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Chapter 10 Behavioral Objectives

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Title: Chapter 10 Behavioral Objectives


1
Chapter 10
Behavioral Objectives
2
Types of Objectives
  • Educational/Instructional Objectives
    content-oriented, teacher-centered outcomes of
    the education process in reference to an aspect
    of a program or a total program of study
  • Behavioral/Learning Objectives action-oriented,
    learner-centered outcomes of the
    teaching/learning process

3
Definition of Terms
  • Goals the final outcome of what is achieved at
    the end of the teachinglearning process
  • Objective a behavior describing the performance
    that learners should be able to exhibit to be
    considered competent

4
Differences between Goals and Objectives
5
Responsibility for Establishing Goals and
Objectives
  • Setting of goals and objectives must be a mutual
    decision-making process between the teacher and
    the learner.
  • Both parties must buy into and participate in
    establishing predetermined objectives and goals
    prior to initiating the teaching/learning
    process.
  • Blending what the learner wants to learn and what
    the teacher has assessed the learner needs to
    know provides for a mutually accountable,
    respectful, and fulfilling educational
    experience.

6
The Debate about Using Behavioral Objectives
  • Arguments Against
  • superfluous
  • reductionistic
  • time-consuming
  • pedagogic
  • stifles creativity
  • interferes with freedom to learn
  • impossible to be inclusive

7
The Debate about Using Behavioral Objectives
(contd)
  • Arguments for
  • keeps teaching learner-centered
  • communicates plan to others
  • helps learners stay on track
  • organizes educational approach
  • ensures that process is deliberate
  • tailors teaching to learners needs
  • focuses attention on learner
  • orients teacher and learner to outcomes

8
Three Major Advantages to Writing Objectives
  • Provides basis for selection and design of
    instructional content, methods, and materials
  • Provides learner with means to organize efforts
    toward accomplishing objectives
  • Allows for determination as to the extent that
    objectives have been accomplished

9
Writing Behavioral Objectives
  • Three important characteristics
  • 1. Performancedescribes what the learner is
    expected to be able to do
  • 2. Conditiondescribes the situation under which
    behavior will be observed
  • 3. Criteriondescribes how well or with what
    accuracy the learner must be able to perform

10
The Four Step Approach
  • To link a behavioral objective together, the
    following three steps are recommended
  • 1. Identify the testing situation (condition).
  • 2. State the learner and the learners behavior
    (performance).
  • 3. State the performance level (criterion).
  • 4. State how well the learner will perform the
    criterion (percent accuracy).

11
The ABCD Rule
  • AAudience
  • BBehavior
  • CCondition (under what circumstances)
  • DDegree (how much, to what extent)

12
Common MistakesWhen Writing Objectives
  • describing what the instructor will do rather
    than what the learner will do
  • including more than one behavior in a single
    objective
  • forgetting to include all three characteristics
  • using performance terms subject to many
    interpretations and that are not action-oriented

13
Common Mistakes (contd)
  • writing an unattainable, unrealistic objective
  • writing objectives unrelated to stated goal
  • cluttering an objective with unnecessary
    information
  • making an objective too general so that the
    outcome is not clear

14
Taxonomy of Objectives
  • Behavior is defined according to type (domain
    category) and level of complexity (simple to
    complex).
  • Three Types of Learning Domains
  • 1. Cognitivethe thinking domain
  • 2. Affectivethe feeling domain
  • 3. Psychomotorthe skills domain

15
Writing SMART Objectives
  • SSpecific
  • MMeasurable
  • AAchievable
  • RRealistic
  • TTimely

16
Complexity of Domain Levels
  • Objectives in each domain are classified in a
    taxonomic form of hierarchy into low (most
    simple), medium (moderately difficult),
    and high (most complex) levels of behavior.
  • Cognitive Levels
  • knowledge evaluation
  • Affective Levels
  • receiving characterization
  • Psychomotor
  • perception origination

17
Teaching in the Cognitive Domain
  • Learning in this domain involves acquisition of
    information based on the learners intellectual
    abilities and thinking processes.
  • Methods most often used to stimulate learning in
    the cognitive domain include
  • - lecture
  • - one-to-one instruction
  • - computer-assisted instruction

18
Teaching in the Cognitive Domain (contd)
  • Cognitive-domain learning is the traditional
    focus of most teaching.
  • Cognitive knowledge is an essential prerequisite
    for learning affective and psychomotor skills.

