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Chapter 7 Attitudes

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Title: Chapter 7 Attitudes


1
Chapter 7 Attitudes
By Michael R. Solomon
Consumer Behavior Buying, Having, and Being Sixth
Edition
2
Opening Vignette Soccer
  • How do Jan and Terri differ in their attitudes
    toward soccer?
  • Jan and Nancy are both soccer fans. How are they
    different?
  • Which one of the three is the most likely target
    for ads promoting soccer?
  • Is Nancy likely to convert to become a soccer
    fan?

3
WUSA Soccer
4
The Power of Attitudes
  • Attitude
  • A lasting, general evaluation of people
    (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or
    issues
  • Anything toward which one has an attitude is
    called an object (Ao).
  • Attitudes are lasting because they tend to endure
    over time.

5
The Functions of Attitudes
  • Functional Theory of Attitudes
  • Attitudes exist because they serve some function
    for the person (i.e., they are determined by a
    persons motives)
  • Katzs Attitude Functions
  • Utilitarian function
  • Value-expressive function
  • Ego-defensive function
  • Knowledge function

6
Addressing Smoking Attitudes
  • This Norwegian ad addresses young peoples
    smoking attitudes by arousing strong negative
    feelings. The ad reads (left panel) Smokers are
    more sociable than others. (Right panel) While
    it lasts.

7
The ABC Model of Attitudes
  • Affect
  • The way a consumer feels about an attitude object
  • Behavior
  • Involves the persons intentions to do something
    with regard to an attitude object
  • Cognition
  • The beliefs a consumer has about an attitude
    object
  • Hierarchy of Effects
  • A fixed sequence of steps that occur en route to
    an attitude

8
Three Hierarchies of Effects
Figure 7.1
9
Attitude Hierarchies
  • The Standard Learning Hierarchy
  • Consumer approaches a product decision as a
    problem-solving process
  • The Low-Involvement Hierarchy
  • Consumer does not have strong initial preference
  • Consumer acts on limited knowledge
  • Consumer forms an evaluation only after product
    trial
  • The Experiential Hierarchy
  • Consumers act on the basis of their emotional
    reactions

10
Experiential Hierarchy
  • Emotional Contagion
  • Emotions expressed by the communicator of a
    marketing message affect the attitude toward the
    product
  • Cognitive-Affective Model
  • Argues that an affective judgment is the last
    step in a series of cognitive processes
  • Independence Hypothesis
  • Takes the position that affect and cognition
    involve two separate, independent systems

11
Smith and Wollensky
  • This ad for New Yorks famous Smith Wollensky
    restaurant emphasizes that marketers and others
    associated with a product or service are often
    more involved with it than are their consumers.

12
Product Attitudes Dont Tell the Whole Story
  • Attitude Toward the Advertisement (Aad)
  • A predisposition to respond in a favorable or
    unfavorable manner to a particular advertising
    stimulus during a particular exposure occasion
  • Ads Have Feelings Too
  • Three emotional dimensions
  • Pleasure, arousal, and intimidation
  • Specific types of feelings that can be generated
    by an ad
  • Upbeat feelings Amused, delighted, playful
  • Warm feelings Affectionate, contemplative,
    hopeful
  • Negative feelings Critical, defiant, offended

13
Discussion Question
  • Sexually suggestive scenes like the one depicted
    in this ad for Union Bay clothing can generate
    feelings that affect brand attitudes.
  • What specific types of feelings or responses can
    this type of advertisement elicit? How will this
    scene affect the attitude toward the ad?

14
Forming Attitudes
  • Not All Attitudes are Created Equal
  • Levels of Commitment to an Attitude The degree
    of commitment is related to the level of
    involvement with an attitude object
  • Compliance
  • Identification
  • Internalization
  • The Consistency Principle
  • Principle of Cognitive Consistency Consumers
    value harmony among their thoughts, feelings or
    behaviors to be consistent with other experiences

15
Levels of Attitudinal Commitment
  • By describing Cadillac as my company, the woman
    in this ad exhibits a high level of attitudinal
    commitment to her employer.

16
Forming Attitudes (cont.)
  • Cognitive Dissonance and Harmony among Attitudes
  • Theory of Cognitive Dissonance When a person is
    confronted with inconsistencies among attitudes
    or behaviors, he or she will take action to
    reduce the dissonance by changing an attitude or
    modifying a behavior.
  • Self-Perception Theory
  • People maintain consistency by inferring that
    they must maintain a positive attitude toward a
    product they have bought or consumed
  • Foot-in-the-door technique
  • Sales strategy based on the observation that
    consumers will comply with a request if they have
    first agreed to comply with a smaller request

17
Attitudinal Commitment
  • This ad for a magazine illustrates that consumers
    often distort information so that it fits with
    what they already believe or think they know.

