.

General Info. About Works Cited
  • üThe title of the page, WORKS CITED, is centered
    at the top of the page.
  • üEverything on the page is DOUBLE-SPACED, never
    more than that.
  • üEntries on a Works Cited page are called
    BIBLIOGRAPHIC entries, which means Biblio- BOOK
    and graphic-WRITING.
  • ü The entries on the Works Cited page are in

General Info. About Works Cited
  • ü  When you alphabetize, you alphabetize by the
    FIRST word of the bibliographic entry, unless it
    begins with the three English articles, A , AN ,
    and THE. You ignore these words and alphabetize
    by the SECOND word in the title.
  • You do not INDENT the first line of a
    bibliographic entry, but you do indent the
    SECOND line of a bibliographic entry. It is the
    opposite of a PARAGRAPH in an essay where you
    indent the FIRST line.

General Info. About Works Cited
  • All of your SOURCES must be DOCUMENTED in your
    paper, so be sure to put only the sources you
    used on your Works Cited page.
  • Every PERIOD, COMMA, and COLON are very
    important, so do not get careless when you create
    your entries.


The Conclusion
  • Restate Thesis (paraphrase your own thesisno
    more than three words in a row from the original)
  • IN CONCLUSION or As you can see, or As
    already stated,

The Conclusion
  • Intensified Insight leading into a
  • quote (Give any final thoughts and lead into a
    quote that you find in your source.)
  • People should make informed decisions about Heavy
    Metal music before criticizing it. Neil Young
    agreed with this when he said, All that stuff
    about heavy metal and hard rock, I don't
    subscribe to any of that. It's all just
    musicWho's to say what is and isn't a certain
    type of music? (Young 1).

The Basic Principles of Persuasive Writing
  • Tips for Writing Your Argumentative Research Paper

Persuasive writing is
  • Writing that sets out to influence or change an
    audiences thoughts or actions

You are subjected to persuasion everyday
  • From the time you wake up until the time you go
    to bed
  • When you turn on the radio, television, read the
    paper or a magazine
  • Buy a product or use a service, your choice has
    likely been influenced by a persuasive marketing

How do we get others to accept our point of view?
  • By appealing to their reason
  • By appealing to their emotions
  • By appealing to their ethics
  • AND
  • Offer opinions (not for your RESEARCH paper)
  • Urge actions
  • Back up points with evidence

Appealing to Reason
  • Remember that an argument is an appeal to a
    persons sense of reason it is not a violent
    fight, dispute or disagreement. It is a
    measured, logical way of trying to persuade
    others to agree with you.
  • One critical thing to remember is that there are
    at least two sides to every issue. If you take
    the attitude that there is only one side--your
    side--you will quite likely alienate your reader.
  • Examples Statistics, Court Cases, Studies,
    Expert Opinions (Quotations), Historical Examples

Appealing to Emotion
  • The logical appeal is certainly an extremely
    persuasive tool. However, our human nature also
    lets us be influenced by our emotions.
  • One way of evoking emotion in your reader is to
    use vivid images or language that is emotionally
  • Ex anecdotes, vivid images, details of the pain
    of certain procedures

Appealing to our Good Character
  • The appeal to your ethics can occur on one or
    more of the following levels in any given
  • Are you a reasonable person? (willing to
  • Are you authoritative? (knowledgeable?)
  • Are you an ethical/moral person? (is argument
    ethically sound/morally right)

The ethical appeal
  • Is based on the audiences perception of the
  • Dont overlook it! It can be the most effective
    of the three!

Elements of a good argument
  • Remember to identify any unfamiliar or uniquely
    used terms in your argument!
  • If you forget to define your terms, (or choose
    not to define them) you run the risk of
    alienating your audience or confusing them!
  • Ex If you argue that teachers should monitor
    their students, the word monitor should be
    defined. What does monitor mean? Does it
    include looking through their registrars files?
    Reading through their notebooks?

To assess the validity of your paperAsk
yourself the following questions
  • Do I have enough evidence? (Is it sufficient?)
  • Will my audience believe my evidence? (Is it
  • What are the assumptions built into my argument,
    and are those assumptions fair? (Is it
  • Does my conclusion follow logically from the
    claims I make?

Complexify your argument
  • There are several rhetorical moves or patterns
    writers can utilize to enhance their argument and
    demonstrate critical thinking about their topic.
    Cause and effect discuss what has led to your
    topic becoming an issue and why the issue is
    affecting people.
  • Qualification qualification here means to
    limit your position to specific contexts or
    situations, a yes, but perspective. Qualifying
    not only can demonstrate that you understand the
    complexity of an issue but can show you have a
    unique perspective on it.
  • Examination of the opposing argument know thy
    enemy. Analyzing other perspectives on your topic
    has three key advantages you demonstrate a broad
    understanding of the issue you can strengthen
    your position by comparing it to others and
    youve given yourself plenty more to write about.
  • Concede a little, as necessary its perfectly
    okay to admit your position is not perfect in
    fact, breaking down what works and what doesnt
    about your topic can enhance your analysis.
    Anticipating and alleviating your readers
    concerns can be incredibly persuasive.
  • Propose a solution a logical and feasible
    solution to your issue provides authority and
    credibility, and it can make for a strong
  • Examine the implications what effect will this
    issue have on individuals and/or the world?
    Discussing what lies ahead for your topic also
    makes for a strong approach to a conclusion.
  • Note there is no correct strategy about how to
    integrate these techniques into your writing, nor
    is there a desired amount or limit to how many
    can be used. Use your best judgment.

Reminders for your paper.
  • Make sure you have parenthetical documentation in
    EVERY PARAGRAPH and a Works Cited page.
  • Highlight all direct quotes (only 3 allowed)
  • No 1st or 2nd person (I, me, my, you, our, us,
  • No contractions (cant, wont, shouldnt)

Works Cited Page
  • All information on this PowerPoint was copied
    from the following website
  • -The Basic Principles of Persuasive Writing.
    UBC Writing Centre. The University of British
    Colombia, 8 March 2010. Web. 23 March 2010.

Starred Slides from Purdue OWL
  • Purdue Writing Lab Phone Number 765-494-3723
  • Purdue OWL http//
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