19
Teaching in the Affective Domain
  • Learning in this domain involves an increasing
    internalization or commitment to feelings
    affective learning involves the degree to which
    feelings or attitudes are incorporated into ones
    personality or value system
  • Methods most often used to stimulate learning in
    the affective domain include
  • - group discussion - role-modeling
  • - simulation gaming - questioning
  • - role-playing

20
Teaching in the Affective Domain
(contd)
  • Nurse educators are encouraged to attend to the
    needs of the whole person by recognizing that
    learning is subjective and values driven.
  • More time in teaching needs to focus on exploring
    and clarifying learner feelings, emotions, and
    attitudes.

21
Teaching in the Psychomotor Domain
  • Learning in this domain involves acquiring
    fine and gross motor abilities with increasing
    complexity of neuromuscular coordination.
  • Methods most often used to stimulate learning in
    the psychomotor domain include
  • - demonstration - return demonstration
  • - simulation - gaming
  • - self-instruction

22
Factors Influencing Psychomotor Skill Acquisition
  • The amount of practice required to learn a new
    skill varies with the individual, depending upon
    such things as
  • - readiness to learn
  • - motivation to learn
  • - past experience
  • - health status

23
Factors Influencing Psychomotor Skill Acquisition
(contd)
  • - environmental stimuli
  • - anxiety level
  • - developmental stage
  • - practice session length

24
Development of Teaching Plans
  • Predetermined goals and objectives serve as a
    basis for developing a teaching plan.
  • Mutually agreed upon goals and objectives clarify
    what the learner is to learn and what the teacher
    is to teach.

25
Reasons to Construct Teaching
Plans
  • 1. Ensures a logical approach to teaching and
    keeps instruction on target.
  • 2. Communicates in writing an action plan for
    the learner, teacher, and other providers.
  • 3. Serves as a legal document that indicates a
    plan is in place and the extent of progress
    toward implementation.

26
Teaching in the Psychomotor Domain (contd)
  • Psychomotor skill development is very
    egocentric and requires learner concentration.
  • Asking questions that demand a cognitive or
    affective response during psychomotor learning
    interferes with psychomotor performance.
  • The ability to perform a skill is not equivalent
    to learning a skill (performance is transitory
    learning is more permanent).
  • Practice makes perfectrepetition leads to
    perfection and reinforcement of behavior.

27
Basic Elements of a Teaching Plan
  • Purpose
  • Goal statement
  • Objectives (sub-objectives)
  • Content outline
  • Methods of teaching
  • Time allotment
  • Resources for instruction
  • Evaluation

28
The Major Criterion for Judging a Teaching Plan
  • Internal consistency exists when you can answer
    yes to the following questions
  • - Does the plan facilitate a relationship
    between its parts?
  • - Do all 8 elements of the plan hang together?

29
The Major Criterion for Judging a Teaching Plan
(contd)
  • - Is the identified domain of learning in each
    objective reflected in the purpose and goal, as
    well as across the plan, all the way through to
    the end process of evaluation?

30
Use of Learning Contracts
  • Learning Contract A written (formal) or
    verbal (informal) agreement between the teacher
    and the learner that delineates specific teaching
    and learning activities that are to occur
    within a certain time frame.
  • Purpose of a Learning Contract
  • to encourage learners active participation
  • to improve teacherclient communication

31
Use of Learning Contracts (contd)
  • Learning contracts
  • are an increasingly popular approach to teaching
    and learning.
  • serve as an alternative and innovative technique
    that embodies the principles of adult learning.
  • can be used with any audience of adult learners.

32
Use of Learning Contracts (contd)
  • empower the learner by emphasizing
    self-direction, mutual negotiation, and mutual
    evaluation of competency.
  • stress shared accountability between the teacher
    and the learner.

33
Components of the Learning Contract
  • Four major components
  • Contentspecifies precise behavioral objectives.
  • 2. Evaluationspecifies criteria by which
    competencies will be judged.

34
Components of Learning Contract (contd)
  • 3. Performance expectationsspecify conditions by
    which learning will be achieved.
  • 4. Time framespecifies length of time needed for
    successful achievement of objectives.

35
The Concept of Learning Curve
  • Learning Curve A graphic depiction of
  • changes in psychomotor performance at
  • different stages of practice during a
  • specified time period
  • Six stages of the theoretical learning curve
  • The irregularity of individual learning curves

36
State of the Evidence
  • Educational literature has plenty of evidence
    establishing the value and utility of behavioral
    objectives.
  • Taxonomic hierarchy for categorizing behaviors
    has also been established.
  • Body of evidence on teaching plans is available.
  • Educational literature has new research on
    learning contracts, psychomotor skill
    acquisition, learning curve concept.