18
Social Judgment Theory
  • Social Judgment Theory
  • People assimilate new information about Aos
    based on what they already know or feel.
  • Attitudes of Acceptance and Rejection People
    differ in the information they find acceptable or
    unacceptable.
  • Assimilation effect Messages that fall within
    the latitude of acceptance tend to be seen as
    more consistent with ones position than they
    actually are
  • Contrast effect Messages falling within the
    latitude of rejection tend to be seen as being
    farther from ones position than they actually are

19
Balance Theory
  • Triad
  • An attitude structure consisting of three
    elements
  • (1) A person and his/her perceptions of
  • (2) an attitude object, and
  • (3) some other person or object
  • Unit relation
  • An element is seen as belonging to or being part
    of the other
  • Sentiment relation
  • Two elements are linked because one has expressed
    a preference for the other
  • Marketing Applications of Balance Theory
  • Celebrity endorsements

20
Alternative Routes to Restoring Balance in a
Triad
Figure 7.2
21
Discussion Question
  • Consumer researchers understand that consumers
    like to bask in the reflected glory of
    successful college athletic programs by wearing
    merchandise adorned with logos like the ones on
    the right.
  • How do the different attitude theories explain
    this consumer phenomenon?

22
Attitude Models
  • Attitude Models
  • Specify the different elements that might work
    together to influence peoples evaluations of
    Aos
  • Multiattribute Models
  • Model that assumes a consumers Ao will depend on
    the beliefs he or she has about several
    attributes toward the object
  • Multiattribute Models Specify 3 Elements
  • Attributes
  • Beliefs
  • Importance Weights

23
Attitude Models
  • Choosing products
  • We often choose products because of their
    association with a certain lifestyle.
  • Goal of Lifestyle Marketing
  • To allow consumers to pursue their chosen ways to
    enjoy life and express their social identities.
  • Adopting Lifestyle Marketing
  • Implies that we must look at patterns of behavior
    to understand consumers

24
The Fishbein Model
  • Measures 3 components of attitude
  • (1) Salient Beliefs
  • (2) Object-attribute linkages
  • (3) Evaluation
  • Assumptions of the Fishbein Model
  • Ability to specify all relevant choice attributes
  • Identification, weight, and summing of attributes
  • Affect referral
  • A process by which a consumers overall attitude
    is formed by an overall affective response

25
The Fishbein Equation
  • The Basic Formula
  • Aijk SßijkIik
  • Where
  • i attribute
  • j brand
  • k consumer
  • I the importance weight given attribute I by
    consumer k
  • ß consumer ks belief regarding the extent to
    which brand j possesses attribute I
  • A a particular consumers (ks) attitude score
    for brand j

26
The Basic Multiattribute Model
27
Strategic Applications of the Multiattribute Model
  • Capitalize on Relative Advantage
  • Strengthen Perceived Product/Attribute Linkages
  • Add a New Attribute
  • Influence Competitors Ratings

28
Using Attitudes to Predict Behavior
  • In many cases, knowledge of a persons attitude
    is not a very good predictor of behavior
  • Questionable link between attitude and behavior
  • Consumers love a commercial, but dont buy the
    product
  • The Extended Fishbein Model
  • Called the Theory of Reasoned Action
  • Contains several important additions to the
    original, which improve its ability to predict
    behavior

29
The Theory of Reasoned Action
  • Intentions Versus Behavior
  • Social Pressure
  • Subjective Norm (SN)
  • Normative Belief (NB) Belief that others believe
    an action should or should not be taken
  • Motivation to Comply (MC) Degree to which
    consumers take into account anticipated reactions
  • Attitude Toward Buying
  • Attitude toward the act of buying (Aact)
  • How someone feels about buying due to the
    perceived consequences of a purchase

30
Obstacles to Predicting Behavior in the Theory of
Reasoned Action
  • Model is misapplied
  • Other obstacles
  • Model deals with actual behavior, not outcomes
  • Some outcomes are beyond the consumers control
  • The assumption of behavior as intentional may be
    invalid in some cases
  • Attitude measures dont correspond to the
    behavior they are supposed to predict
  • Too large a time frame between attitude measure
    and behavior measure
  • Attitude accessibility perspective
  • Behavior is a function of the persons immediate
    perceptions of the Ao

31
Cultural Roadblocks to the Theory of Reasoned
Action
  • Roadblocks that diminish the universality of the
    theory
  • Model was designed to predict voluntary acts
  • The relative impact of subject norms varies
    across cultures
  • The model assumes that consumers are actively
    thinking ahead and planning behaviors
  • A consumer that forms an intention claims that he
    or she is in control of his or her actions

32
Trying to Consume
  • Theory of Trying to Consume
  • States that the criterion of behavior in the
    reasoned action model should be replaced with
    trying to reach a goal
  • Sample issues that might be addressed
  • Past frequency
  • Recency
  • Beliefs
  • Evaluations of consequences
  • The process
  • Expectations of success and failure
  • Subjective norms toward trying

33
Theory of Trying (TT)
Figure 7.3
34
Tracking Attitudes over Time
  • Attitude-tracking program
  • An single-attitude survey is a snapshot in time
  • A program allows researchers to analyze attitude
    trends during an extended period of time
  • Ongoing Tracking Studies
  • Attitude tracking involves administration of a
    survey at regular intervals (e.g. Gallup Poll,
    Yankelovich Monitor)
  • This activity is valuable for making strategic
    decisions

35
Gallup Poll
36
Attitude Changes over Time
  • Changes to Look for over Time
  • Changes in different age groups
  • Attitudes change with age
  • Historical effects
  • Scenarios about the future
  • Consumers tracked in terms of future plans,
    confidence in economy, and so on
  • Identification of change agents
  • Social phenomena can alter peoples attitudes

37
Changing Attitudes
Percentage of 16- to 24-year-olds who agree We
must take radical action to cut down on how we
use our cars.
Figure 7.4
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