37
Summary
  • Assessment of the learner is a prerequisite to
    formulating objectives.
  • Writing clear and concise behavioral objectives
    is fundamental to the education process.
  • Goals and objectives serve as a guide to
    planning, implementation, and evaluation of
    teaching and learning.

38
Chapter 11Instructional Methods
39
Instructional Methods
  • Definition
  • Techniques or approaches that the teacher uses to
    bring the learner in contact with the content to
    be learned

40
Instructional Methods
  • Lecture
  • Group Discussion
  • One-to-One Instruction
  • Role-playing
  • Self-instruction
  • Demonstration
  • Return Demonstration
  • Gaming
  • Simulation
  • Role-modeling

41
Lecture
  • Definition
  • An instructional method in which the teacher
    verbally transmits information directly to groups
    of learners for the purpose of education. It is
    highly structured.

42
Lecture
  • Advantages
  • Cost effective
  • Targets large groups
  • Useful for cognitive domain learning
  • Limitations
  • Not individualized
  • Passive learners

43
Group Discussion
  • Definition
  • An instructional method in which learners are
    together to exchange information, feelings, and
    opinions with each other and the teacher to
    achieve educational objectives

44
Group Discussion
  • Advantages
  • Stimulates sharing of ideas and emotions
  • Active learners
  • Useful for cognitive and affective domains of
    learning
  • Limitations
  • Shy member does not participate
  • Dominant member overwhelms the group
  • Highly diverse groups may have difficulty
    interacting

45
One-to-One Instruction
  • Definition
  • An instructional method in which the teacher
    delivers personally designed instruction to a
    learner.

46
One-to-One Instruction
  • Advantages
  • Active learner
  • Tailored to individuals needs and goals
  • Useful for all three learning domains
  • Limitations
  • Can be expensive because it is labor intensive
  • Isolates learner

47
Demonstration
  • Definition
  • An instructional method in which the learner is
    shown by the teacher how to perform a particular
    skill

48
Demonstration
  • Advantages
  • Previews exact skill for the learner
  • Useful for psychomotor domain learning
  • Limitations
  • May be expensive because all learners need to
    easily visualize skill. This requires use of
    technology or small groups.

49
Return Demonstration
  • Definition
  • An instructional method in which the learner
    attempts to perform a skill with cues from the
    teacher as needed

50
Return Demonstration
  • Advantages
  • Active learner
  • Individual guidance
  • Useful for psychomotor domain learning
  • Limitations
  • Viewing individual performance is labor intensive

51
Gaming
  • Definition
  • An instructional method requiring the learner to
    participate in a competitive activity with preset
    rules to achieve an educational objective

52
Gaming
  • Advantages
  • Active learner
  • Perceived as fun by many learners
  • Useful for all three domains of learning
  • Limitations
  • Too competitive for some learners

53
Simulation
  • Definition
  • An instructional method requiring creation of a
    hypothetical or artificial experience to engage
    the learner in an activity that reflects
    real-life conditions without the risk-taking
    consequences of an actual experience

54
Simulation
  • Advantages
  • Active learners
  • Practice reality in a safe setting
  • Useful for cognitive and psychomotor domains of
    learning
  • Limitations
  • Labor intensive
  • Costs of equipment

55
Role-Playing
  • Definition
  • An instructional method where learners
    participate in an unrehearsed dramatization to
    elicit their feelings to achieve affective domain
    objectives

56
Role-Playing
  • Advantages
  • Active learner
  • Develops understanding of others
  • Useful for affective domain learning
  • Limitations
  • Learner can exaggerate or under-develop the role

57
Role-Modeling
  • Definition
  • An instructional method in which the teacher
    models or exhibits behaviors that the learner
    may imitate or adopt as he or she is socialized
    into a role. Learning from role-modeling is
    called identification and emanates from
    socialization theories.

58
Role-Modeling
  • Advantages
  • Helps with socialization into role
  • Useful for affective domain learning
  • Limitations
  • Requires rapport between teacher and learner

59
Self-Instruction
  • Definition
  • An instructional method to provide activities
    that guide the learner in independently achieving
    the educational objectives

60
Self-Instruction
  • Advantages
  • Self-paced
  • Cost-effective
  • Consistent
  • Useful for cognitive domain learning
  • Limitations
  • Learner may procrastinate
  • Requires literacy

61
Factors in Selection ofInstructional Methods
  • What are the predetermined objectives?
  • What are the characteristics of the targeted
    audience?
  • What resources are available?
  • What are the teachers strengths and limitations?

62
Evaluation of Instructional Methods
  • Did learners achieve their objectives?
  • Was the activity accessible to targeted learners?
  • Were available resources used efficiently?
  • Did the method accommodate the learners needs,
    abilities, and style?
  • Was the approach cost-effective?

63
Creative Techniques to Enhance Verbal
Presentations
  • Enthusiasm
  • Humor
  • Risk-taking
  • Drama
  • Problem-solving
  • Role-modeling
  • Anecdotes
  • Technology

64
General Principles for All Teachers
  • Give positive reinforcement.
  • Project acceptance/sensitivity.
  • Be organized, give direction.
  • Elicit and provide feedback.
  • Use questioning.
  • Know your audience.
  • Use repetition.
  • Summarize key points.

65
Instructional Settings
  • Healthcare setting
  • Health-related setting
  • Nonhealthcare setting

66
Sharing Resources
  • Nurses in each of the setting types can
    establish a health education committee to
    coordinate health education programming, ensure
    effective use of resources, and avoid duplication
    of efforts.

67
Chapter 12Instructional Materials
68
Instructional MaterialsPrint and Nonprint Media
  • Definition the tangible substances and real
    objects used to help communicate information
    necessary for learning
  • Purposes to help the nurse educator deliver a
    message creatively and clearly

69
General Principles of Effectiveness
  • Media should
  • Change behavior by influencing a gain in
    cognitive, affective, and/or psychomotor skills
  • Enhance learningno one tool is better than
    another
  • Complement the instructional methods

70
General Principles (contd)
  • Media should (contd)
  • Match available financial resources
  • Be appropriate for physical environment
  • Complement learners sensory abilities,
    developmental stage, and educational level
  • Impart accurate, current, valid and appropriate
    messages
  • Add diversity and information to learning

71
Choosing Instructional Materials
  • Major Variables to Consider
  • Characteristics of the Learner
  • Physical abilities
  • Perceptual abilities
  • Literacy
  • Motivational level
  • Developmental stage
  • Learning style

72
Major Variables to Consider (contd)
  • Characteristics of the Media
  • Print
  • Nonprint
  • Characteristics of the Task
  • Learning domain
  • Complexity of behavior

73
Three Major Components of Instructional Materials
  • Delivery System
  • Definition both the physical form and the
    hardware used to present materials
  • Examples of physical form and hardware
  • Slides with projector
  • Videotapes with VCRs
  • Computer software with computer

74
Components (contd)
  • Content
  • Definition actual information imparted to the
    learner
  • Selection criteria
  • Accuracy
  • Appropriateness for skill determination
  • Readability

75
Components (contd)
  • Presentation
  • Definition the form most important for
    selecting/developing instructional materials
  • Concrete to abstract continuum
  • Realia
  • Illusionary representations
  • Symbolic representations

76
Types of Instructional Materials
  • Written Materials
  • Advantages
  • Available to learner in absence of teacher
  • Widely acceptable, familiar
  • Readily available, relatively cheap
  • Convenient form
  • Learner controls rate of reading
  • Content easily altered to target specific
    audiences

77
Written Materials (contd)
  • Disadvantages
  • Most abstract form of reality
  • Immediate feedback limited
  • Proper reading level essential for full
    usefulness
  • Less useful with low literate learners or
    visually or cognitively impaired learners
  • Inappropriate for illiterate learners

78
Written MaterialsCommercially Prepared
  • Factors to be considered
  • Who produced the item? Was there any input by
    healthcare professionals?
  • Can the item be previewed?
  • The price must be consistent with its educational
    value.

79
Written MaterialsInstructor ComposedGuidelines
for Effective Writing
  • Fit your own institutions policies, procedures
    and equipment.
  • Build in answers to those questions asked most
    frequently by your patients.
  • Highlight points considered especially important
    by your healthcare team.
  • Reinforce specific oral instructions and clarify
    difficult concepts.

80
Guidelines for Effective Writing (contd)
  • Keep words and sentences short. Use
    conversational style. Use active voice.
  • Use second person you.
  • Most important information goes first.
  • Do not use all-capital letters.
  • Use advance organizers.
  • Emphasize key points with end review.

81
Evaluating Printed Materials
  • Consider
  • Nature of the audience
  • Literacy level required
  • Linguistic variety available
  • Brevity and clarity
  • Layout and appearance
  • Opportunity for repetition
  • Concreteness and familiarity

82
Demonstration Materials Displays
  • Advantages
  • Fast way to attract attention, make a point
  • Flexible
  • Portable
  • Reusable
  • Stimulate interest or ideas in observer
  • Can change or influence attitudes
  • Purchasable and/or can be made

83
Demonstration MaterialsDisplays (contd)
  • Disadvantages
  • Take up a lot of space
  • Time-consuming to prepareoften reused, outdated
  • May be overused
  • Unsuitable for large audiences

84
Demonstration MaterialsPosters as Popular
Display Tools
  • Consider
  • Color
  • White space
  • Graphics
  • KISS principle
  • Titles/Script
  • Balance of content

85
Demonstration Materials Models
  • Advantages
  • Useful when real object is too small, too large,
    too expensive, unavailable, or too complex
  • Allows safe, hands-on practice
  • More active involvement by the learner with
    immediate feedback available
  • Readily available

86
Demonstration MaterialsModels (contd)
  • Disadvantages
  • May not be suitable for learner with poor
    abstraction abilities or for visually impaired
  • Some models fragile, expensive, bulky, or
    difficult to transport
  • Cannot be observed or manipulated by more than a
    few learners at a time

87
Demonstration MaterialsThree Specific Types of
Models
  • Replicas
  • Examples anatomical models, resuscitation dolls
  • Analogues
  • Examples dialysis machines, computer models
  • Symbols
  • Examples words, cartoons, formulas, signs

88
Audiovisual Materials
  • Factors in selection
  • Technical feasibility
  • Economic feasibility
  • Social/political acceptability
  • Instructor familiarity

89
Audiovisual Materials (contd)
  • Projected Learning Resources
  • Movies and filmstrips
  • Power Points
  • Overhead transparencies

90
Projected Learning Resources
  • Advantages
  • Most effectively used with groups
  • Especially beneficial with hearing-impaired,
    low-literate learners
  • Excellent media for use in teaching psychomotor
    skills

91
Projected Learning Resources (contd)
  • Disadvantages
  • Lack of flexibility due to static content of some
    forms
  • Some forms may be expensive
  • Requires darkened room for some forms
  • Requires special equipment for use

92
Audio Learning Resources
  • Audiotapes, Radio, CD
  • Advantages
  • Widely available
  • May be especially beneficial to
    visually-impaired, low literate learners
  • May be listened to repeatedly
  • Most forms practical, cheap, small, portable

93
Audio Learning Resources (contd)
  • Disadvantages
  • Relies only on sense of hearing
  • Some forms may be expensive
  • Lack of opportunity for interaction between
    instructor and learner

94
Video Learning Resources
  • Purchased or self-made tapes
  • Advantages
  • Widely used educational tool
  • Inexpensive uses visual, auditory senses
  • Flexible for use with different audiences
  • Powerful tool for role-modeling and demonstration
  • Effective for teaching psychomotor skills

95
Video Learning Resources (contd)
  • Disadvantages
  • Quality of videotapes can deteriorate over time
  • Some commercial products may be expensive
  • Some purchased materials may be too long or
    inappropriate for audience

96
Telecommunications Learning Resources
  • Telephones, Televisions
  • Advantages
  • Relatively inexpensive, widely available
  • Disadvantages
  • Complicated to set up interactive capability
  • Expensive to broadcast via satellite

97
Computer Learning Resources
  • Advantages
  • Interactive potential quick feedback, retention
  • Potential database is enormous
  • Can individualize to suit different types of
    learners, different pace of learning
  • Time efficient

98
Computer Learning Resources(contd)
  • Disadvantages
  • Primary learning efficacy cognitive domain less
    useful for attitude/behavior change or
    psychomotor skill development
  • Software and hardware expensive
  • Must be purchased
  • Limited use for most older adults, low literate
    learners, those with physical limitations

99
Evaluation Criteria forSelecting Materials
  • Considerations
  • Learner characteristics
  • Task(s) to be achieved
  • Media available
  • Evaluation Checklist
  • Content
  • Instructional design
  • Technical production
  • Packaging

100
State of the Evidence
  • Performance is improved and learner satisfaction
    increased with visual reinforcement.
  • Distance learning is an increasingly viable
    option for learners.

101
Summary
  • Instructional materials should be used to
    support learning by complementing and
    supplementing your teaching, not by substituting
    for it.
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